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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e919293, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Research on the clinical outcomes of surgical patients anaesthetized with sevoflurane and the association of sevoflurane with post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is scarce. We evaluated whether sevoflurane-based anesthesia increased the incidence of POCD and worsened prognosis compared to propofol-based anesthesia in elderly cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS This single-center, prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial included 234 patients aged 65 to 86 years undergoing tumor resection who received sevoflurane-based (Group S) or propofol-based (Group P) anesthesia during surgery. A series of neuropsychological tests was performed to evaluate cognitive function before surgery and at 7 days and 3 months post-operation, and the results were compared to those of healthy controls. RESULTS At 7 days post-operation there were no significant differences in the incidence of POCD between patients who received sevoflurane-based or propofol-based anesthesia during surgery: Group S was at 29.1% (32 out of 110 patients) versus Group P at 27.3% (30 out of 110), P=0.764. At 3 months, Group S was at 11.3% (12 out of 106 patients) versus Group P at 9.2% (10 out of 109), P=0.604. During the first 2 days post-operation, the QoR-40 global score was significantly lower in Group S compared to Group P [POD 1: P=0.004; POD 2: P=0.001]. There were no significant differences in in-hospital post-operative complications, post-operative length of hospital stay, all-cause mortality at 30 days, and 3 months post-operation, or post-operative quality of life at 3 months between patients in Group S and Group P. CONCLUSIONS Sevoflurane-based anesthesia did not increase the incidence of POCD compared to propofol-based anesthesia at 7 days or 3 months post-operation or impact short-term post-operative prognosis.

2.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; : e8730, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952097

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are associated with intestinal microbiota and diseases in humans. SCFAs have a low response in mass spectrometry and in order to increase sensitivity, reduce sample consumption, shorten analysis time, and simplify sample preparation steps, a derivatization method was developed. METHODS: We converted seven SCFAs into amide derivatives with 4-aminomethylquinoline. The reaction took 20 min at room temperature. Analytes were separated on a reversed-phase C18 column and quantitated in positive ion electrospray ionization mode using multiple reaction monitoring. Acetic acid-d4 was used as the stable isotope-labelled surrogate analyte for acetic acid in the working solutions, while the other stable isotope-labelled standards were used as internal standards (ISs). RESULTS: Method validation showed that the intra-day and inter-days precision of quantitation for the seven SCFAs over the whole concentration range was ≤ 3.8% (n = 6). The quantitation accuracy ranged from 85.5% to 104.3% (n = 6). Importantly, the collected feces need to be vortexed immediately with ethanol. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a new derivatization method for precise, accurate, and rapid quantification of SCFAs in human feces using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This method successfully determined the concentration of SCFAs in human feces and could assist in the exploration of intestinal microbiota and disease.

3.
Neurochem Res ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953741

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event which caused high mortality and morbidity. Recently, nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been showed to act a critical t role in the secondly injury phase of SCI. In current study, we aimed to investigate the effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of extracellular vesicles derived from epidural fat (EF)- mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of SCI. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were used for current study and randomly divided into four groups: sham group, SCI group, SCI + Saline group, SCI + Extracellular vesicles group. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scores was applied to evaluate the neurological functional recovery. Cresyl violet-stained was conducted evaluate the protective effect of EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles on lesion volume after SCI. ELISA, immunohistochemistry assay, TUNEL assay and western blotting were conducted to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that the administration of EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles via tail vein injection improved neurological functional recovery and reduced the lesion volume after SCI. And systemic administration of EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, the expression levels of proapoptotic protein Bax was decreased and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was upregulated with the treatment of EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles after SCI. In summary, in current study, we demonstrated for the first time that the EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles can improve neurological functional recovery after SCI, and the underlying molecular mechanisms may partly through the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

4.
Soft Matter ; 16(5): 1270-1278, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913394

RESUMO

Morphing materials, also known as smart materials are attracting increasing attention as sensors, actuators and in soft robotic applications. In this work bilayered morphing composites were created by exploiting the thiol-ene photoclick reaction via maskless digital light processing (DLP). This technique allows for gradients and patterns of near infrared (nIR)-triggered materials to be efficiently crosslinked to substrates, with suitable interfacial adhesion to realise complex morphing. Photo-thermally responsive composites are produced by DLP patterning of reduced graphene oxide-filled chitosan-methacrylamide (rGO-chitosan-MA) on thiolated polydimethylsiloxane substrates via thiol-ene photoclick reaction. Morphing composites with parallel striped patterns and box-like hinges were printed via DLP to realise self-rolling and self-folding behaviours. Bilayered structures, with gradient rGO-chitosan-MA thicknesses (2-8 µm), were produced by controlling the light intensity from the DLP device. These gradient bilayered structures enable photothermal-triggered gradient bending and morphing exemplified here by a "walking worm" and a kirigami-inspired "opening flower". Thermo-mechanical calculations were performed to estimate bending angles, and finite element analysis applied to simulate self-folding and bending. The difference between simulation and measurements is in the range 0.4-7.6%, giving confidence to the assumptions and simplifications applied in design.

5.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997375

RESUMO

Moderate-to-vigorous exercise increases blood ammonia concentrations, potentially contributing to the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) often suffer from frailty or physical deconditioning as a result of sarcopenia, fluid overload/ascites, obesity and concomitant diseases. Exercise is therefore recommended for ESLD patients to reverse or halt progression of frailty/sarcopenia, as these conditions contribute to increased mortality.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916646

RESUMO

The chain-transfer reaction is rather important in coordination polymerization regarding catalytic efficiency, adjustment of molecular weight, and control of chain structure. To date, chain transfer to H2 and Al, Mg, and Zn alkyl compounds and ß-H elimination are the commonly encountered modes. Now a novel chain transfer to toluene is reported. By introducing fluorine atoms into the ß-diketimine ligands, an inert catalytic system for styrene (St) coordination polymerization was transferred into the highly active one. The activity increased with an increase in the number of fluorines in the ligands. Surprisingly, the molecular weights of resultant polystyrenes are very low (Mn =2000-6600 Da) despite of St loadings, corresponding up to 121 chains per active species. The mechanisms were investigated by DFT simulation, MALDI-TOF MS, isotope tracing experiment and 2D NMR spectrum analyses, which revealed that the fluorine activated the polymerization and directed chain transfer to toluene.

7.
J Sep Sci ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970927

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ulixertinib in rat plasma. The plasma samples were precipitated with acetonitrile and then separated on a C18 column with water containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Analytes were monitored on a TSQ Vantage triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization mode. Selected reaction monitoring transitions were m/z 433.1→262.1 for ulixertinib and m/z 450.1→260.1 for internal standard. The assay achieved good linearity over the concentration range of 0.1-1000 ng/mL with correlation coefficient > 0.9991. The validated assay has been successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ulixertinib in rat after oral and intravenous administration. The results revealed that ulixertinib showed high exposure in rat plasma, low clearance, moderate oral bioavailability (45.13%) and dose-independent pharmacokinetic profiles over the oral dose range of 1-15 mg/kg. In addition, six metabolites from rat plasma and hepatocytes were detected and structurally identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. The metabolic pathways of ulixertinib referred to hydroxylation and dealkylation and glucuronidation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 286, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941904

RESUMO

A prominent tree species coexistence mechanism suggests host-specific natural enemies inhibit seedling recruitment at high conspecific density (negative conspecific density dependence). Natural-enemy-mediated conspecific density dependence affects numerous tree populations, but its strength varies substantially among species. Understanding how conspecific density dependence varies with species' traits and influences the dynamics of whole communities remains a challenge. Using a three-year manipulative community-scale experiment in a temperate forest, we show that plant-associated fungi, and to a lesser extent insect herbivores, reduce seedling recruitment and survival at high adult conspecific density. Plant-associated fungi are primarily responsible for reducing seedling recruitment near conspecific adults in ectomycorrhizal and shade-tolerant species. Insects, in contrast, primarily inhibit seedling recruitment of shade-intolerant species near conspecific adults. Our results suggest that natural enemies drive conspecific density dependence in this temperate forest and that which natural enemies are responsible depends on the mycorrhizal association and shade tolerance of tree species.

9.
Chemotherapy ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to explore the relationship betweenextracellular histone and prostate cancer and its mechanism. METHODS: Migration of prostate cancer cells was detected by Transwell. Inflammatory factor expression was investigated by ELISA. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and expression of NF-κB pathway-related proteins were investigated using Western blotting. RESULTS: Under the induction of extracellular histones, the migration rate of prostate cancer cells and the levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 were notably enhanced. Then, expression of E-cadherin was significantly down-regulated, while levels of N-cadherin, vimentin, ß-catenin, Snail, p-p65 and p-IκBα were significantly up-regulated, which was reversed by PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate). CONCLUSION: Extracellular histone significantly promotes the progression of prostate cancer cells via NF-κB pathway-mediated inflammatory responses, which may serve as a novel target for treating prostate cancer.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 78: 106015, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780369

RESUMO

Lymphocyte antigen 6Chigh (Ly-6Chigh) inflammatory monocytes, as novel mononuclear cells in the innate immune system, participate in infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential role of these monocytes in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and the possible mechanism involved in their migration to lung tissue. Our results showed that mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume (HTV) increased the accumulation of Ly-6Chigh inflammatory monocytes in lung tissues and that blocking C­C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) could significantly reduce Ly-6Chigh inflammatory-monocyte migration and attenuate the degree of inflammation of lung tissues. In addition, inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activity could decrease the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), which in turn decreased the migration of Ly-6Chigh inflammatory monocytes into lung tissue. We also demonstrated that high ventilation caused Ly-6Chigh inflammatory monocytes in the bone marrow to migrate into and aggregate in the lungs, creating inflammation, and that the mechanism was quite different from that of infectious diseases. Ly-6Chigh inflammatory monocytes might play a pro-inflammatory role in VILI, and blocking their infiltration into lung tissue might become a new target for the treatment of this injury.

11.
Cell Prolif ; 53(1): e12726, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In humans, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is a major cause of male infertility. However, the aetiology of NOA is largely unknown. Previous studies reported that protein CK2ß was abundantly and broadly expressed in spermatogenic cells. Here, we investigate whether protein CK2ß participates in spermatogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we separated spermatogenic cells using STA-PUT velocity sedimentation, analysed the expression pattern of protein CK2ß by immunoblotting, specifically deleted Ck2ß gene in early-stage spermatogenic cells by crossing Ck2ßfl mice with Stra8-Cre+ mice and validated the knockout efficiency by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. The phenotypes of Ck2ßfl/Δ ;SCre+ mice were studied by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The molecular mechanisms of male germ cell development arrest were elucidated by immunoblotting and TUNEL assay. RESULTS: Ablation of Ck2ß gene triggered excessive germ cell apoptosis, germ cell development arrest, azoospermia and male infertility. Inactivation of Ck2ß gene caused distinctly reduced expression of Ck2α' gene and CK2α' protein. CONCLUSIONS: Ck2ß is a vital gene for germ cell survival and male fertility in mice.

12.
Plant Physiol ; 182(1): 408-423, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685645

RESUMO

Members of the mitochondrial transcription terminator factor (mTERF) family, originally identified in vertebrate mitochondria, are involved in the termination of organellular transcription. In plants, mTERF proteins are mainly localized in chloroplasts and mitochondria. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), mTERF8/pTAC15 was identified in the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) complex, the major RNA polymerase of chloroplasts. In this work, we demonstrate that mTERF8 is associated with the PEP complex. An mTERF8 knockout line displayed a wild-type-like phenotype under standard growth conditions, but showed impaired efficiency of photosystem II electron flow. Transcription of most chloroplast genes was not substantially affected in the mterf8 mutant; however, the level of the psbJ transcript from the psbEFLJ polycistron was increased. RNA blot analysis showed that a larger transcript accumulates in mterf8 than in the wild type. Thus, abnormal transcription and/or RNA processing occur for the psbEFLJ polycistron. Circular reverse transcription PCR and sequence analysis showed that the psbJ transcript terminates 95 nucleotides downstream of the translation stop codon in the wild type, whereas its termination is aberrant in mterf8 Both electrophoresis mobility shift assays and chloroplast chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that mTERF8 specifically binds to the 3' terminal region of psbJ Transcription analysis using the in vitro T7 RNA polymerase system showed that mTERF8 terminates psbJ transcription. Together, these results suggest that mTERF8 is specifically involved in the transcription termination of the chloroplast gene psbJ.

13.
Neuroscience ; 424: 133-145, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704348

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological event that results in incomplete or complete loss of voluntary motor and sensory function. Until recently, there has been no effective curative strategy for SCI. Our previous study showed that microRNA (miR)-126 promoted angiogenesis and attenuated inflammation after SCI; however, the effect of miR-126-based treatment is limited because of the low efficiency of miR delivery in vivo. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that exosomes can serve as a valuable therapeutic vehicle for miR delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used to deliver miR-126 to treat SCI. In this study, we found that MSCs can load miR-126 into secreted exosomes. In a rat model of SCI, exosomes transferred miR-126 to the injured site of the spinal cord, reduced the lesion volume and improved functional recovery after SCI. Additionally, miR-126-loaded exosomes promoted angiogenesis post-SCI. Moreover, the administration of miR-126 exosomes promoted neurogenesis and reduced cell apoptosis after SCI. In vitro, we observed that exosomes derived from miR-126-modified MSCs promoted the angiogenesis and migration of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) by inhibiting the expression of Sprouty-related EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED1) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 (PIK3R2). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that exosomes derived from MSCs transfected with miR-126 may promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis, inhibit apoptosis and promote functional recovery after SCI. These findings suggest that exosomes derived from miR-126-modified MSCs may serve as a novel potential therapeutic strategy for treating SCI.

14.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 106, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of follicle-flushing during oocyte collection on embryo development potential retrospectively. METHODS: A total of 1714 cases, including 133 who experienced retrieval difficulty (repeated follicle-flushing) on the day of oocyte retrieval (difficulty group) and the control 1581 cases (control group), were assessed in this retrospective study. The number of oocytes recovered, two pro-nuclei fertilization (2PN-fertilization), day 3 good-quality embryo and day 5/6 blastocyst utilization rates were compared between the difficulty group and control group correspondingly. Embryo implantation, clinical pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were further analyzed between the two groups in the fresh day- 3 embryo transfer cycles. RESULTS: The number of oocytes recovered in the difficulty group (9.08 ± 4.65) were significantly reduced compared with the control group (12.13 ± 5.27),P < 0.001; The 2PN-fertilization, day 3 good-quality embryo and blastocyst utilization rates were significantly lower in the difficulty group compared with controls (71.7% vs. 75.7%; 52.7% vs. 56.5%; 31.9% vs. 37.0%, all P < 0.05). Embryo implantation in the difficulty group was 53.2%, which was lower than the control value of 58.7%, although not reaching statistical significance. The rate of fresh embryo transfer cycles in the difficulty group was lower than normal ones (51.88% vs. 61.99%, P = 0.026). The pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between the two groups. But the rate of spontaneous miscarriages of the difficulty group was higher than the control group, although not reaching statistical significance. The neonatal outcomes had no statistical difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Oocyte retrieval difficulty, which include repeated flushing and the corresponded extending time required for oocyte recovery, significantly reduced day 3 good-quality embryo and blastocyst utilization rates of these patients. But the live birth rate had no difference between the difficulty group and the normal ones.

15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(12): 4361-4368, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840483

RESUMO

With the intensification of climate change and human activities, megafires frequently occur, with serious impacts on ecosystems, atmospheric environment, and human health. The United States has accumulated a large amount of practical experience in forest fire management. A comprehensive review of the framework of forest fire management in the United States can provide an inspiring reference for forest fire prevention in China. Starting from the process of historical evolution of forest fire policy, we systematically introduced the four stages of policy evolution and the characteristics of each stage in the US. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of forest fire management situation in the US from four aspects was conducted, including the management of combustible fuels, administrative responsibility, fire suppression and forest fire management research support. We summarized relevant literature and proposed improvement strategies for future combustibles management, policy politics and fire fighting in the United States. Through the comprehensive analysis of forest fire management in the United States, we put forward some inspiring opinions on forest fire management in China to promote the establishment of a sound forest fire management system with Chinese characteristics.


Assuntos
Fogo , Incêndios Florestais , China , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Árvores , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224737, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714904

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-intubated anesthesia (NIA) has been proposed for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), although how the benefit-to-risk of NIA compares to that of intubated general anesthesia (IGA) for certain types of patients remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to understand whether NIA or IGA may be more beneficial for patients undergoing VATS. METHODS: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, Pubmed and Embase databases from 1968 to April 2019 was performed using predefined criteria. Studies comparing the effects of NIA or IGA for adult VATS patients were considered. The primary outcome measure was hospital stay. Pooled data were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model to determine the standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Twenty-eight studies with 2929 patients were included. The median age of participants was 56.8 years (range 21.9-76.4) and 1802 (61.5%) were male. Compared to IGA, NIA was associated with shorter hospital stay (SMD -0.57 days, 95%CI -0.78 to -0.36), lower estimated cost for hospitalization (SMD -2.83 US, 95% CI -4.33 to -1.34), shorter chest tube duration (SMD -0.32 days, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.17), and shorter postoperative fasting time (SMD, -2.76 days; 95% CI -2.98 to -2.54). NIA patients showed higher levels of total lymphocytes and natural killer cells and higher T helper/T suppressor cell ratio, but lower levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, NIA patients showed lower levels of fibrinogen, cortisol, procalcitonin and epinephrine. CONCLUSIONS: NIA enhances the recovery from VATS through attenuation of stress and inflammatory responses and stimulation of cellular immune function.

17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36680-36687, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741272

RESUMO

Transporters play an important role in the uptake and redistribution of agrochemicals to the site of insect feeding. The product of the Arabidopsis thaliana gene AtAAP1 substantially contributes to inorganic nitrogen acquisition under ecologically relevant amino acid concentrations. Here, the transporter ability of AtAAP1 to a chlorantraniliprole-alanine conjugate (CAP-Ala-1) was tested both in planta and in vitro. Thirty-day-old and 15-day-old plants overexpressing AtAAP1 increased the uptake of CAP-Ala-1 into the roots, whereas AtAAP1 deficiency did not completely block the uptake of CAP-Ala-1. An uptake experiment carried out in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing AtAAP1 showed that CAP-Ala-1 interacted with AtAAP1. Although little native AtAAP1 transcription was present in the leaves, constitutive expression of AtAAP1 in plants significantly increased the ability of the leaf mesophyll protoplasts to take up CAP-Ala-1. The observations supported the possibility of exploiting AtAAP1 as a component of a novel delivery and redistribution system for amino acid-based pesticide conjugates.

18.
Nature ; 574(7776): 81-85, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554968

RESUMO

The efficient interconversion of chemicals and electricity through electrocatalytic processes is central to many renewable-energy initiatives. The sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER)1-4 has long posed one of the biggest challenges in this field, and electrocatalysts based on expensive platinum-group metals are often required to improve the activity and durability of these reactions. The use of alloying5-7, surface strain8-11 and optimized coordination environments12 has resulted in platinum-based nanocrystals that enable very high ORR activities in acidic media; however, improving the activity of this reaction in alkaline environments remains challenging because of the difficulty in achieving optimized oxygen binding strength on platinum-group metals in the presence of hydroxide. Here we show that PdMo bimetallene-a palladium-molybdenum alloy in the form of a highly curved and sub-nanometre-thick metal nanosheet-is an efficient and stable electrocatalyst for the ORR and the OER in alkaline electrolytes, and shows promising performance as a cathode in Zn-air and Li-air batteries. The thin-sheet structure of PdMo bimetallene enables a large electrochemically active surface area (138.7 square metres per gram of palladium) as well as high atomic utilization, resulting in a mass activity towards the ORR of 16.37 amperes per milligram of palladium at 0.9 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode in alkaline electrolytes. This mass activity is 78 times and 327 times higher than those of commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts, respectively, and shows little decay after 30,000 potential cycles. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the alloying effect, the strain effect due to the curved geometry, and the quantum size effect due to the thinness of the sheets tune the electronic structure of the system for optimized oxygen binding. Given the properties and the structure-activity relationships of PdMo metallene, we suggest that other metallene materials could show great promise in energy electrocatalysis.

19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 384, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant immune responses can be induced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), but the exact compounds that induce resistance are poorly understood. Here, we identified the novel natural elicitor 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-2-pentanone from the PGPR Bacillus subtilis HN09, which dominates HN09-induced systemic resistance (ISR). RESULTS: The HN09 strain, as a rhizobacterium that promotes plant growth, can induce systemic resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and the underlying role of its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-2-pentanone in this induced resistance mechanism was explored in this study. The stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-2-pentanone exhibited differential bioactivity of resistance induction in A. thaliana. B16, a 1:1 mixture of the threo-isomers (3R,4S) and (3S,4R), was significantly superior to B17, a similar mixture of the erythro-isomers (3R,4R) and (3S,4S). Moreover, B16 induced more expeditious and stronger callose deposition than B17 when challenged with the pathogen DC3000. RT-qPCR and RNA-seq results showed that B16 and B17 induced systemic resistance via JA/ET and SA signalling pathways. B16 and B17 activated different but overlapping signalling pathways, and these compounds have the same chemical structure but subtle differences in stereo configuration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-2-pentanone is an excellent immune elicitor in plants. This compound is of great importance to the systemic resistance induced by HN09. Its threo-isomers (3R,4S) and (3S,4R) are much better than erythro-isomers (3R,4R) and (3S,4S). This process involves SA and JA/ET signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Bacillus subtilis/química , Pentanonas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença , Pentanonas/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Estereoisomerismo
20.
Ecol Indic ; 1072019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478008

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of plant species diversity and trait composition on aboveground biomass is a central focus of ecology and has important implications for biodiversity conservation. However, the simultaneous direct and indirect effects of soil nutrients, species asynchrony, functional trait diversity, and trait composition for explaining the community temporal stability of aboveground biomass remain underrepresented in natural forests. Here, we hypothesized that species asynchrony relative to soil nutrients, functional trait diversity, and trait composition plays a central role in stabilizing the community temporal stability of natural forests. We tested this hypothesis using a structural equation model based on 10-year continuous monitoring data (i.e., three-time repeated forest inventories) in both second-growth and old-growth temperate forests in northeast China. Our results showed that the community temporal stability of aboveground biomass was driven by a strong direct positive effect of species asynchrony in both second-growth and old-growth temperate forests, whereas functional trait diversity and composition (i.e. community-weighted mean of leaf nitrogen content) were of additional importance in an old-growth forest only. Functional trait diversity decreased community-weighted mean of leaf nitrogen content in an old-growth forest, whereas this relationship was non-significant in a second-growth forest. Soil nutrients had non-significant effects on the community temporal stability of both second-growth and old-growth forests. Species asynchrony was the direct determinant of the community temporal stability of aboveground biomass in temperate forests. The direct effect of species asynchrony increased with forest succession, implying that temporal niche differentiation and facilitation increase over time. This study suggests that managing forests with mixtures of both early and late successional species or shade intolerant and tolerant species, not only species diversity, is important for maintaining forest stability in a changing environment. We argue that the species asynchrony effect is crucial to understand the underlying ecological mechanisms for a diversity-biomass relationship in natural forests.

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