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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(50): 34537-34545, 2016 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27998134


We demonstrated a high-performance Si-organic hybrid heterojunction solar cell utilizing low-temperature and liquid-phase-processed TiO2 as an interlayer between poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and Si nanoholes to produce a conformal contact on the surface of the Si nanostructure. The hydrophilic TiO2/Si-nanohole surface enabled the PEDOT:PSS to flow into the spacing of the close-packed nanoholes. Scanning electron microscopy images were used to confirm the PEDOT:PSS nanohole filling induced by the TiO2. With forming gas annealing of the double-sided TiO2, high Voc (0.63 V) and Jsc (35.7 mA/cm2) values were obtained, yielding a high power conversion efficiency of 14.7%. The high Voc was attributed to the surface passivation of Si by annealed TiO2. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation at the TiO2/Si interface indicates the TiOx signal decreased and the TiO2 and SiOx signals increased after annealing. The Si-O bonding found in the O 1s study appeared in the form of Si-O-Si bonding to serve surface passivation. The band alignment of the PEDOT:PSS/TiO2/n-Si hetero-interfaces was postulated and plotted. The Vbi in the system after annealing was assumed to be higher because of the reduction of bulk and surface states that yield high Voc. After annealing, the Vbi increased from 0.805 to 0.905 V. The reduction of surface recombination velocity proved the passivation ability of TiO2 after annealing. With proven surface passivation and conformal PEDOT:PSS/Si nanohole interfaces for enhanced contact, this Si-organic hybrid heterojunction solar cell with solution-processed TiO2 interlayers has excellent potential for application as a high-efficiency and low-cost Si solar cell.

Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 218(7): 603-15, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163779


BACKGROUND: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. METHODS: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. RESULTS: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20 µg/kgbw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50 µg/kgbw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.

Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Dietilexilftalato/efeitos adversos , Dietilexilftalato/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/urina , Obesidade Pediátrica/urina , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan
PLoS One ; 9(9): e109876, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25264621


BACKGROUND: Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene remains a used method for the rapid detection of norovirus (NV) in clinical laboratories. The incidence of and factors associated with false positives in this assay have not been previously evaluated. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After an NV outbreak caused by the GII.4 Sydney strain in 2012, we reanalysed 250 stool samples positive for NV by RdRp gene detection. True positives were confirmed in 154 (61.6%) samples by successful amplification and sequencing confirmation of the viral protein 1 gene. Of the remaining 96 samples that underwent RT-PCR for the RdRp gene, 34 samples yielded PCR products of the expected length. However, the sequences of the amplicons belonged to the human genome, with 91-97% matched nucleotide sequences, indicating false positives. Multivariate analysis of the clinical features of the patients identified a positive stool culture for bacteria (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 9.07, 95% adjusted confidence interval [aCI] 2.17-37.92, P = .003) and the use of parenteral antibiotics (aOR 5.55, 95% aCI 1.21-24.73, P = .027) as significant and independent factors associated with false positives. CONCLUSION: Conventional RT-PCR targeting the RdRp gene of NV can lead to false positives in patients with bacterial enterocolitis by incidental amplification of DNA from a human source.

Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Norovirus/enzimologia , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco