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1.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877760

RESUMO

P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI) interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs mechanistically similar to but much less studied than microRNAs and small interfering RNAs. Today the best understood function of piRNAs is transposon control in animal germ cells, which has earned them the name 'guardians of the germline'. Several molecular/cellular characteristics of piRNAs, including high sequence diversity, lack of secondary structures, and target-oriented generation seem to serve this purpose. Recently, aberrant expressions of piRNAs and PIWI proteins have been implicated in a variety of malignant tumors and associated with cancer hallmarks such as cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, invasion, metastasis and increased stemness. Researchers have also demonstrated multiple mechanisms of piRNA-mediated target deregulation associated with cancer initiation, progression or dissemination. We review current research findings on the biogenesis, normal functions and cancer associations of piRNAs, highlighting their potentials as cancer diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic tools. Whenever applicable, we draw connections with other research fields to encourage intercommunity conversations. We also offer recommendations and cautions regarding the general process of cancer-related piRNA studies and the methods/tools used at each step. Finally, we call attention to some issues that, if left unsolved, might impede the future development of this field.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the preterm birth and additional perinatal outcomes between spontaneous and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) dichorionic-diamnionic (DCDA) twin pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary university-affiliated medical center. All women with DCDA twin pregnancies were considered for inclusion. The primary outcome of interest was preterm birth <37 weeks of gestation and secondary outcomes included spontaneous preterm birth, iatrogenic (induced) preterm birth, gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder, preeclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, birthweight discordance, small for gestational age, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator support, and perinatal death and/or severe morbidity. These outcomes were compared between IVF/ICSI and spontaneous twin pregnancies. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to adjust for confounders. General estimated equation models were used to address intertwin correlation. RESULTS: A total of 1297 twin pregnancies, including 213 spontaneous and 1084 IVF/ICSI DCDA pregnancies, met the inclusion criteria. Women with IVF/ICSI pregnancies were older and had higher body mass index, adherence with prenatal care and proportion of nulliparity. After adjustment for confounders, IVF/ICSI pregnancies were associated with a slight increase in preterm birth <37 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.72; 95% CI 1.24-2.39), iatrogenic preterm birth <37 weeks of gestation (aOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.00-1.97) as well as NICU admission (aOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.80). IVF/ICSI pregnancies were associated with a decrease in PPROM (aOR 0.64; 95% CI 0.42-0.99). There were no differences between IVF/ICSI and spontaneous DCDA pregnancies in terms of spontaneous preterm birth, gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, birthweight discordance, small for gestational age, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator support, and perinatal death and/or severe morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: IVF/ICSI DCDA twin pregnancies were associated with a slight increase in preterm birth <37 weeks of gestation, iatrogenic preterm birth <37 weeks of gestation, and NICU admission but with a decrease in PPROM. Other outcomes were comparable between IVF/ICSI and spontaneous DCDA twin pregnancies. Multicenter studies with adequate power remain warranted.

3.
Theranostics ; 10(19): 8468-8478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754257

RESUMO

Background: Our previous study has demonstrated an oncogenic role of PIWI-interacting RNA-54265 (piR-54265) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we investigate whether it can be a blood biomarker for population screening and clinical applications. Methods: Serum piR-54265 levels were determined by a digital PCR method in 209 cancer-free healthy controls, 725 patients with CRC, 1303 patients with other types of digestive cancer and 192 patients with benign colorectal tumors. A prospective case-control analysis was conducted to assess the predictive value of serum piR-54265 for future CRC diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to quantify the diagnostic performance of serum piR-54265 levels by assessing its sensitivity, specificity and respective areas under curve (AUC). The odds ratios (ORs) were computed using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Serum piR-54265 levels were significantly elevated only in patients with CRC compared with controls and patients with other cancer types. The AUC for recognizing CRC was 0.896 (95% CI, 0.874-0.914), with a sensitivity and specificity being 85.7% and 65.1% at 1500 copies/µL as a cut-off value. The serum piR-54265 levels in patients declined substantially after surgery but increased significantly again when tumor relapses. The prediagnostic serum piR-54265 levels were significantly associated with future CRC diagnosis, with the ORs of 7.23, 2.80, 2.45, and 1.24 for those whose CRC was diagnosed within 1, 2, 3 and >3 years. Serum piR-54265 test is more sensitive than other blood CRC markers. Conclusion: Serum piR-54265 may serve as a valuable biomarker for CRC screening, early detection and clinical surveillance.

4.
Protein Cell ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737864

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has poor prognosis due to limited therapeutic options. This study examines the roles of genome-wide association study identified PDAC-associated genes as therapeutic targets. We have identified HNF4G gene whose silencing most effectively repressed PDAC cell invasiveness. HNF4G overexpression is induced by the deficiency of transcriptional factor and tumor suppressor SMAD4. Increased HNF4G are correlated with SMAD4 deficiency in PDAC tumor samples and associated with metastasis and poor survival time in xenograft animal model and in patients with PDAC (log-rank P = 0.036; HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.03-2.47). We have found that Metformin suppresses HNF4G activity via AMPK-mediated phosphorylation-coupled ubiquitination degradation and inhibits in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of PDAC cells with SMAD4 deficiency. Furthermore, Metformin treatment significantly improve clinical outcomes and survival in patients with SMAD4-deficient PDAC (log-rank P = 0.022; HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14-0.68) but not in patients with SMAD4-normal PDAC. Pathway analysis shows that HNF4G may act in PDAC through the cell-cell junction pathway. These results indicate that SMAD4 deficiency-induced overexpression of HNF4G plays a critical oncogenic role in PDAC progression and metastasis but may form a druggable target for Metformin treatment.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 133-139, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753269

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of interventional treatment of atrial septal defect (ASD) in low weight infants under 2-year-old. Seven hundred and ninety-three secundum ASD patients were divided into 2 groups: 665 were above 2-year-old and 128 were under 2-year-old. The basic conditions before the operation, postoperative complications within 24 hours, and adverse outcomes during a three-year follow-up were compared between the 2 groups using multivariate analysis. There were significant differences in age, weight, and the diameter of the ASD between the 2 groups (p <0.001). The immediate success rate of the procedure was 96.7%. There were no significant differences in the success rate of the procedure, the incidence of residual shunt, arrhythmia, procedure-related arrhythmia, and occluder shedding between 2 groups (p >0.05). Similarly, we found no association between age ≤2-year-old and any adverse outcomes postprocedure within 24 hours, including procedure failure (OR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.04 to 2.93), residual shunt (OR = 1.07; 95%CI: 0.54 to 2.14), arrhythmia (OR = 0.68; 95%CI: 0.32 to 1.43), or procedure-related arrhythmia (OR = 0.34; 95%CI: 0.04 to 2.87). In the follow-up data, we found no association between age ≤2-year-old and arrhythmia (HR = 0.95; 95%CI: 0.50 to 1.80) and procedure-related arrhythmia (HR = 0.96;95%CI:0.25 to 3.64). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated no significant difference in the occurrence of arrhythmia between the 2 groups (log-rank test: p = 0.776). In conclusion, percutaneous ASD closure in young and low weight infants has a high success and low complication rate, along with reliable effects.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 465, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous evidence has suggested that lower gestational vitamin D levels might increase the risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The results remain inconsistent and require further exploration. METHODS: A total of 2814 Chinese mother-infant pairs were included in this retrospective cohort study. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were reviewed in early pregnancy (16.3 ± 2.3 weeks). Outcomes of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), cesarean section, fetal distress, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), and macrosomia were extracted from the medical records. Cox regression analysis was used to explore these associations. RESULTS: In total, 19.3% of mothers were pregnant at an advanced age (≥35 years), and 40.3% of pregnant women had vitamin D deficiency (< 50 nmol/L). After adjusting for potential covariates, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) per standard deviation (SD) increase of serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 0.86 (0.779, 0.951) for GDM, 0.844 (0.730, 0.976) for preterm birth, and 0.849 (0.726, 0.993) for LBW. Similar protective associations were found for GDM, cesarean section, and preterm birth for a better vitamin D status when compared with vitamin D deficiency. CONCLUSION: Higher early pregnancy vitamin D was associated with a lower risk of GDM, cesarean section, preterm birth, and LBW.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3715, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709844

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in some geographical regions of the world. ESCC development presents a multistep pathogenic process from inflammation to invasive cancer; however, what is critical in these processes and how they evolve is largely unknown, obstructing early diagnosis and effective treatment. Here, we create a mouse model mimicking human ESCC development and construct a single-cell ESCC developmental atlas. We identify a set of key transitional signatures associated with oncogenic evolution of epithelial cells and depict the landmark dynamic tumorigenic trajectories. An early downregulation of CD8+ response against the initial tissue damage accompanied by the transition of immune response from type 1 to type 3 results in accumulation and activation of macrophages and neutrophils, which may create a chronic inflammatory environment that promotes carcinogen-transformed epithelial cell survival and proliferation. These findings shed light on how ESCC is initiated and developed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T , Fatores de Transcrição , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 244, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathological skin scars, caused by cesarean section, affected younger mothers esthetically and psychosocially and to some extent frustrated obstetricians and dermatologists. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs), as a population of multipotent cells, are abundant in human tissues, providing several possibilities for their effects on skin scar tissues. Herein, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm clinical trial, aiming to assess the efficacy and safety of UC-MSCs in the treatment of cesarean section skin scars among primiparous singleton pregnant women. METHODS: Ninety primiparous singleton pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to receive placebo, low-dose (3 × 106 cells), or high-dose (6 × 106 cells) transdermal hydrogel UC-MSCs on the surface of the skin incision. The primary outcome was cesarean section skin scars followed after the sixth month, assessed by the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). RESULTS: All the participants completed their trial of the primary outcome according to the protocol. The mean score of estimated total VSS was 5.52 in all participants at the sixth-month follow-up, with 6.43 in the placebo group, 5.18 in the low-dose group, and 4.71 in the high-dose group, respectively. No significant difference was found between-group in the mean scores for VSS at the sixth month. Additional prespecified secondary outcomes were not found with significant differences among groups either. No obvious side effects or adverse effects were reported in any of the three arms. CONCLUSION: This randomized clinical trial showed that UC-MSCs did not demonstrate the effects of improvement of cesarean section skin scars. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02772289. Registered on 13 May 2016.

9.
Genomics ; 112(5): 3448-3454, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569729

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that a significant proportion of cancers undergo neutral tumor evolution. We applied neutral evolution model in HNSCC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). To ensure the accuracy of classification results, a sample with the purity of tumor <0.7 was excluded. A tumor sample was considered to evolve neutrally if R2 ≥ 0.98. We found that about 16% of HNSCC patients undergo neutral tumor evolution. We showed that neutral evolution HNSCC patients have better prognosis and higher activities of immune response pathways, and the numbers of co-occurring mutation events and significantly positive selection mutations are significantly less than non-neutral evolution HNSCC patients. In conclusion, we described a comprehensive clinical and genomic characteristics of neutral tumor evolution in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC), and provided evidence that the evolution history of HNSCC has both clinical and biological implications.

10.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392583

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant posttranscriptional modification in mammalian mRNA molecules and has a crucial function in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes. The m6A modification is a dynamic and reversible process regulated by a series of writers, erasers and readers (WERs). Different WERs might have different functions, and even the same WER might function differently in different conditions, which are mostly due to different downstream genes being targeted by the WERs. Therefore, identification of the targets of WERs is particularly important for elucidating this dynamic modification. However, there is still no public repository to host the known targets of WERs. Therefore, we developed the m6A WER target gene database (m6A2Target) to provide a comprehensive resource of the targets of m6A WERs. M6A2Target provides a user-friendly interface to present WER targets in two different modules: 'Validated Targets', referred to as WER targets identified from low-throughput studies, and 'Potential Targets', including WER targets analyzed from high-throughput studies. Compared to other existing m6A-associated databases, m6A2Target is the first specific resource for m6A WER target genes. M6A2Target is freely accessible at http://m6a2target.canceromics.org.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256449

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the size and shape association of OGTT values with adverse pregnancy complications among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Southern Han Chinese population and further analyze their mediating effects with maternal age in outcomes. Methods: 6,861 women with GDM were included in the study. Logistic regression was used to identify the correlations between OGTT values and adverse pregnancy outcomes of GDM. Restricted cubic spline nested logistic regression was conducted to investigate potential non-linear and linear associations. Mediating effect among maternal age, OGTT and adverse outcomes were explored. Results: Women with GDM had a mean age of 31.83, and 24.49% had advanced maternal age (≥35 years). In logistic regression with adjustment, compared with lower OGTT0 (<5.1 mmol/L), GDM patients with higher OGTT0 (≥5.1 mmol/L) exhibited 1.891 (95% CI: 1.441-2.298, P < 0.001), 1.284 (1.078-1.529, P = 0.005), 1.285 (1.065-1.550, P = 0.009), and 1.302 (1.067-1.590, P = 0.010) times increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), preterm, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and macrosomia, respectively. GDM patients with higher OGTT1 (≥10 mmol/L) had only found to exhibited 1.473-fold (1.162-1.867, P = 0.001) increasing risk of HDP than those with lower OGTT1 (<10 mmol/L). No adverse outcome was identified to associate with higher OGTT2 (≥8.5 mmol/L). Linear relationships (non-linear P > 0.05) were observed between OGTT0 and HDP, preterm, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and macrosomia in both maternal age groups (<35 and ≥35 years). Non-linear associations of OGTT1 with incidence of HDP, preterm, and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were detected in GDM patients younger than 35 years (non-linear P = 0.037, P = 0.049, P = 0.039, respectively), rising more steeply at higher values. Similar non-linearity was noted for OGTT2 with HDP in older patients. All OGTT values had significant mediating effects on some special complications caused by higher age. Conclusion: Higher fasting plasma glucose was more strongly linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes among GDM patients. Both linearity and Non-linearity of associations between glucose and complications should be taken into account. A careful reconsideration of GDM with hierarchical and individualized management according to OGTT is needed.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1507, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198345

RESUMO

Tumor cells often reprogram their metabolism for rapid proliferation. The roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in metabolism remodeling and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Through screening, we found that the lncRNA Actin Gamma 1 Pseudogene (AGPG) is required for increased glycolysis activity and cell proliferation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Mechanistically, AGPG binds to and stabilizes 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3). By preventing APC/C-mediated ubiquitination, AGPG protects PFKFB3 from proteasomal degradation, leading to the accumulation of PFKFB3 in cancer cells, which subsequently activates glycolytic flux and promotes cell cycle progression. AGPG is also a transcriptional target of p53; loss or mutation of TP53 triggers the marked upregulation of AGPG. Notably, inhibiting AGPG dramatically impaired tumor growth in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Clinically, AGPG is highly expressed in many cancers, and high AGPG expression levels are correlated with poor prognosis, suggesting that AGPG is a potential biomarker and cancer therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Glicólise , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Pseudogenes/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pseudogenes/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Regulação para Cima , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Theranostics ; 10(8): 3488-3502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206103

RESUMO

Rationale: Whole-genome sequencing has identified many amplified genes in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study investigated the role and clinical relevance of these genes in ESCC. Methods: We collected ESCC and non-tumor esophageal tissues from 225 individuals who underwent surgery. Clinical data were collected and survival time was measured from the date of diagnosis to the date of last follow-up or death. Patient survival was compared with immunohistochemical staining score using Kaplan-Meier methods and hazard ratios were calculated by Cox models. Cells with gene overexpression and knockout were analyzed in proliferation, migration and invasion assays. Cells were also analyzed for levels of intracellular lactate, NADPH, ATP and mRNA and protein expression patterns. Protein levels in cell line and tissue samples were measured by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry. ESCC cell were grown as xenograft tumors in nude mice. Primary ESCC in genetically engineered mice and patient-derived xenograft mouse models were established for test of therapeutic effects. Results: We show that TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) is a major player in ESCC progression and chemoresistance. TIGAR reprograms glucose metabolism from glycolysis to the glutamine pathway through AMP-activated kinase, and its overexpression is correlated with poor disease outcomes. Tigar knockout mice have reduced ESCC tumor burden and growth rates. Treatment of TIGAR-overexpressing ESCC cell xenografts and patient-derived tumor xenografts in mice with combination of glutaminase inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agents achieves significant more efficacy than chemotherapy alone. Conclusion: These findings shed light on an important role of TIGAR in ESCC and might provide evidence for targeted treatment of TIGAR-overexpressing ESCC.

14.
Hepatology ; 71(1): 112-129, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148184

RESUMO

To identify hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-implicated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), we performed an integrative omics analysis by integrating mRNA and lncRNA expression profiles in HCC tissues. We identified a collection of candidate HCC-implicated lncRNAs. Among them, we demonstrated that an lncRNA, which is named as p53-stabilizing and activating RNA (PSTAR), inhibits HCC cell proliferation and tumorigenicity through inducing p53-mediated cell cycle arrest. We further revealed that PSTAR can bind to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) and enhance its SUMOylation and thereby strengthen the interaction between hnRNP K and p53, which ultimately leads to the accumulation and transactivation of p53. PSTAR is down-regulated in HCC tissues, and the low PSTAR expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with HCC, especially those with wild-type p53. Conclusion: This study sheds light on the tumor suppressor role of lncRNA PSTAR, a modulator of the p53 pathway, in HCC.

15.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(2): 306-316, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL; nasal type) is an aggressive malignancy with a particularly high prevalence in Asian and Latin American populations. Epstein-Barr virus infection has a role in the pathogenesis of NKTCL, and HLA-DPB1 variants are risk factors for the disease. We aimed to identify additional novel genetic variants affecting risk of NKTCL. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of NKTCL in multiple populations from east Asia. We recruited a discovery cohort of 700 cases with NKTCL and 7752 controls without NKTCL of Han Chinese ancestry from 19 centres in southern, central, and northern regions of China, and four independent replication samples including 717 cases and 12 650 controls. Three of these independent samples (451 cases and 5301 controls) were from eight centres in the same regions of southern, central, and northern China, and the fourth (266 cases and 7349 controls) was from 11 centres in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and South Korea. All cases had primary NKTCL that was confirmed histopathologically, and matching with controls was based on geographical region and self-reported ancestry. Logistic regression analysis was done independently by geographical regions, followed by fixed-effect meta-analyses, to identify susceptibility loci. Bioinformatic approaches, including expression quantitative trait loci, binding motif and transcriptome analyses, and biological experiments were done to fine-map and explore the functional relevance of genome-wide association loci to the development of NKTCL. FINDINGS: Genetic data were gathered between Jan 1, 2008, and Jan 23, 2019. Meta-analysis of all samples (a total of 1417 cases and 20 402 controls) identified two novel loci significantly associated with NKTCL: IL18RAP on 2q12.1 (rs13015714; p=2·83 × 10-16; odds ratio 1·39 [95% CI 1·28-1·50]) and HLA-DRB1 on 6p21.3 (rs9271588; 9·35 × 10-26 1·53 [1·41-1·65]). Fine-mapping and experimental analyses showed that rs1420106 at the promoter of IL18RAP was highly correlated with rs13015714, and the rs1420106-A risk variant had an upregulatory effect on IL18RAP expression. Cell growth assays in two NKTCL cell lines (YT and SNK-6 cells) showed that knockdown of IL18RAP inhibited cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest in NKTCL cells. Haplotype association analysis showed that haplotype 47F-67I was associated with reduced risk of NKTCL, whereas 47Y-67L was associated with increased risk of NKTCL. These two positions are component parts of the peptide-binding pocket 7 (P7) of the HLA-DR heterodimer, suggesting that these alterations might account for the association at HLA-DRB1, independent of the previously reported HLA-DPB1 variants. INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the development of NKTCL by showing the importance of inflammation and immune regulation through the IL18-IL18RAP axis and antigen presentation involving HLA-DRB1, which might help to identify potential therapeutic targets. Taken in combination with additional genetic and other risk factors, our results could potentially be used to stratify people at high risk of NKTCL for targeted prevention. FUNDING: Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Program for Support of Top-Notch Young Professionals, Chang Jiang Scholars Program, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council, Tanoto Foundation, National Research Foundation Singapore, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Recruitment Program for Young Professionals of China, First Affiliated Hospital and Army Medical University, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-18/genética , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/genética , Células T Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Ásia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/imunologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/metabolismo , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/patologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
16.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 243: 97-102, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No recommendations are available for gestational weight gain (GWG) in underweight women with twin pregnancies. We aimed to evaluate whether underweight women with twin pregnancies should gain more weight than normal-weight women in order to optimize perinatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study compared the GWG and perinatal outcomes among normal-weight and underweight women who gave birth to viable twins between 2015 and 2018 at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Foshan, China. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was categorized as adequate or inadequate GWG, based on the US Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines for normal-weight women (≥ 0.46 kg/week). The outcomes of interest included spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) <37 weeks, <35 and <32 weeks, small for gestational age (SGA), gestational hypertensive disorder (GHD), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), birth weight discordance (BDW) ≥20%, neonatal intensive unit (NICU) admission and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Propensity score matching (PSM, in a 1:1 ratio) was utilized to minimize the effects of confounders on the differences in the two cohorts. Multivariable logistic models were also used to verify the results from PSM analysis. RESULTS: There were 475 normal-weight and 111 underweight women included in the analysis. Our results suggested that the incidence of adequate GWG was comparable between underweight and normal-weight women (37.5% vs. 45.1%, P = 0.141). The prevalence of GDM was significantly lower among underweight women (9.9%) than among normal-weight women (20.4%) (P = 0.010). There was no evidence of differences in other perinatal outcomes between the two groups. 102 underweight women and 102 normal-weight women were included in PSM analyses. There was a lower incidence of GDM in underweight women than in normal-weight women, but the difference was not significant (9.8% vs. 18.6%, P = 0.071). No evidence of any differences in the other outcomes, including sPTB, GHD, BWD≥20%, SGA, NICU admission and NRDS, was found between the underweight and normal-weight women. Multivariable logistic regression models yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: For Chinese twin pregnant women with twin pregnancies, our data does provide evidence to suggest underweight women need to gain more weight than normal-weight women to optimize perinatal outcomes. Future studies with larger number of underweight women with twin gestations are warranted to establish an optimal range of GWG.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Theranostics ; 9(23): 6856-6866, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660073

RESUMO

Resistance to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a major obstacle to cancer treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. This study was to explore genome alterations in rectal cancer under CRT stress. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 28 paired tumors collected before and after CRT from the same patients who did not respond to CRT treatment. Somatic point mutations and copy number variations were detected by VarScan2 and Exome CNVs respectively using paired tumor and blood samples. Somatic alterations associated with CRT resistance were inferred considering differences in significantly mutated genes, mutation counts and cancer cell fraction between matched pre- and post-CRT tumors. We employed SignatureAnalyzer to infer mutation signatures and PyClone to decipher clonal evolution and examine intratumoral heterogeneity in tumors before and after CRT. The associations between intratumoral heterogeneity and patients' survival were analyzed using the log-rank test and the Cox regression model. Results: (i) Recurrent mutations in CTDSP2, APC, KRAS, TP53 and NFKBIZ confer selective advantages on cancer cells and made them resistant to CRT treatment. (ii) CRT alters the genomic characteristics of tumors at both the somatic mutation and the copy number variation levels. (iii) CRT-resistant tumors exhibit either a branched or a linear evolution pattern. (iv) Different recurrent mutation signatures in pre-CRT and post-CRT patients implicate mutational processes underlying the evolution of CRT-resistant tumors. (v) High intratumoral heterogeneity in pre- or post-CRT is associated with poor patients' survival. Conclusion: Our study reveals genome landscapes in rectal cancer before and after CRT and tumors evolution under CRT stress. The treatment-associated characteristics are useful for further investigations of CRT resistance in rectal cancer.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12099, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431662

RESUMO

This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of placental location on birthweight discordance among diamniotic-dichorionic twin pregnancies. Medical records and sonographic reports of 978 diamniotic-dichorionic twin pregnancies delivered at Foshan Maternal and Fetal Health Hospital were reviewed. Pregnancies with congenital malformation, intrauterine death or placenta previa were excluded. The placental location for each twin was determined by last sonographic examination before delivery, and the pregnancies were grouped by different versus same placental location in each pregnancy. Maternal and fetal characteristics were summarized. The primary outcome of interest was birthweight discordance (BWD) ≥20%, and secondary outcomes included small for gestational age (SGA) as a binary outcome and mean value and absolute difference in birthweight as continuous outcomes. Student's t test and the chi-square test were used for univariate analyses, while multivariate regressions were used to adjust for confounders. General estimated equation (GEE) models were used to address the correlation between fetuses when assessing SGA. A total of 866 eligible subjects were included in the analysis. In total, 460 pregnancies had placentas with different locations, and 406 had placentas with same locations. The gestational age at delivery was slightly younger in the same placental location group than in the different placental location group (35.8 ± 0.1 vs. 36.1 ± 0.1 weeks, P = 0.067). Other maternal and fetal characteristics were comparable between the two study groups. There was no significant difference in BWD ≥20% (aOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.71-1.59) or SGA (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.76-2.28) between the same and different placental location groups. Neither the mean value nor the absolute difference in birth weight was associated with placental location combination (P = 0.478 and P = 0.162, respectively). In conclusion, discordant birthweight is not affected by same location of diamniotic-dichorionic placentas.

19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 262, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain (GWG) has implications for perinatal outcomes, the guidelines for maternal weight gain, however, remain understudied among twin pregnancies. This study aimed to assess the associations between perinatal outcomes and GWG among twin pregnancies, based on the US institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with viable twins ≥26 weeks of gestation, was conducted in Foshan, China, during July 2015 and June 2018. Maternal BMI was categorized based on Chinese standard and GWG was categorized as below, within and above the IOM 2009 recommendations. Underweight women were excluded for analysis. Perinatal outcomes were compared among these groups. To assess the independent impact of GWG on the perinatal outcomes, conventional multivariable regression and general estimated equation (GEE) were utilized for maternal outcomes and neonatal outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 645 mothers with twin pregnancies were included, of whom 15.0, 41.4 and 43.6% gained weight below, within and above guidelines, respectively. Compared to weight gain within guidelines, inadequate weight gain was associated with increased risks in spontaneous preterm birth < 37 weeks (aOR:3.55; 95% CI: 1.73-7.28) and < 35 weeks (aOR:2.63; 95% CI: 1.16-5.97). Women who gained weight above guidelines were more likely to have gestational hypertension disorder (aOR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.32-4.21), pre-eclampsia (aOR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.29-5.21) and have fetuses weighted >90th percentile and less likely to have fetuses weighted < 2500 g and < 1500 g. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance of gestational weight gain within the normal range could decrease the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the causality between pre-eclampsia and gestational weight gain requires further investigations.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(10): 881-891, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation has an important role in the development of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, genetic factors for lung cancer have not been fully identified, especially in Chinese populations, which limits the use of existing polygenic risk scores (PRS) to identify subpopulations at high risk of lung cancer for prevention. We therefore aimed to identify novel loci associated with NSCLC risk, and generate a PRS and evaluate its utility and effectiveness in the prediction of lung cancer risk in Chinese populations. METHODS: To systematically identify genetic variants for NSCLC risk, we newly genotyped 19 546 samples from Chinese NSCLC cases and controls from the Nanjing Medical University Global Screening Array Project and did a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of 27 120 individuals with NSCLC and 27 355 without NSCLC (13 327 cases and 13 328 controls of Chinese descent as well as 13 793 cases and 14 027 controls of European descent). We then built a PRS for Chinese populations from all reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been reported to be associated with lung cancer risk at genome-wide significance level. We evaluated the utility and effectiveness of the generated PRS in predicting subpopulations at high-risk of lung cancer in an independent prospective cohort of 95 408 individuals from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) with more than 10 years' follow-up. FINDINGS: We identified 19 susceptibility loci to be significantly associated with NSCLC risk at p≤5·0 × 10-8, including six novel loci. When applied to the CKB cohort, the PRS of the risk loci successfully predicted lung cancer incident cases in a dose-response manner in participants at a high genetic risk (top 10%) than those at a low genetic risk (bottom 10%; adjusted hazard ratio 1·96, 95% CI 1·53-2·51; ptrend=2·02 × 10-9). Specially, we observed consistently separated curves of lung cancer events in individuals at low, intermediate, and high genetic risk, respectively, and PRS was an independent effective risk stratification indicator beyond age and smoking pack-years. INTERPRETATION: We have shown for the first time that GWAS-derived PRS can be effectively used in discriminating subpopulations at high risk of lung cancer, who might benefit from a practically feasible PRS-based lung cancer screening programme for precision prevention in Chinese populations. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Priority Academic Program for the Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, National Key R&D Program of China, Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of Jiangsu, and China's Thousand Talents Program.

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