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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 278: 118976, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973790

RESUMO

Injectable systems receive attention in endodontics due to the complicated and irregular anatomical structure of root canals. Here, injectable Tideglusib (Td)-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogels (HAH) incorporated with Rg1-loaded chitosan microspheres (CSM) were developed for vital pulp regeneration, providing release of Td and Rg1 to trigger odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) by Td and vascularization of pulp by Rg1. The optimal concentrations were determined as 90 nM and 50 µg/mL for Td and Rg1, and loaded in HA and CSM in HAH, respectively. Odontogenic (COL1A1, ALP, OCN, Axin-2, DSPP, and DMP1) and angiogenic (VEGFA, VEGFR2, and eNOS) differentiation of DPSC cultured in the presence of hydrogels was shown at gene expression level. Our results suggest that our injectable hydrogel formulation has potential to improve strategies for vital pulp regeneration. In vivo evaluations are needed to test the feasibility and potential of these hydrogels for vital pulp regeneration.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884565

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia. In this study, a polysaccharide from Bletilla striata (BSP), with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, was extracted using a low-temperature method and tested for its efficacy against AD, in vitro using N2a and BV-2 cells, and in vivo using an AD rat model. The characterization of the extracted BSP for its molecular structure and functional groups demonstrated the effectiveness of the modified method for retaining its bioactivity. In vitro, BSP reduced by 20% reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in N2a cells (p = 0.0082) and the expression levels of inflammation-related genes by 3-fold TNF-α (p = 0.0048), 4-fold IL-6 (p = 0.0019), and 2.5-fold IL-10 (p = 0.0212) in BV-2 cells treated with Aß fibrils. In vivo, BSP recovered learning memory, ameliorated morphological damage in the hippocampus and cortex, and reduced the expression of the ß-secretase protein in AlCl3-induced AD rats. Collectively, these findings demonstrated the efficacy of BSP for preventing and alleviating the effects of AD.

3.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 765630, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869278

RESUMO

Body sculpture is a common method to remove excessive fat. The diet and exercise are the first suggestion to keep body shape; however, those are difficult to keep adherence. Ultrasound has been developed for fat ablation; however, it could only serve as the side treatment along with liposuction. In the study, a sonosensitizer of europium-doped calcium carbonate (CaCO3: Eu) would be synthesized by an eco-method and combined with low-intensity ultrasound for lipolysis. The crystal structure of CaCO3: Eu was identified by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The morphology of CaCO3: Eu was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The chemical composition of CaCO3: Eu was evaluated by energy-dispersed spectrophotometer (EDS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The electronic diffraction pattern was to further check crystal structure of the synthesized individual grain by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size was determined by Zeta-sizer. Water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) were used to evaluate the cell viability. Chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) and live/dead stain were used to evaluate feasibility in vitro. SD-rat was used to evaluate the safety and efficacy in vivo. The results showed that CaCO3: Eu had good biocompatibility and could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) after treated with low-intensity ultrasound. After 4-weeks, the CaCO3: Eu exposed to ultrasound irradiation on SD rats could significantly decrease body weight, waistline, and subcutaneous adipose tissue. We believe that ROS from sonoluminescence, CO2-bomb and locally increasing Ca2+ level would be three major mechanisms to remove away adipo-tissue and inhibit adipogenesis. We could say that the combination of the CaCO3: Eu and low-intensity ultrasound would be a non-invasive treatment for the body sculpture.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871495

RESUMO

Excess nutrient uptake is one of the main factors of complications related to metabolism disorders. Therefore, efforts have emerged to modulate nutrient transport in the intestine. However, current approaches are mainly invasive interventions with various side effects. Here, a pH-responsive hydrogel is formulated by acidifying the hydroxide compounds within sucralfate to allow electrostatic interactions between pectin and aluminum ions. The pH responsiveness relies on the alternation of cations and hydroxide species, providing reversible shifting from a hydrogel to a complex coacervate system. It acts as a transient physical barrier coating to inhibit intestinal absorption and changes the viscosity and barrier function in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, showing enhanced mucoadhesive properties. The therapeutic hydrogel remarkably lowers the immediate blood glucose response by modulating nutrient contact with bowel mucosa, suggesting potential in treating diabetes. In addition, it significantly reduces weight gain, fat accumulation, and hepatic lipid deposition in rodent models. This study provides a novel strategy for fabricating pH-responsive hydrogels, which may serve as a competent candidate for metabolism disorder management.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959957

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation harmful to one's health, linked to hormonal imbalances, cardiovascular illness, and coronary artery disease. Since the disease stems mainly from overconsumption, studies have aimed to control intestinal absorption as a route for treatment. In this study, chitosan-thioglycolic acid (CT) was developed as a physical barrier in the gastrointestinal tracts to inhibit nutrient uptake. CT exhibits a superior mucoadhesive property compared to chitosan both in vitro and in vivo for the ability to form disulfide bonds with the intestinal mucosa. For CT as a potential drug delivery platform, hesperidin, a herb for bodyweight control in traditional Chinese medication, is encapsulated in CT and can be released consistently from this absorption barrier. In animal studies, CT encapsulated with hesperidin (CTH) not only results in a weight-controlling effect but limits adipose accumulation by hindering absorption, suggesting a potential role in obesity treatment. Neither CT nor CTH exhibit cytotoxicity or produce adverse immunological reactions in vivo.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hesperidina , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Tioglicolatos/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quitosana/metabolismo , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tioglicolatos/metabolismo , Tioglicolatos/uso terapêutico
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830254

RESUMO

Healing of ruptured tendons remains a clinical challenge because of its slow progress and relatively weak mechanical force at an early stage. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic potential for tissue regeneration. In this study, we isolated EVs from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and evaluated their ability to promote tendon regeneration. Our results indicated that ADSC-EVs significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of tenocytes in vitro. To further study the roles of ADSC-EVs in tendon regeneration, ADSC-EVs were used in Achilles tendon repair in rabbits. The mechanical strength, histology, and protein expression in the injured tendon tissues significantly improved 4 weeks after ADSC-EV treatment. Decorin and biglycan were significantly upregulated in comparison to the untreated controls. In summary, ADSC-EVs stimulated the proliferation and migration of tenocytes and improved the mechanical strength of repaired tendons, suggesting that ADSC-EV treatment is a potential highly potent therapeutic strategy for tendon injuries.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577930

RESUMO

Here, we aimed to investigate the safety and preliminary efficacy of Kartigen®, a matrix with autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived chondrocyte precursors embedded in atelocollagen. As a surgical graft, Kartigen® was implanted onto the cartilage defects at the weight-bearing site of the medial femoral condyle of the knee. Fifteen patients were enrolled and stratified into two groups, undergoing either Kartigen® implantation (n = 10) or microfracture (control group, n = 5). The primary endpoint was to evaluate the safety of Kartigen® by monitoring the occurrence of adverse events through physician queries, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and radiological analyses for 2 years. There were no infections, inflammations, adhesions, loose body, or tumor formations in the Kartigen®-implanted knees. The preliminary efficacy was assessed using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, visual analog scale, and second-look arthroscopy. The postoperative IKDC scores of the Kartigen® group significantly improved in the 16th week (IKDC = 62.1 ± 12.8, p = 0.025), kept increasing in the first year (IKDC = 78.2 ± 15.4, p < 0.005), and remained satisfactory in the second year (IKDC = 73.6 ± 13.8, p < 0.005), compared to the preoperative condition (IKDC = 47.1 ± 17.0), while the postoperative IKDC scores of the control group also achieved significant improvement in the 28th week (IKDC = 68.5 ± 6.1, p = 0.032) versus preoperative state (IKDC = 54.0 ± 9.1). However, the IKDC scores decreased in the first year (IKDC = 63.5 ± 11.6) as well as in the second year (IKDC = 52.6 ± 16.4). Thirteen patients underwent second-look arthroscopy and biopsy one year after the operation. The Kartigen® group exhibited integration between Kartigen® and host tissue with a smooth appearance at the recipient site, whereas the microfracture group showed fibrillated surfaces. The histological and immunohistochemical analyses of biopsy specimens demonstrated the columnar structure of articular cartilage and existence of collagen type II and glycosaminoglycan mimic hyaline cartilage. This study indicates that Kartigen® is safe and effective in treating cartilage defects.

8.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357232

RESUMO

Bone defects of orthopedic trauma remain a challenge in clinical practice. Regarding bone void fillers, besides the well-known osteoconductivity of most bone substitutes, osteoinductivity has also been gaining attention in recent years. It is known that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) can recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in certain circumstances, which may also play an important role in bone regeneration. In this study, we fabricated a gelatin/hyaluronate (Gel/HA) copolymer mixed with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and SDF-1 to try and enhance bone regeneration in a bone defect model. After material characterization, these Gel/HA-HAP and Gel/HA-HAP-SDF-1 composites were tested for their biocompatibility and ability to recruit MSCs in vitro. A femoral condyle bone defect model of rats was used for in vivo studies. For the assessment of bone healing, micro-CT analysis, second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging, and histology studies were performed. As a result, the Gel/HA-HAP composites showed no systemic toxicity to rats. Gel/HA-HAP composite groups both showed better bone generation compared with the control group in an animal study, and the composite with the SDF-1 group even showed a trend of faster bone growth compared with the composite without SDF-1 group. In conclusion, in the management of traumatic bone defects, Gel/HA-HAP-SDF-1 composites can be a feasible material for use as bone void fillers.

9.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442998

RESUMO

(1) Background: Obesity is one of the most widespread chronic diseases and increases the risk of several other chronic diseases, especially type 2 diabetes. (2) Methods: Endobarrier is a new medical device what is worn in the small intestines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, given the invasive and other adverse effects of the Endobarrier, we propose the use of RGD peptide conjugated with chitosan (RC) as an alternative. (3) Results: The FTIR and NMR spectrum showed RGD peptide was successfully conjugated on chitosan and RGD-CT is retained in the small intestine even after digestion. In vitro of wst-1 and live and dead staining studies show that the RGD-CT gel is highly biocompatible and non-toxic. Rats treated with the RGD-CT gel for a short term showed significant decrease change more than 30% in body weight, while the blood and hematic biometrics were within normal values. (4) Conclusions: The RGD-CT gel is safe, suitable for the short-term, reducing visceral fat rate health food to control weight. In the future, it is expected to develop a safe, long-term effective, flexibility of use and low-side-effect anti-obesity therapy in the era of precision medicine by further modification.

10.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202002

RESUMO

We demonstrated the safety and efficacy of autologous chondrocyte precursor (CP) cell therapy in repairing Grade 4 cartilage defects of medial femoral condyles. The autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of each participant were isolated, amplified, and then differentiated into CPs in atelocollagen. Neotissues made of CPs were implanted into cartilage defects with an average cell density of 4.9 ± 2.1 × 106 cells/cm2 through arthrotomy. The knee function was evaluated with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form. Patients' knee functions significantly improved by the 28th week (IKDC score = 68.3 ± 12.1), relative to the initial functionality before the CP therapy (IKDC score = 46.1 ± 16.4, p-value = 0.0014). Nine of these twelve patients maintained good knee functions for 9 years post-implantation (IKDC score = 69.8 ± 12.3) at levels higher than the pre-implantation values (p-value = 0.0018). Patients were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy, and the defective sites exhibited a smooth surface without a gap between the implant and host tissue. This study demonstrates that autologous CPs successfully engraft into the host tissue and result in the re-formation of hyaline-like cartilage, thereby improving the impaired knee functions. Most importantly, no adverse event was reported during this long-term follow-up period.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Condrócitos/transplante , Colágeno/administração & dosagem , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cartilagem Articular/cirurgia , Condrócitos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202556

RESUMO

Most rotator cuff (RC) tears occur at the bone-tendon interface and cause disability and pain. Farnesol, a sesquiterpene compound, can exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and promote collagen synthesis. In this rabbit model, either commercial SurgiWrap membrane or hydrogel membranes containing various compositions of gellan gum, hyaluronic acid, and farnesol (hereafter GHF membranes) were applied to the tear site, and the repair of the cuff was examined 2 and 3 weeks afterward. The designed membranes swelled rapidly and adsorbed onto the tear site more readily and closely than the SurgiWrap membrane. The membranes degraded slowly and functioned as both a barrier and a vehicle of slow farnesol release during the repair period. Farnesol enhanced collagen production in myoblasts and tenocytes, and interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α levels were modulated. Gross observations and histological examinations indicated that the GHF membranes impregnated with 4 mM farnesol resulted in superior RC repair. In sum, the slow release of farnesol from hydrogel membranes can be beneficial in the repair of RC injuries.

12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209540

RESUMO

The application of antifibrotic materials can alleviate epidural fibrosis by restricting excessive fibroblast proliferation and mitigating scar tissue formation. Here, a biodegradable carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP)-resveratrol (RES) sponge was fabricated to inhibit scar tissue formation post laminectomy surgery. Fibroblasts NIH/3T3, myoblasts C2C12, neural cells PC-12, and Schwann cells RSC96 were used to evaluate the in vitro cytocompatibility. Laminectomies on 10 Sprague-Dawley rats with/without the application of the CMC-BSP-RES sponge were performed. The severity of adhesion between the dura mater and formed scar tissue was qualitatively scored. All cell lines exhibited good viability with no significant difference in cytotoxicity when cultured with variable extractions of the CMC-BSP-RES sponge. S100a4 and P4hb expressions were downregulated in NIH/3T3 cultured in the CMC-BSP-RES sponge, implying that this sponge potentially inhibits fibroblast activity. No post-operative shrinkage or dura mater expansion along the surgical site was detected. The peel-off tests revealed that the tenacity of adhesion de-creased. Histopathological examinations verified that the average number of fibroblasts in the CMC-BSP-RES group considerably decreased. The CMC-BSP-RES sponge is a biocompatible and effective material for alleviating post-operative epidural fibrosis and mitigating fibroblast expression following laminectomy.

13.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971745

RESUMO

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has gradually evolved as a promising therapeutic strategy to the modern health care of aging and diseased population. In this study, we developed a novel nanofibrous scaffold and verified its application in the critical bone defect regeneration. The metformin-incorporated nano-gelatin/hydroxyapatite fibers (NGF) was produced by electrospinning, cross-linked, and then characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and quantitative osteogenic gene and protein expression were analyzed by bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) from rat. Rat forearm critical bone defect model was performed for the in vivo study. The NGF were characterized by their porous structures with proper interconnectivity without significant cytotoxic effects; the adhesion of BMSCs on the NGF could be enhanced. The osteogenic gene and protein expression were upregulated. Postimplantation, the new regenerated bone in bone defect was well demonstrated in the NGF samples. We demonstrated that the metformin-incorporated NGF greatly improved healing potential on the critical-size bone defect. Although metformin-incorporated NGF had advantageous effectiveness during bone regeneration, further validation is required before it can be applied to clinical applications. Impact statement Bone is the structure that supports the rest of the human body. Critical-size bone defect hinders the regeneration of damaged bone tissues and compromises the mechanical strength of the skeletal system. Characterized by their porous structures with proper interconnectivity, the electrospinning nano-gelatin/hydroxyapatite fibrous scaffold developed in this study can greatly improve the healing potential on the critical-size bone defect. Further validation can validate its potential clinical applications.

14.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804703

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been suggested as an important factor in the progress of sarcopenia. The current treatments for sarcopenia have the disadvantages of insufficient effect or daily administration. Therefore, an alternative for effective, safety and long-term treatment may be a solution for unmet needs. Bletilla striata polysaccharide has been reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we used Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) combined with hydroxyapatite, a carrier. We hypothesized that the resulting combination (BSP-HAP) is a good formula for the controlled release of BSP via intramuscular (IM) administration, so as to prevent the worsening of presarcopenia or even recover from the early stage of the illness. In this research, BSP-HAP was synthesized by a modified low temperature co-precipitation process that would be beneficial for BSP loading. By conducting DCFDA, WST-1 and the Live/Dead assay, BSP-HAP is shown to be a biocompatible material which may release BSP by cells through the endocytosis pathway. Animal studies revealed that the rats treated with BSP-HAP could effectively recover muscle endurance, grip strength or fat/lean mass ratio from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sarcopenia. This study shows BSP delivered by BSP-HAP system has potential for application in the treatment and prevention of sarcopenia in the future.

15.
Bioact Mater ; 6(10): 3528-3540, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842739

RESUMO

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can stimulate the proliferation of stem cells and have a positive effect on tissue repair. Although many commercialized PRP preparation kits are already on the market, first-line clinical workers are still not satisfied with most of the PRP kits. The work of commercial PRP kits is based on the density of blood elements. However, the blood elements are very close in density which makes the separation challenging. Therefore, the mentioned commercialized kits are generally contaminated by leucocytes and erythrocyte. In this study, a home-designed PRP device was developed to use a separation membrane with adequate cut-off pore size of 5 µm, 3 µm and 2 µm for the groups of H5M, H3M, and H2M, respectively, to be placed in the middle of the centrifuge tube. The home-designed H2M showed a very promising results regardless of the final volume (1.82 ± 0.09 ml), platelet yield (8.39 ± 0.44%), Red Blood Cells (0%), White Blood Cells (0%), and Relative Concentration of Platelet Increment value (225.09%). Further, it showed a good result in cell viability and cytotoxicity and confirmed a good multilineage potentials. The concentration in PRP prepared by group H2M was relatively stable and far above average. All the fibrin fibers were linked together as bridging strands or strings and turned into an inter-connected porous structure for nutrients transportation and regenerative cell migration. We believe that the home-designed group H2M should have a great potential to develop into the final product to meet the requirements of first-line clinical workers.

16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923718

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and later-induced chronic inflammation have been reported to play an important role on the progression of sarcopenia. Current treatments for sarcopenia are mainly administered to patients whom sarcopenia already developed. However, there has been no promising results shown in therapy. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against sarcopenia would be necessary. Curcumin is a traditional medicine that possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. In the present study, hydroxyapatite was subjected to hydrophobic surface modifications for curcumin loading (Cur-SHAP). It was, subsequently, utilized for delivery to the patient's body via intramuscular injection in order to achieve constant release for more than 2 weeks, preventing the progression of the sarcopenia or even leading to recovery from the early stage of the illness. According to the results of WST-1, LIVE/DEAD, DCFDA, and gene expression assays, Cur-SHAP exhibited good biocompatibility and showed great antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects through the endocytic pathway. The results of the animal studies showed that the muscle endurance, grip strength, and fat/lean mass ratio were all improved in Cur-SHAP-treated rats from LPS-induced sarcopenia. In summary, we successfully synthesized hydrophobic surface modification hydroxyapatite for curcumin loading (Cur-SHAP) and drug delivery via the IM route. The LPS-induced sarcopenia rats were able to recover from disease after the Cur-SHAP treatment.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916642

RESUMO

The available tooth whitening products in the market contain high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an active ingredient. Therefore, in order to curb the high H2O2 concentration and instability of liquid H2O2, this study evaluated the efficacy and cytotoxicity of the bleaching gel composed of 10% calcium peroxide (CaO2) and visible-light-activating nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) with methyl cellulose as a thickener. Extracted bovine teeth were discolored using coffee and black tea stain solution and were divided into two groups (n = 6). Bleaching was performed thrice on each tooth specimen in both the groups, with one minute of visible light irradiation during each bleaching time. The CIELAB L*a*b* values were measured pre- and post-bleaching. The N-TiO2 calcinated at 350 °C demonstrated a shift towards the visible light region by narrowing the band gap energy from 3.23 eV to 2.85 eV. The brightness (ΔL) and color difference (ΔE) increased as bleaching progressed each time in both the groups. ANOVA results showed that the number of bleaching significantly affected ΔE (p < 0.05). The formulated bleaching gel exhibits good biocompatibility and non-toxicity upon exposure to 3T3 cells. Our findings showed that CaO2-based bleaching gel at neutral pH could be a stable, safe, and effective substitute for tooth whitening products currently available in the market.


Assuntos
Luz , Metilcelulose , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Peróxidos , Titânio , Clareamento Dental , Células 3T3 , Animais , Bovinos , Metilcelulose/química , Metilcelulose/farmacologia , Camundongos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Peróxidos/química , Peróxidos/farmacologia , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117832, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712170

RESUMO

Vagina atrophy is a common symptom in women after menopause owing to decreasing estrogen levels. The most conventional treatment for this condition is estrogen cream. The shortcoming is its weak adhesion to the vagina mucus, thus requiring frequent daily application. In this study, BDDE was selected to crosslink and graft chitosan with thioglycolic acid, to form thiolated chitosan (CT) and improve the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan. Genistein was selected as the bioactive molecule that could exhibit estrogen-like properties for long-term treatment of vaginal atrophy. The efficacies of the materials were characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that the mucoadhesive property of CT was approximately two-fold stronger against the constant flow than unmodified chitosan. CT with genistein (CT-G) was administered intravaginally every three days in vivo. It showed that the developed CT-G recover 54 % of the epithelium thickness of an atrophic vagina and ease vaginal atrophy.


Assuntos
Vaginite Atrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Quitosana/química , Genisteína/uso terapêutico , Hidrogéis/química , Tioglicolatos/química , Animais , Vaginite Atrófica/patologia , Células CACO-2 , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Feminino , Genisteína/química , Genisteína/metabolismo , Genisteína/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vagina/patologia
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 572690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776904

RESUMO

The global obesity population is increasing year-by-year, and the related cost is sharply increasing annually. There are several methods available to combat obesity; however, there is a lack of a single tool that is both safe and efficacious. The use of Clenbuterol in bodybuilding and by professional athletes is controversial owing to its side effects, including hepatotoxicity. This study administered Clenbuterol at a much lower dose than the established safety level, and rather than through oral administration, the treatments were delivered through controlled-release intra-adipose injection. The different dosing and mode of administration will lower the risk of side effects, increase the safety profile, and could facilitate use in the anti-obesity market. A thermo-sensitive hydrogel was used as the carrier uploaded with Clenbuterol to achieve controlled-release. In the in vitro study, the developed new formulae were not cytotoxic to 3T3-L1 cells and could inhibit lipogenesis effectively. In the animal study, the mice were fed a high-fat diet and treated with Clenbuterol by oral administration, or injected with Clenbuterol-modified hyaluronate hydrogel (HAC) regularly. Both groups showed reduction in whole-body, visceral, and gonadal fat contents and body weight. The abdominal fat was analyzed using MRI imaging in adipose mode and water mode. The abdominal fat ratio in the mice treated with normal diet and those given intra-adipose injections with HAC had the lowest value among the test groups. The mice treated with high-fat diet (HFD) showed the highest value of 53.78%. The chronic toxicity in-vivo test proved that controlled-release injections of 2-10 µg Clenbuterol daily were safe, as demonstrated in the blood elements and serological analyses. This study developed a new and promising method for anti-obesity treatment, using a monthly intra-adipose controlled-release injection of HAC. The developed new formulae of Clenbuterol not only effectively decreased body weight and body fat content but also inhibited lipogenesis on the harvested visceral tissue and reduced adipose tissue around the gonadal fat area. The side effects induced by traditional oral administration of Clenbuterol were not observed in this research; this has excellent potential to be a useful tool for future obesity treatment without safety concerns.

20.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525449

RESUMO

Implant-related infection may be catastrophic and result in poor functional outcome, chronic osteomyelitis, implant failure or even sepsis and death. Based on a transglutaminase (TGase) cross-linked/antibiotics-encapsulated gelatin-alginate hydrogel, the main aim of this study is to establish an effective antibiotic slow-release system. The second aim is to evaluate the efficacy of a hydrogel-encapsulated antibiotic-containing titanium pin in preventing implant-related infections in a rat model. The prepared gelatin/alginate/gentamicin or vancomycin hydrogel was covalently cross-linked with transglutaminase (TGase). Its drug release profile and cytotoxicity were determined and the Wistar rat animal model was performed to validate its efficacy by radiographic examination, Micro-CT (computed tomography) evaluation and histo-morphological analysis at 12 weeks after surgery. When gelatin and alginate were thoroughly mixed with TGase, both 0.5% and 1.0% TGase can effectively cross link the hydrogel; the release of antibiotic is slowed down with higher degree of TGase concentration (from 20 min to more than 120 h). In the animal study, antibiotic-impregnated hydrogel is effective in alleviating the implant-related infections. Relative to that of a positive control group, the experimental group (vancomycin treatment group) showed significant higher bone volume, more intact bony structure with only mild inflammatory cell infiltration. This newly designed hydrogel can effectively deliver antibiotics to reduce bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the implant surface. The remaining challenges will be to confer different potent antibacterial medications with good biocompatibility and fulfill the safety, practical and economic criteria for future clinical translation.

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