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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821610

RESUMO

Interfacial solar evaporation (ISE) is an environmentally friendly and promising water treatment strategy. However, the bactericidal performance of an ISE system during the evaporation process is usually ignored, which may result in potential water safety hazards. In this study, a facile method is presented for the controllable synthesis of Ag quantum dots (QDs)/rGO to simultaneously achieve efficient solar evaporation and evaporated water disinfection. The size of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) rather than the loading amount is the factor that considerably affects the solar evaporation efficiency and the bactericidal performance. Under 1 sun of irradiation (1 kW·m2), the evaporation rate and solar evaporation efficiency of Ag QDs/rGO are as high as 2.11 kg·m2·h-1 and 94.0%, respectively. Based on E. coli and S. aureus, the bactericidal activity of Ag QDs/rGO in the evaporation process is qualitatively and quantitatively characterized; no bacteria could be detected in the evaporated water. Furthermore, various water samples, including acidic water, alkaline water, dye water, and seawater, are selected to verify the solar evaporation performance of Ag QDs/rGO. When considering complex water samples, the as-prepared material maintains a high evaporation efficiency and an excellent purification effect, indicating attractive potential for various practical applications.

2.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835721

RESUMO

Titanium has been widely used in prosthetic valves, but they are associated with serious defects in titanium-based prosthetic valves, such as thrombosis, calcification, and decay. Therefore, it is very important to biofunctionalize titanium-based valves to reduce inflammation and accelerate endothelialization of stents and antithrombosis. The titanium dioxide nanotubes were prepared from pure titanium (Ti) by anodic oxidation method in this study. The effects of titanium dioxide nanotubes on the metabolism of macrophages and the inflammatory reaction as implants were studied in vitro. The polarization state of macrophages and the ability to accelerate endothelialization were analyzed. The results demonstrated that titanium nanotubes promote M2 polarization of macrophages by inhibiting glycolysis and activating the Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. In general, biofunctionalization titanium with nanotube could inhibit macrophage glycolysis, reduce inflammatory factor release and promote M2 polarization by activating the AMPK signaling pathway. And endothelialization was accelerated in vitro. Our result demonstrated that titanium nanotube could act as a potential approach to biofunctionlize titanium-based prosthetic valves for endothelialization.

3.
JCI Insight ; 6(7)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830083

RESUMO

Macrophage-mediated inflammatory response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Brd4 has emerged as a key regulator in the innate immune response. However, the role of Brd4 in obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance remains uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrated that myeloid lineage-specific Brd4 knockout (Brd4-CKO) mice were protected from high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) obesity with less fat accumulation, higher energy expenditure, and increased lipolysis in adipose tissue. Brd4-CKO mice fed a HFD also displayed reduced local and systemic inflammation with improved insulin sensitivity. RNA-Seq of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) from HFD-fed WT and Brd4-CKO mice revealed that expression of antilipolytic factor Gdf3 was significantly decreased in ATMs of Brd4-CKO mice. We also found that Brd4 bound to the promoter and enhancers of Gdf3 to facilitate PPARγ-dependent Gdf3 expression in macrophages. Furthermore, Brd4-mediated expression of Gdf3 acted as a paracrine signal targeting adipocytes to suppress the expression of lipases and the associated lipolysis in cultured cells and mice. Controlling the expression of Gdf3 in ATMs could be one of the mechanisms by which Brd4 modulates lipid metabolism and diet-induced obesity. This study suggests that Brd4 could be a potential therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal anticoagulant for end-stage renal disease patients for stroke prophylaxis is unknown. The efficacy and safety of warfarin in this population are debatable. In addition, real-world evidence of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with end-stage renal disease is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in Taiwanese patients with end-stage renal disease with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in a real-world setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective population-based cohort study conducted using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and end-stage renal disease who started on rivaroxaban or warfarin between February 2013 and September 2017 were eligible to participate in the study. The inverse probability of treatment weighting approach was used to balance baseline characteristics. Bleeding and thromboembolic outcomes were compared using competing risk analyses. The study population consisted of 3358 patients (173 and 3185 patients on rivaroxaban and warfarin, respectively). In the rivaroxaban group, 50.8%, 38.7%, and 10.4% of the patients received 10, 15, and 20 mg of the drug, respectively. The cumulative incidence of major bleeding was similar between the two groups; however, the gastrointestinal bleeding rate was lower in the rivaroxaban group (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR]: 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.91) than in the warfarin group. Furthermore, the composite risk of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism was significantly lower in the rivaroxaban group (adjusted SHR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.17-0.79). Similar findings were observed for patients who received 10 mg of rivaroxaban. CONCLUSIONS: In Taiwanese patients with end-stage renal disease and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, rivaroxaban may be associated with a similar risk of major bleeding but a lower risk of thromboembolism compared with warfarin. The potential benefit of 10 mg of rivaroxaban in this population requires further investigation.

5.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 55(2): 181-183, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847583

RESUMO

The posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) is the terminal branch of the radial nerve. The symptoms of PIN palsy vary markedly according to its types. In this report, we present the case of a 61-years-old male patient with an unusual manifestation of non-traumatic novel type of PIN palsy. A complicated course was involved in the diagnosis of this disease. The operation was performed after verification of PIN palsy. Recovery of symptoms was observed in a follow-up conducted three years later. Additionally, the electromyography examination returned to normal.

6.
J Biomech ; 121: 110417, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848828

RESUMO

A frog can jump several times higher than its own height and then land smoothly on the ground. During the buffering phase, both forelimbs touch the ground and compact quickly to absorb most of the impact energy. However, the adjustment of the joint angles of the forelimb and the induced cushioning effect during the landing process have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we statistically summarized the angular displacements of forelimb joints with respect to landing velocities by using a high-speed motion capture system. It is found many joint angles were linearly influenced by landing velocity at both ground touching moment and maximum compression moment. Moreover, the double-peak pattern of ground reactive force was measured, which attributes to the forelimb landing and the followed abdomen/hindlimb landing. Before the appearance of the first peak, the compression of the forelimb and the reactive force revealed a linear relationship regardless of velocity, implying that the forelimbs act as a constant stiffness spring in landing. Accordingly, a simple spring-mass model was proposed and verified by simulation for forelimb cushioning of the frog. We anticipate our achievements to inspire the design of future landing mechanisms.

7.
J Arthroplasty ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is an association between musculoskeletal health literacy with outcome and satisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at our tertiary center to include patients between one and six years postoperatively after primary TKA. Patients were provided a survey including basic demographics, validated musculoskeletal health literacy scale (Literacy in Musculoskeletal Problems), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and TKA satisfaction (whether they would choose to undergo the same operation again). Patients were categorized as either low or normal health literacy based on number of questions (cutoff 6 out of 9) answered correctly on the Literacy in Musculoskeletal Problems. Statistical analysis included multivariate regression with significance at P < .05. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-three individuals fully completed the survey of eligible participants. Two hundred ninety-six individuals (65.3%) had normal health literacy, and one hundred fifty-seven individuals (34.7%) had low health literacy. Average WOMAC (/96) was 18.0 ± 19.7 in the low and 12.1 ± 15.4 in the normal health literacy groups. Patients with low health literacy had significantly higher WOMAC (worse function) than those with normal health literacy (P = .001). Patients with normal musculoskeletal health literacy were significantly more likely to undergo the same operation again (P = .01, odds ratio 2.163). CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients with low musculoskeletal health literacy have worse outcome scores and are less likely to be satisfied with their TKA. By identifying these patients preoperatively, emphasis can be placed on enhancing procedure expectations and understanding to improve outcome measures and overall satisfaction.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 119903, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798391

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.031102.

9.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804703

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been suggested as an important factor in the progress of sarcopenia. The current treatments for sarcopenia have the disadvantages of insufficient effect or daily administration. Therefore, an alternative for effective, safety and long-term treatment may be a solution for unmet needs. Bletilla striata polysaccharide has been reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we used Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) combined with hydroxyapatite, a carrier. We hypothesized that the resulting combination (BSP-HAP) is a good formula for the controlled release of BSP via intramuscular (IM) administration, so as to prevent the worsening of presarcopenia or even recover from the early stage of the illness. In this research, BSP-HAP was synthesized by a modified low temperature co-precipitation process that would be beneficial for BSP loading. By conducting DCFDA, WST-1 and the Live/Dead assay, BSP-HAP is shown to be a biocompatible material which may release BSP by cells through the endocytosis pathway. Animal studies revealed that the rats treated with BSP-HAP could effectively recover muscle endurance, grip strength or fat/lean mass ratio from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sarcopenia. This study shows BSP delivered by BSP-HAP system has potential for application in the treatment and prevention of sarcopenia in the future.

10.
Zootaxa ; 4941(2): zootaxa.4941.2.7, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756943

RESUMO

Altigena laticeps, previously considered a junior synonym of A. lippa, is revalidated and re-described based on morphological examinations of type and non-type material. This species, found in the Upper Mekong River basin in China, can be distinguished from A. lippa based on higher numbers of lateral-line scales (40-42 vs. 34-39), predorsal scales (14-16 vs. 9-12), and circumpeduncular scales (20 vs. 16). Altigena lippa, from the Lower Mekong River basin in Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam is also re-described. Four species of Altigena are herein recognized in the Mekong River basin: A. elegans, A. laticeps, A. lippa, and A. yunnanensis.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Rios , Animais
11.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations among subjective memory reports, psychophysiological markers of emotion regulation, and cognitive performance in healthy adults over 50 years of age. METHOD: A cross-sectional laboratory study was conducted with healthy, community-dwelling, non-depressed adults (M age = 60.4 years, SD = 8.4). The Metamemory in Adulthood (MIA) questionnaire provided reports of subjective memory capacity and stability (versus decline) and anxiety about memory. Poorer emotion regulation was marked by greater negative affect (NA) and lower high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) responses to a challenging working memory task. Regression models were used to identify associations between subjective memory and emotion regulation markers, and structural equation modeling was used to explore whether emotion regulation mediated associations between subjective memory and objective task performance. RESULTS: A total of 115 participants were included in the final sample. Subjective memory decline (indicated by lower scores on memory stability) was associated with lower HF-HRV response and worse working memory performance. Poorer subjective memory capacity and more anxiety about memory were both associated with greater negative affect in response to the working memory task. There was an indirect effect of subjective memory capacity on working memory performance through negative affect response. CONCLUSIONS: The findings here suggest that worse subjective memory may signal reduced capacity for emotion regulation. Along with known cognitive risks of depression and anxiety, more subtle emotion regulation difficulties may be involved in pathways of poor cognitive aging.

12.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749847

RESUMO

Drought stress in plants causes differential expression of numerous genes. One of these differentially expressed genes in rice is a specific amidohydrolase. We characterized this amidohydrolase gene on the rice chromosome 12 as the first plant guanine deaminase (OsGDA1). The biochemical activity of GDA is known from tea and coffee plants where its catalytic product, xanthine, is the precursor for theine and caffeine. However, no plant gene that is coding for GDA is known so far. Recombinant OsGDA1 converted guanine to xanthine in vitro. Measurement of guanine and xanthine contents in the OsGDA1 knockout (KO) line and in the wild type Tainung 67 rice plants also suggested GDA activity in vivo. The content of cellular xanthine is important because of its catabolic products allantoin, ureides, and urea which play roles in water and nitrogen stress tolerance among others. The identification of OsGDA1 fills a critical gap in the S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) to xanthine pathway. SAM is converted to S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) and finally to xanthine. SAH is a potent inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, the reduction of which leads to increased DNA methylation and gene silencing in Arabidopsis. We report that the OsGDA1 KO line exhibited a decrease in SAM, SAH and adenosine and an increase in rice genome methylation. The OsGDA1 protein phylogeny combined with mutational protein destabilization analysis suggested artificial selection for null mutants, which could affect genome methylation as in the KO line. Limited information on genes that may affect epigenetics indirectly requires deeper insights into such a role and effect of purine catabolism and related genetic networks.

13.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the 3D asymmetry of the maxilla in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCP) and investigate the defect factors responsible for the variability of the maxilla on the cleft side using a deep-learning-based CBCT image segmentation protocol. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 60 patients with UCP were acquired. The samples in this study consisted of 39 males and 21 females, with a mean age of 11.52 years (SD = 3.27 years; range of 8-18 years). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The deep-learning-based protocol was used to segment the maxilla and defect initially, followed by manual refinement. Paired t-tests were performed to characterize the maxillary asymmetry. A multiple linear regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between the defect parameters and those of the cleft side of the maxilla. RESULTS: The cleft side of the maxilla demonstrated a significant decrease in maxillary volume and length as well as alveolar length, anterior width, posterior width, anterior height and posterior height. A significant increase in maxillary anterior width was demonstrated on the cleft side of the maxilla. There was a close relationship between the defect parameters and those of the cleft side of the maxilla. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the 3D volumetric segmentations, significant hypoplasia of the maxilla on the cleft side existed in the pyriform aperture and alveolar crest area near the defect. The defect structures appeared to contribute to the variability of the maxilla on the cleft side.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6505, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753818

RESUMO

The effects of nighttime warming and rainfall increasing on crop productivity and soil greenhouse gas emissions are few studied. This study was conducted with a field experiment to investigate the effects of nighttime warming, rainfall increasing and their interaction on wheat grain yield, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during a winter wheat growing season in the North China Plain (NCP). The results showed that nighttime warming and rainfall increasing significantly altered soil temperature and moisture, and thus the CH4 and N2O emissions from the soil. Nighttime warming significantly promoted soil CH4 uptake by 21.2% and increased soil N2O emissions by 22.4%. Rainfall increasing stimulated soil N2O emissions by 15.7% but decreased soil CH4 uptake by 18.6%. Nighttime warming significantly decreased wheat yield by 5.5%, while rainfall increasing enhanced wheat yield by 4.0%. The results indicate that the positive effect of nighttime warming on CH4 uptake and negative effect on wheat yield can be offset by rainfall increasing in the NCP. Generally, rainfall increasing significantly raised the global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity induced by CH4 and N2O emissions. Overall, this study improves our understanding of agroecosystem C and N cycling in response to nighttime warming and rainfall increasing under future climate change.

16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117832, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712170

RESUMO

Vagina atrophy is a common symptom in women after menopause owing to decreasing estrogen levels. The most conventional treatment for this condition is estrogen cream. The shortcoming is its weak adhesion to the vagina mucus, thus requiring frequent daily application. In this study, BDDE was selected to crosslink and graft chitosan with thioglycolic acid, to form thiolated chitosan (CT) and improve the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan. Genistein was selected as the bioactive molecule that could exhibit estrogen-like properties for long-term treatment of vaginal atrophy. The efficacies of the materials were characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that the mucoadhesive property of CT was approximately two-fold stronger against the constant flow than unmodified chitosan. CT with genistein (CT-G) was administered intravaginally every three days in vivo. It showed that the developed CT-G recover 54 % of the epithelium thickness of an atrophic vagina and ease vaginal atrophy.


Assuntos
Vaginite Atrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Quitosana/química , Genisteína/uso terapêutico , Hidrogéis/química , Tioglicolatos/química , Animais , Vaginite Atrófica/patologia , Células CACO-2 , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Feminino , Genisteína/química , Genisteína/metabolismo , Genisteína/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vagina/patologia
17.
Life Sci ; 274: 119249, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has reported the role of microRNA (miR) on atherosclerosis (AS), while it is unclear about the relationship between microRNA-125b-5p (miR-125b-5p) and AS. Thus, the object of this study was to investigate the impact of exosomal miR-125b-5p targeting mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4 (Map4k4) on AS plaque formation. METHODS: The AS model was established using a high fat diet in ApoE-/- mice. Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were selected and BMSC-exosomes (BMSC-EXO) were extracted and then identified. The targeted relationship between miR-125b-5p and Map4k4 was tested. BMSC-EXO were modified with miR-125b-5p- and Map4k4-related sequences to interfere with AS mice. MiR-125b-5p and Map4k4 expression in AS tissues were tested. The inflammation-related indices, blood lipid, plaque area, apoptosis index, MMP-9 and α-SMA expression in mice with AS were measured. RESULTS: BMSCs and BMSC-EXO were successfully isolated. MiR-125b-5p was down-regulated and Map4k4 was up-regulated in aorta tissues from ApoE-/- mice after AS modeling, verses those from C57BL/6 mice without modeling. MiR-125b-5p targeted Map4k4. BMSC-EXO increased miR-125b-5p expression and decreased Map4k4 expression. BMSC-EXO/up-regulated miR-125b-5p and down-regulated Map4k4 in exosomes decreased inflammatory reaction, blood lipid, plaque area, MMP-9 expression and increased α-SMA expression, as well as inhibited apoptosis index of AS mice. CONCLUSION: Functional studies revealed that exosomal miR-125b-5p from BMSCs suppresses atherosclerotic plaque formation via inhibiting Map4k4 expression.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Placa Aterosclerótica/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Exossomos/genética , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Placa Aterosclerótica/etiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia
18.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104871, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652076

RESUMO

A rare sesquiterpenoid possessing a 6/6 bicyclic system fused with two clustered furan units and a pair of guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids were acquired from the roots of Chloranthus henryi. Their structures with absolute configurations were characterized with spectroscopic data, ECD, and X-ray diffraction analysis. All three sesquiterpenoids showed moderate neuroprotective activities on PC12 cells damaged with hydrogen peroxide.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652096

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Collaborative Care Model improves care processes and outcomes but has never been tested for palliative care. OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a model of collaborative oncology palliative care for Stage IV cancer. METHODS: We conducted a pre-post evaluation of Collaborative Oncology Palliative Care (CO-Pal), enrolling patients with Stage IV lung, breast or genitourinary cancers and acute illness hospitalization. CO-Pal has 4 components: 1) oncologist communication skills training; 2) patient tracking; 3) palliative care needs assessment; and 4) care coordination stratified by high vs. low palliative care need. Health record reviews from hospital admission through 60 days provided data on outcomes - goals-of-care discussions (primary outcome), advance care planning, symptom treatment, specialty palliative care and hospice use, and hospital transfers. RESULTS: We enrolled 256 patients (n = 114 pre and n = 142 post-intervention); 60-day mortality was 32%. Comparing patients pre vs post-intervention, CO-Pal did not increase overall goals-of-care discussions, but did increase advance care planning (48% vs 63%, P = 0.021) and hospice use (19% vs 31%, P = 0.034). CO-Pal did not impact symptom treatment, overall treatment plans, or 60-day hospital transfers. During the intervention phase, high-need vs low-need patients had more goals-of-care discussions (60% vs. 15%, P < 0.001) and more use of specialty palliative care (64% vs 22%, P < 0.001) and hospice (44% vs 16%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Collaborative oncology palliative care is efficient and feasible. While it did not increase overall goals-of-care discussions, it was effective to increase overall advance care planning and hospice use for patients with Stage IV cancer.

20.
Genome Biol Evol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713106

RESUMO

Genes duplicated by whole genome duplication (WGD) and small-scale duplication (SSD) have played important roles in adaptive evolution of all flowering plants. However, it still remains under-investigated how the distinct models of duplication events and their contending evolutionary patterns have shaped the genome and epigenomes of extant plant species. In this study, we investigated the contribution of the WGD- and SSD-derived duplicate genes to the genome evolution of one diploid and three closely related allotetraploid Panax species based on genome, methylome and proteome datasets. Our genome-wide comparative analyses revealed that while the ginseng species complex were recently diverged, they have evolved distinct overall patterns of nucleotide variation, cytosine methylation and protein-level expression. In particular, genetic and epigenetic asymmetries observed in the recent WGD-derived genes are largely consistent across the ginseng species complex. In addition, our results revealed that gene duplicates generated by ancient WGD and SSD mechanisms exhibited distinct evolutionary patterns. We found the ancient WGD-derived genes (i.e., ancient collinear gene) are genetically more conserved and hypo-methylated at the cytosine sites. In contrast, some of the SSD-derived genes (i.e., dispersal duplicated gene) showed hyper-methylation and high variance in nucleotide variation pattern. Functional enrichment analyses of the duplicated genes indicated that adaptation-related traits (i.e., photosynthesis) created during the distant ancient WGDs are further strengthened by both the more recent WGD and SSD. Together, our findings suggest that different types of duplicated genes may have played distinct but relaying evolutionary roles in the polyploidization and speciation processes in the ginseng species complex.

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