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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049581, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of four different primary screening strategies: high-risk factor questionnaire (HRFQ) alone, single immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT), double iFOBT and HRFQ+double iFOBT for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening compared with no screening using the Markov model. METHODS: Treeage Pro V.2011 software was used to simulate the Markov model. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, which was compared with the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold, was used to reflect the cost-effectiveness of the CRC screening method. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used for parameter uncertainty. RESULTS: All strategies had greater effectiveness because they had more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) than no screening. When the WTP was ¥435 762/QALY, all screening strategies were cost-effective compared with no screening. The double iFOBT strategy was the best-buy option compared with all other strategies because it had the most QALYs and the least cost. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the sensitivity of low-risk adenoma, compliance with colonoscopy and primary screening cost were the main influencing factors comparing single iFOBT, double iFOBT and HRFQ+double iFOBT with no screening. However, within the scope of this study, there was no fundamental impact on cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that when the WTP was ¥435 762/QALY, the probabilities of the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve with HRFQ alone, single iFOBT, double iFOBT and HRFQ+double iFOBT were 0.0%, 5.3%, 69.3% and 25.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: All screening strategies for CRC were cost-effective compared with no screening strategy. Double iFOBT was the best-buy option compared with all other strategies. The significant influencing factors were the sensitivity of low-risk polyps, compliance with colonoscopy and cost of primary screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , China , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1117, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study analyzed the trends and seasonality in mortality among children aged 0-14 years in Guangzhou, China during 2008-2018. Understanding the epidemiology of this public health problem can guide policy development for children mortality prevention. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological retrospective study was conducted. Seven thousand two hundred sixty-five individual data of children mortality were obtained from the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Poisson regression was used to quantify the annual average reduction rate and the difference in mortality rate between sex and age groups. Incidence ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated to determine the temperaol variations in mortality by month, season, school term, day of the week and between holidays and other days. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2018, the children mortality rate in Guangzhou decreased from 54.0 to 34.3 per 100,000 children, with an annual reduction rate of 4.6% (95% CI: 1.1%-8.1%), especially the under-5 mortality rate decreased by 8.3% (95% CI: 4.8%-11.6%) per year. Decline trends varied by causes of death, even with an upward trend for the mortality of asphyxia and neurological diseases. The risk of death among males children was 1.33 times (95% CI: 1.20-1.47) of that of females. The distribution of causes of death differed by age group. Maternal and perinatal, congenital and pneumonia were the top three causes of death in infants and cancer accounted for 17% of deaths in children aged 1-14 years. Moreover, the injury-related mortality showed significant temporal variations with higher risk during the weekend. And there was a summer peak for drowning and a winter peak for asphyxia. CONCLUSIONS: Guangzhou has made considerable progress in reducing mortality over the last decade. The findings of characteristics of children mortality would provide important information for the development and implementation of integrated interventions targeted specific age groups and causes of death.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 75(1): 211-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Language dysfunction is a frequently reported symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, computer-assisted analysis of spontaneous speech in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is rarely used to date. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the language impairment in AD and amnestic MCI (aMCI) with computer-based automatic analysis via the "Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) software for cognitive impairment V1.3". METHODS: A total of 64 subjects, including 20 AD patients, 20 aMCI patients, and 24 healthy controls were recruited. All subjects underwent neuropsychological tests, and spontaneous speech samples were recorded through the description of the "Cookie-Theft Picture" and then analyzed by the computerized software. Subsequently, we compared the speech parameters between the subjects and the controls. RESULTS: We identified seven spontaneous speech parameters (percentage of silence duration, average duration of phrasal segments, average duration of silence segments, number of speech segments, number of long pauses, ratio of hesitation/speech counts and ratio of short pause/speech counts) demonstrating significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.05). All seven speech parameters significantly correlated with cognitive performance, with average duration of silence segments demonstrating the best correlation to cognitive performance on stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Computer-assisted automated analysis of speech/silence segments demonstrated the potential to reflect the intrinsic linguistic impairment associated with MCI and AD. It has a promising prospect in the early detection of AD and assessment of disease severity.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/psicologia
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(41): 4708-4715, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416318

RESUMO

AIM: To measure the willingness to pay for colorectal cancer screening in Guangzhou, and to identify those factors associated with it. METHODS: A face-to-face questionnaire survey for pre-screening population from free and non-free colonoscopy districts was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, health behaviours, the intention of the cancer screenings and willingness to pay for colorectal cancer screening. A total of 1243 participants who took part in the pre-screening for colorectal cancer in Guangzhou were collected in the study. Categorical data were compared using the χ2 test to analyse significant differences. Non-conditional logistic regression and multi-class logistic regression were also performed for multivariate analysis and to estimate the odds ratios. RESULTS: The percentage of participants willing to pay for colorectal cancer screening was 91.7%. "Unnecessary" was the dominant reason that participants gave for their unwillingness, accounting for 63.1%. Of those who were willing to pay, 29.2%, 20.7%, 14.8%, 13.0% and 22.4% of participants were willing to pay less than \100, \100-\199, \200-299, \300-\399 and more than \400, respectively. Non-logistic regression analysis showed that respondents who were male, had a high level of education, were from the family with more children/older to raise, and accepted colorectal cancer screening were willing to pay for this screening. Multi-class logistic regression analysis showed that respondents with higher annual household income per capita, from government and private enterprises, government agency/institution and peasants, and less family medical expenditure were willing to pay more. CONCLUSION: Willingness to pay for colorectal cancer screening in Guangzhou is high, but the amount of willing to pay is not much.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Idoso , China , Colonoscopia/economia , Colonoscopia/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(5): 957-963, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492808

RESUMO

Brucella poses a great threat to animal and human health. Vaccination is the most promising strategy in the effort to control Brucella abortus (B. abortus) infection, but the currently used live vaccines interfere with diagnostic tests and could potentially result in disease outbreak. Therefore, new subunit vaccines and combined immunization strategies are currently under investigation. In this study, immunogenicity and protection ability of a recombinant adenovirus and plasmid DNA vaccine co-expressing P39 and lumazine synthase proteins of B. abortus were evaluated based on the construction of the two molecular vaccines. Four immunization strategies (single adenovirus, single DNA, adenovirus/DNA, DNA/adenovirus) were investigated. The results showed that the immunization strategy of DNA priming followed by adenovirus boosting induced robust humoral and cellular immune responses, and it significantly reduced the numbers of B. abortus in a mouse model. These results suggest that it could be a potential antigen candidate for development of a new subunit vaccine against B. abortus infection.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucelose/imunologia , Complexos Multienzimáticos/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Adenoviridae , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Brucelose Bovina/imunologia , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
6.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 18(12): 3217-3223, 2017 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281875

RESUMO

Background: In Guangzhou, China, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer. The government initiated a CRC screening program in 2015, and investigating the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward CRC would help facilitate the participation of the program. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2014 to September 2015. Questionnaires were passed out with a cluster sample in 15 randomly selected primary schools of Guangzhou China, and one of each student's family members aged between 20 to 65 years old were included. Results: A total of 6839 questionnaires were obtained and the successful response rate was 78.5%. The majority (88.3%) of them were under 46 years old and female subjects accounted for 65.8%. Over 80% of the respondents knew that CRC was able to be cured by early diagnosis and treatment and that tobacco use, alcohol abuse, and dietary without enough fruits or vegetables may increase the risk of CRC, although a few knowledge scores were relatively low, such as physical exercise as a protective factor and bowel habits change as a symptom suggestive of CRC. In contrast, only 52.2% of the subjects were sure to participate in a future CRC screening provided by local government. We further found that the higher level of knowledge about CRC risk and positive cancer preventive attitude and practice were associated with higher education level, female gender, and positive family history. Conclusion: These results suggested that the priority may be laid on improving the conversion from knowledge to practice to implement screening program in Guangzhou, while efforts should also be made to improve public awareness about CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Chin J Cancer ; 36(1): 60, 2017 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common type of neoplasm. This study examined the spatio-temporal distribution of the CRC incidence in Guangzhou during 2010-2014. METHODS: Colorectal cancer incidence data were obtained from the Guangzhou Cancer Registry System. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and a retrospective spatio-temporal scan were used to assess the spatio-temporal cluster distribution of CRC cases. RESULTS: A total of 14,618 CRC cases were registered in Guangzhou during 2010-2014, with a crude incidence of 35.56/100,000 and an age-standardized rate of incidence by the world standard population (ASRIW) of 23.58/100,000. The crude incidence increased by 19.70% from 2010 (32.88/100,000) to 2014 (39.36/100,000) with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 4.33%. The AAPC of ASRIW was not statistically significant. The spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed a CRC incidence hot spot in central urban areas in Guangzhou City, which included 25 streets in southwestern Baiyun District, northwestern Haizhu District, and the border region between Liwan and Yuexiu Districts. Three high- and five low-incidence clusters were identified according to spatio-temporal scan of CRC incidence clusters. The high-incidence clusters were located in central urban areas including the border regions between Baiyun, Haizhu, Liwan, and Yuexiu Districts. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the spatio-temporal cluster pattern of the incidence of CRC in Guangzhou. This information can inform allocation of health resources for CRC screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros
8.
Environ Health ; 15(1): 90, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preventing suicide is a global imperative. Although the effects of social and individual risk factors of suicide have been widely investigated, evidence of environmental effects of exposure to air pollution is scarce. We investigated the effects of ambient air pollution on suicide mortality in Guangzhou, China during 2003-2012. METHODS: A conditional logistic regression analysis with a time-stratified case-crossover design was performed to assess the effects of daily exposure to three standard air pollutants, including particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), on suicide mortality, after adjusting for the confounding effects of daily mean temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and sunshine duration. Further analyses were stratified by season, gender, age group, educational attainment and suicide type. RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2012, there were a total of 1 550 registered suicide deaths in Guangzhou. A significant increase in suicide risk were associated with interquartile-range increases in the concentration of air pollutant, with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.27) and 1.15 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.28) for PM10 and NO2 at lag 02, and 1.12 (95 % CI: 1.02, 1.23) for SO2 at lag 01, respectively. The suicide risks related to air pollution for males and people with high education level were higher than for females and those with low education level, respectively. Significant air pollution effects were found on violent suicide mortality and in cool season but not on non-violent suicide mortality or in warm season. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk was positively associated with ambient air pollution levels. This finding would provide important information for the health impact assessment of air pollution and for the development of effective strategies and interventions for the prevention of suicide.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Suicídio , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances
9.
Chin J Cancer ; 34(12): 594-601, 2015 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26573607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveying regional cancer incidence and mortality provides significant data that can assist in making health policy for local areas; however, the province- and region-based cancer burden in China is seldom reported. In this study, we estimated cancer incidence and mortality in Guangdong Province, China and presented basic information for making policies related to health resource allocation and disease control. METHODS: A log-linear model was used to calculate the sex-, age-, and registry-specific ratios of incidence to mortality (I/M) based on cancer registry data from Guangzhou, Zhongshan, and Sihui between 2004 and 2008. The cancer incidences in 2009 were then estimated according to representative I/M ratios and the mortality records from eight death surveillance sites in Guangdong Province. The cancer incidences in each city were estimated by the corresponding sex- and age-specific incidences from cancer registries or death surveillance sites in each area. Finally, the total and region-based cancer incidences and mortalities for the entire population of Guangdong Province were summarized. RESULTS: The estimated I/M ratios in Guangzhou (3.658), Zhongshan (2.153), and Sihui (1.527) were significantly different (P < 0.001), with an average I/M ratio of 2.446. Significant differences in the estimated I/M ratios were observed between distinct age groups and the three cancer registries. The estimated I/M ratio in females was significantly higher than that in males (2.864 vs. 2.027, P < 0.001). It was estimated that there were 163,376 new cancer cases (99,689 males and 63,687 females) in 2009; it was further estimated that 115,049 people (75,054 males and 39,995 females) died from cancer in Guangdong Province in 2009. The estimated crude and age-standardized rate of incidences (ASRI) in Guangdong Province were 231.34 and 246.87 per 100,000 males, respectively, and 156.98 and 163.57 per 100,000 females, respectively. The estimated crude and age-standardized rate of mortalities (ASRM) in Guangdong Province were 174.17 and 187.46 per 100,000 males, respectively, and 98.59 and 102.00 per 100,000 females, respectively. In comparison with the western area and the northern mountain area, higher ASRI and ASRM were recorded in the Pearl River Delta area and the eastern area in both males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer imposes a heavy disease burden, and cancer patterns are unevenly distributed throughout Guangdong Province. More health resources should be allocated to cancer control, especially in the western and northern mountain areas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Distribuição por Sexo
10.
Chin J Cancer ; 34(8): 358-64, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26245843

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in China. The incidence of CRC has been increasing in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence trends and the age distribution of CRC by subsite in Guangzhou between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: A total of 22,432 incident cases of CRC between 2000 and 2011 from Guangzhou Cancer Registry were identified. Crude incidence and age-standardized rates (ASRs), using the Segi's world standard population, were calculated for CRC and CRC subsites. The incidence trend was analyzed and the annual percentage change (APC) in incidence was calculated by using JoinPoint software. RESULTS: The crude incidence increased significantly from 23.4/10(5) in 2000 to 37.4/10(5) in 2011 for males and from 20.9/10(5) to 30.5/10(5) for females. The ASRs of CRC incidence stabilized during the period of 2000-2011 for both males and females. The ages at the onset of CRC for both males and females during 2010-2011 were significantly higher compared with those during 2000-2002 (males: t = 1.95, P = 0.05; females: t = 6.03, P < 0.01). For males aged 50-64 years, the CRC incidence increased by 8.50% annually (P = 0.04) during 2000-2004 and by 1.68% annually (P = 0.03) during 2005-2011. For females aged 65 years and older, the CRC incidence increased by 5.77% annually (P = 0.03) during 2000-2004. There were no significant changes for the CRC incidences in males aged 49 and younger and 65 years and older and females aged 64 years and younger during 2000-2004, or for those in all females as well as males aged 49 years and younger and 65 years and older during 2005-2011. The percentage of colon cancer in all CRCs increased significantly for both males and females between the periods of 2000-2002 and 2010-2011. The ASRs of descending colon and sigmoid colon cancer incidences increased significantly for females during 2005-2011 (APC, 5.51% and 1.08%, respectively, both P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The crude incidence of CRC increased significantly between 2000 and 2011 because of the aging, whereas the ASRs kept stable. The percentage of colon cancer in all CRCs increased significantly. Further surveillance, research, and intervention are needed to identify the causes of these changes and to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC.


Assuntos
Distribuição por Idade , Neoplasias Colorretais , Incidência , Envelhecimento , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide
11.
Environ Pollut ; 205: 153-60, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26057478

RESUMO

The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica não Linear , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 27(12): 917-25, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25484008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although many studies have examined the effects of ambient temperatures on mortality, little evidence is on health impacts of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. This study aimed to assess the impacts of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity on mortality in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: This study included 213,737 registered deaths during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. A quasi-Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the effects of atmospheric pressure/relative humidity. RESULTS: We found significant effect of low atmospheric pressure/relative humidity on mortality. There was a 1.79% (95% confidence interval: 0.38%-3.22%) increase in non-accidental mortality and a 2.27% (0.07%-4.51%) increase in cardiovascular mortality comparing the 5th and 25th percentile of atmospheric pressure. A 3.97% (0.67%-7.39%) increase in cardiovascular mortality was also observed comparing the 5th and 25th percentile of relative humidity. Women were more vulnerable to decrease in atmospheric pressure and relative humidity than men. Age and education attainment were also potential effect modifiers. Furthermore, low atmospheric pressure and relative humidity increased temperature-related mortality. CONCLUSION: Both low atmospheric pressure and relative humidity are important risk factors of mortality. Our findings would be helpful to develop health risk assessment and climate policy interventions that would better protect vulnerable subgroups of the population.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Umidade , Mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 15(22): 9899-903, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25520125

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an uncommon disease in most countries but occurs with much greater frequency in southern China. This study aimed to examine the secular trends of NPC in urban Guangzhou over the time period of 2000-2011 using data from the Guangzhou Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates of NPC were calculated by the direct method using the WHO World Standard Population (1960) as the reference. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. A total of 7,532 new cases of NPC and 3,449 related deaths were registered. In both genders, the peak incidence occurred in the 50- to 59-year age group, and this age distribution pattern remained similar throughout. The AAPC in NPC incidence rates was -3.26% (95% CI: -5.4%--1.1) for males and -5.74% (95% CI: -8.9%--2.5) for females, resulting in a total decrease of 39.3% (from 22.14 to 13.44 per 100,000 population) for males and 48.6% (from 10.1 to 5.18 per 100,000 population) for females over this 12-year period. The AAPCs in NPC mortality rates were -4.62% (95%CI: -3.5%--5.7) for males and -6.75% (95% CI: -5.2%--8.3) for females, resulting in a total decrease of -46.1% (from 12.1 to 6.54 per 100,000 population) for males and 51.7% (from 4.14 to 2.00 per 100,000 population) for females. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates of NPC declined during 2000-2011 in urban Guangzhou but remained high. Future efforts to improve prevention, early detection and treatment strategies are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 15(14): 5639-44, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25081679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine effects of doctor-patient communication on the quality of life among breast cancer survivors in 16 communities in southern China. METHODS: Multistage random sampling was to use to recruit 260 females from the Guangzhou Cancer Registry Database who were diagnosed with breast cancer. A questionnaire provided data on the doctor-patient communication (including the doctor's attitude, the patient's participation with the medical decision and information about the disease) and QOL (quality of life), as measured using FACT-B. Univariate analysis, non-conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between the doctor-patient communication and QOL. RESULTS: Females who received good attitudes from doctors demonstrated higher FACT-B (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.68-12.86), social well-being (OR=5.88, 95% CI: 2.16-16.05), emotional well-being (OR=4.77, 95% CI: 1.92-11.88), and functional well-being ((OR=5.26, 95% CI: 1.90-14.52) compared to the females who encountered worse attitudes from their doctor, adjusting for age, education, marriage, employment, family income, years since diagnosis, TNM stage, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and side effects, particularly when the TNM stage was 0-II and the patients exhibited no side effects. Regardless of the length of time after diagnosis, doctors' good attitudes resulted in higher QOL scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the doctor-patient communication has a significant association with the QOL of breast cancer survivors, mainly dependent on the doctors' attitude. Effective intervention is required to develop optimal doctor-patient communication.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , China , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 95(3): 1268-70, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24169497

RESUMO

In this study, the interactions of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) C-strain and the virulent GSLZ strain with mouse bone marrow-derived immature dendritic cells (BM-imDCs) were investigated for the first time. Both the C-strain and the virulent GSLZ strain could effectively infect and replicate in mouse BM-imDCs. C-strain-infected BM-imDCs showed a greatly enhanced degree of maturation, and could effectively promote the expansion and proliferation of allogeneic naive T cells. The C-strain induced a stronger Th1 response. Infection with the virulent GSLZ strain had no obvious influence on cell maturation or lymphocyte proliferation, and failed to induce any obvious immune response. The results of this study provided initial information for research of the immunologic mechanisms of CSFV using mouse DCs as the model cells.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Viral/fisiologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica , Peste Suína Clássica/fisiopatologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Animais , Peste Suína Clássica/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Suínos
16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 26(8): 647-54, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23981550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the heat wave in 2005 on mortality among the residents in Guangzhou and to identify susceptible subpopulations in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: The data of daily number of deaths and meteorological measures from 2003 to 2006 in Guangzhou were used in this study. Heat wave was defined as ⋝7 consecutive days with daily maximum temperature above 35.0 °C and daily mean temperature above the 97th percentile during the study period. The excess deaths and rate ratio (RR) of mortality in the case period compared with the reference period in the same summer were calculated. RESULTS: During the study period, only one heat wave in 2005 was identified and the total number of excess deaths was 145 with an average of 12 deaths per day. The effect of the heat wave on non-accidental mortality (RR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.37) was found with statistically significant difference. Also, greater effects were observed for cardiovascular mortality (RR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.13-1.59) and respiratory mortality (RR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69). Females, the elderly and people with lower socioeconomic status were at significantly higher risk of heat wave-associated mortality. CONCLUSION: The 2005 heat wave had a substantial impact on mortality among the residents in Guangzhou, particularly among some susceptible subpopulations. The findings from the present study may provide scientific evidences to develop relevant public health policies and prevention measures aimed at reduction of preventable mortality from heat waves.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Mortalidade , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Pollut ; 175: 131-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23377036

RESUMO

Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator associated with global climate change, but little is known about the effects of DTR on mortality. We examined the effects of DTR on cause-/age-/education-specific mortality in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in China during 2003-2010. A quasi-Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the effects of DTR, after controlling for daily mean temperature, air pollutants, season and day of the week. A 1 °C increase in DTR at lag 0-4 days was associated with a 0.47% (95% confidence interval: 0.01%-0.93%) increase in non-accidental mortality. Stroke mortality was most sensitive to DTR. Female, the elderly and those with low education were more susceptible to DTR than male, the youth and those with high education, respectively. Our findings suggest that vulnerable subpopulations should pay more attention to protect themselves from unstable daily weather.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Mortalidade/tendências , Temperatura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica não Linear , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Chim Acta ; 413(13-14): 1156-9, 2012 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22564879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicines or ethnic remedies, such as Ayurvedic drug of India, have been reported in numerous cases to be one of the main exposure risks for severe lead poisoning. METHODS: We describe the poisoning of 2 young children from a Chinese family in Guangzhou as a result of the use of traditional Chinese medicine instead of baby powder. RESULTS: A 3-y-old boy with blood lead levels (BLLs) of 303 µg/l and his 6-month-old sister with BLLs of 385 µg/l were hospitalized. Laboratory tests showed that the powder, which was purchased in Ganzhou during a family visit, contained a lead concentration of 214,000 mg/kg. A subsequent inspection revealed that the lead contamination was in fact achieved by the addition of Hongdan to talcum. In Ganzhou, it was a popular practice for young children to apply this leaded powder on their skins in order to treat and prevent dermatitis. We sampled 16 Hongdans and observed an average lead content of 817,000 mg/kg that was comprised mainly of lead tetraoxide (Pb(3)O(4)). Lead tetraoxide is also an accessible raw material for paint and battery industries. CONCLUSIONS: The health authority of China should reevaluate the safety of such traditional remedy and weigh its toxicity versus its potential benefits. Clinicians should be aware of this leaded powder when treating a lead poisoning case that shows no explainable cause.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino
20.
Mol Cell Probes ; 25(2-3): 126-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21232598

RESUMO

A novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established to detect Brucella species DNA in milk and blood samples of animals and humans. This LAMP assay based on the sequence of highly repetitive omp25 gene was able to detect 9fg/µl Brucella spp. DNA with high sensitivity, which was 10 times higher than the nested PCR. The LAMP was evaluated for its specificity using 19 strains of six Brucella species and 28 related non-Brucella micro-organism strains as controls. The target 19 Brucella strains were all amplified, and no cross-reaction was found with all the non-Brucella micro-organism strains. Both nested PCR and LAMP assays were then used to detect Brucella spp. DNA in 78 milk samples and 113 blood samples from animals and 11 blood samples from humans, and the established LAMP assay yielded 99.0% concordance rate with the nested PCR. The LAMP assay should be a potential tool with high convenience, rapidity, sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of Brucellosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Brucella/genética , Brucelose/microbiologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Brucella/classificação , Brucelose/sangue , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Bovinos , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
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