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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e018020, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372532

RESUMO

Background Proteomic biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease risk factors may offer insights into the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease are associated with distinctive proteomic signatures. Methods and Results We analyzed 1305 circulating plasma proteomic biomarkers (assayed using the SomaLogic platform) in 897 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) Generation 3 participants (mean age 46±8 years; 56% women; discovery sample) and 1121 FOS (Framingham Offspring Study) participants (mean age 52 years; 54% women; validation sample). Participants were free of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and clinical cardiovascular disease. We used linear mixed effects models (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and family structure) to relate levels of each inverse-log transformed protein to 3 lifestyle factors (ie, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity). A Bonferroni-adjusted P value indicated statistical significance (based on number of proteins and traits tested, P<4.2×10-6 in the discovery sample; P<6.85×10-4 in the validation sample). We observed statistically significant associations of 60 proteins with smoking (37/40 top proteins validated in FOS), 30 proteins with alcohol consumption (23/30 proteins validated), and 5 proteins with physical activity (2/3 proteins associated with the physical activity index validated). We assessed the associations of protein concentrations with previously identified genetic variants (protein quantitative trait loci) linked to lifestyle-related disease traits in the genome-wide-association study catalogue. The protein quantitative trait loci were associated with coronary artery disease, inflammation, and age-related mortality. Conclusions Our cross-sectional study from a community-based sample elucidated distinctive sets of proteins associated with 3 key lifestyle factors.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(6): e003085, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) often arises from structural abnormalities in the left atria (LA). Annotation of the noncoding genome in human LA is limited, as are effects on gene expression and chromatin architecture. Many AF-associated genetic variants reside in noncoding regions; this knowledge gap impairs efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms of AF and cardiac conduction phenotypes. METHODS: We generated a model of the LA noncoding genome by profiling 7 histone post-translational modifications (active: H3K4me3, H3K4me2, H3K4me1, H3K27ac, H3K36me3; repressive: H3K27me3, H3K9me3), CTCF binding, and gene expression in samples from 5 individuals without structural heart disease or AF. We used MACS2 to identify peak regions (P<0.01), applied a Markov model to classify regulatory elements, and annotated this model with matched gene expression data. We intersected chromatin states with expression quantitative trait locus, DNA methylation, and HiC chromatin interaction data from LA and left ventricle. Finally, we integrated genome-wide association data for AF and electrocardiographic traits to link disease-related variants to genes. RESULTS: Our model identified 21 epigenetic states, encompassing regulatory motifs, such as promoters, enhancers, and repressed regions. Genes were regulated by proximal chromatin states; repressive states were associated with a significant reduction in gene expression (P<2×10-16). Chromatin states were differentially methylated, promoters were less methylated than repressed regions (P<2×10-16). We identified over 15 000 LA-specific enhancers, defined by homeobox family motifs, and annotated several cardiovascular disease susceptibility loci. Intersecting AF and PR genome-wide association studies loci with long-range chromatin conformation data identified a gene interaction network dominated by NKX2-5, TBX3, ZFHX3, and SYNPO2L. CONCLUSIONS: Profiling the noncoding genome provides new insights into the gene expression and chromatin regulation in human LA tissue. These findings enabled identification of a gene network underlying AF; our experimental and analytic approach can be extended to identify molecular mechanisms for other cardiac diseases and traits.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4796, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963231

RESUMO

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/ß-catenin, TGF-ß and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estruturas Cromossômicas , Cognição , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 387-395, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome-chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD. METHODS: Fifteen studies comprising 64 440 individuals (56 943 European, 5681 African, 1186 Hispanic, 630 Asian) and ≈230 000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and sequence kernel association tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (TTN, CAND2, SCN10A, PITX2, CAV1, SYNPO2L, SOX5, TBX5, MYH6, RPL3L). The top variants at known sarcomere genes (TTN, MYH6) were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (eg, PITX2 and SCN10A) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs may reflect or influence pathological cardiac remodeling and contribute to atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify candidate plasma microRNAs that are associated with echocardiographic phenotypes of atrial remodeling, and incident and prevalent AF in a community-based cohort. METHODS: We analyzed left atrial function index (LAFI) of 1788 Framingham Offspring 8 participants. We quantified expression of 339 plasma microRNAs. We examined associations between microRNA levels with LAFI and prevalent and incident AF. We constructed pathway analysis of microRNAs' predicted gene targets to identify molecular processes involved in adverse atrial remodeling in AF. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 66 ± 9 years, and 54% were women. Five percent of participants had prevalent AF at the initial examination and 9% (n = 157) developed AF over a median 8.6 years of follow-up (IQR 8.1-9.2 years). Plasma microRNAs were associated with LAFI (N = 73, p<0.0001). Six of these plasma microRNAs were significantly associated with incident AF, including 4 also associated with prevalent AF (microRNAs 106b, 26a-5p, 484, 20a-5p). These microRNAs are predicted to regulate genes involved in cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, and myocardial fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating microRNAs 106b, 26a-5p, 484, 20a-5p are associated with atrial remodeling and AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Remodelamento Atrial/genética , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Função do Átrio Esquerdo/genética , Função do Átrio Esquerdo/fisiologia , Remodelamento Atrial/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Neuromolecular Med ; 22(4): 534-541, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862331

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease that affects more than 5 million Americans. Multiple pathways might be involved in the AD pathogenesis. The implication of lipid genetic susceptibility on brain gene expression is yet to be investigated. The current study included 192 brain samples from AD patients who were enrolled in the ROSMAP study. The samples were genotyped and imputed to the HRC Reference Panel. Lipid polygenetic risk score was constructed from the weighted sum of genetic variants associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The gene expression was profiled by RNA sequencing, and the  association of gene expression with lipid polygenetic risk scores was tested by linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and APOE e4 alleles. Three genes were found to associate with lipid polygenetic risk scores, including HMCN2 (P = 3.6 × 10-7), PDLIM5 (P = 1.2 × 10-6), and FHL5 (P = 2.0 × 10-6). Network analysis revealed multiple related pathways, including dopaminergic synapse (P = 4.5 × 10-5), circadian entrainment (P = 1.1 × 10-4), and cholinergic synapse (P = 2.3 × 10-4). Our study underscores the importance of lipid regulation and metabolism to AD heterogeneity.

7.
Circ Res ; 127(10): 1253-1260, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842915

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A sedentary lifestyle is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Smartwatches enable accurate daily activity monitoring for physical activity measurement and intervention. Few studies, however, have examined physical activity measures from smartwatches in relation to traditional risk factors associated with future risk for CVD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of habitual physical activity measured by smartwatch with predicted CVD risk in adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled consenting FHS (Framingham Heart Study) participants in an ongoing eFHS (electronic Framingham Heart Study) at the time of their FHS research center examination. We provided participants with a smartwatch (Apple Watch Series 0) and instructed them to wear it daily, which measured their habitual physical activity as the average daily step count. We estimated the 10-year predicted risk of CVD using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2013 pooled cohort risk equation. We estimated the association between physical activity and predicted risk of CVD using linear mixed effects models adjusting for age, sex, wear time, and familial structure. Our study included 903 eFHS participants (mean age 53±9 years, 61% women, 9% non-White) who wore the smartwatch ≥5 hours per day for ≥30 days. Median daily step count was similar among men (7202 with interquartile range 3619) and women (7260 with interquartile range 3068; P=0.52). Average 10-year predicted CVD risk was 4.5% (interquartile range, 6.1%) for men and 1.2% (interquartile range, 2.2%) for women (P=1.3×10-26). Every 1000 steps higher habitual physical activity was associated with 0.18% lower predicted CVD risk (P=3.2×10-4). The association was attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for body mass index (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based sample of adults, higher daily physical activity measured by a study smartwatch was associated with lower predicted risk of CVD. Future research should examine the longitudinal association of prospectively measured daily activity and incident CVD.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 56: 102803, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) is associated with a wide range of pathophysiological changes due, in part, to hypoxemia during sleep. We sought to identify gene transcription associations with measures of SDB and hypoxemia during sleep, and study their response to treatment. METHODS: In two discovery cohorts, Framingham Offspring Study (FOS; N = 571) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; N = 580), we studied gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in association with three measures of SDB: Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI); average oxyhemoglobin saturation (avgO2) during sleep; and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation (minO2) during sleep. Associated genes were used for analysis of gene expression in the blood of 15 participants with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from the Heart Biomarkers In Apnea Treatment (HeartBEAT) trial. These genes were studied pre- and post-treatment (three months) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We also performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) on all traits and cohort analyses. FINDINGS: Twenty-two genes were associated with SDB traits in both MESA and FOS. Of these, lower expression of CD1D and RAB20 was associated with lower avgO2 in MESA and FOS. CPAP treatment increased the expression of these genes in HeartBEAT participants. Immunity and inflammation pathways were up-regulated in subjects with lower avgO2; i.e., in those with a more severe SDB phenotype (MESA), whereas immuno-inflammatory processes were down-regulated following CPAP treatment (HeartBEAT). INTERPRETATION: Low oxygen saturation during sleep is associated with alterations in gene expression and transcriptional programs that are partially reversed by CPAP treatment.

9.
Epigenomics ; 12(9): 789-800, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496132

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the function of genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified variants associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD)/comorbid psychiatric disorders. Materials & methods: Genome-wide genotype, transcriptome and DNA methylome data were obtained from postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 48 Caucasians (24 AUD cases/24 controls). Expression/methylation quantitative trait loci (eQTL/mQTL) were identified and their enrichment in GWAS signals for the above disorders were analyzed. Results: PFC cis-eQTLs (923 from cases+controls, 27 from cases and 98 from controls) and cis-mQTLs (9,932 from cases+controls, 264 from cases and 695 from controls) were enriched in GWAS-identified genetic variants for the above disorders. Cis-eQTLs from AUD cases were mapped to morphine addiction-related genes. Conclusion: PFC cis-eQTLs/cis-mQTLs influence gene expression/DNA methylation patterns, thus increasing the disease risk.

10.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(5): e006749, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We used a large-scale, high-throughput DNA aptamer-based discovery proteomic platform to identify circulating biomarkers of cardiac remodeling and incident heart failure (HF) in community-dwelling individuals. METHODS: We evaluated 1895 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) participants (age 55±10 years, 54% women) who underwent proteomic profiling and echocardiography. Plasma levels of 1305 proteins were related to echocardiographic traits and to incident HF using multivariable regression. Statistically significant protein-HF associations were replicated in the HUNT (Nord-Trøndelag Health) study (n=2497, age 63±10 years, 43% women), and results were meta-analyzed. Genetic variants associated with circulating protein levels (pQTLs) were related to echocardiographic traits in the EchoGen (n=30 201) and to incident HF in the CHARGE (n=20 926) consortia. RESULTS: Seventeen proteins associated with echocardiographic traits in cross-sectional analyses (false discovery rate <0.10), and 8 of these proteins had pQTLs associated with echocardiographic traits in EchoGen (P<0.0007). In Cox models adjusted for clinical risk factors, 29 proteins demonstrated associations with incident HF in FHS (174 HF events, mean follow-up 19 [limits, 0.2-23.7] years). In meta-analyses of FHS and HUNT, 6 of these proteins were associated with incident HF (P<3.8×10-5; 3 with higher risk: NT-proBNP [N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide], TSP2 [thrombospondin-2], MBL [mannose-binding lectin]; and 3 with lower risk: ErbB1 [epidermal growth factor receptor], GDF-11/8 [growth differentiation factor-11/8], and RGMC [hemojuvelin]). For 5 of the 6 proteins, pQTLs were associated with echocardiographic traits (P<0.0006) in EchoGen, and for RGMC, a protein quantitative trait loci was associated with incident HF (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale proteomics approach identified new predictors of cardiac remodeling and incident HF. Future studies are warranted to elucidate how biological pathways represented by these proteins may mediate cardiac remodeling and HF risk and to assess if these proteins can improve HF risk prediction.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Ecocardiografia , Variação Genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteômica , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Remodelação Ventricular/genética
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(4): e15376, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some neuropsychological (NP) tests are considered more central for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), there is a lack of understanding about the interaction between different cognitive tests. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to demonstrate a global view of hierarchical probabilistic dependencies between NP tests and the likelihood of cognitive impairment to assist physicians in recognizing AD precursors. METHODS: Our study included 2091 participants from the Framingham Heart Study. These participants had undergone a variety of NP tests, including Wechsler Memory Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Boston Naming Test. Heterogeneous cognitive Bayesian networks were developed to understand the relationship between NP tests and the cognitive status. The performance of probabilistic inference was evaluated by the 10-fold cross validation. RESULTS: A total of 4512 NP tests were used to build the Bayesian network for the dementia diagnosis. The network demonstrated conditional dependency between different cognitive functions that precede the development of dementia. The prediction model reached an accuracy of 82.24%, with sensitivity of 63.98% and specificity of 92.74%. This probabilistic diagnostic system can also be applied to participants that exhibit more heterogeneous profiles or with missing responses for some NP tests. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a probabilistic dependency network for AD diagnosis from 11 NP tests. Our study revealed important psychological functional segregations and precursor evidence of AD development and heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(4): e005918, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction models for atrial fibrillation (AF) do not give information about when AF might develop. Restricted mean survival time (RMST) quantifies risk into the time domain. Our objective was to use RMST to re-express individualized AF risk predictions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included AF-free participants from the Framingham Heart Study community-based cohorts. We predicted new-onset AF over 10-year follow-up according to baseline covariates: age, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, current smoking, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes mellitus, prevalent heart failure, and prevalent myocardial infarction. First, we fitted a Cox regression model and estimated the 10-year predicted risk of AF. Second, we fitted an RMST model and estimated the predicted mean time free of AF and alive over a time horizon of 10 years. We included 7586 AF-free participants contributing to 11 088 examinations (mean age 61±11 years, 44% were men). During 10-year follow-up, 822 participants developed AF. The Cox and RMST models were in agreement regarding the direction, strength, and statistical significance of associations for all covariates. Low (<5%), intermediate (5%-15%), and high (>15%) 10-year predicted risk of AF corresponded to predicted mean time alive and free of AF of 9.9, 9.6, and 8.8 years, respectively. A 60-year-old woman with a body mass index of 25 kg/m2, no use of hypertension treatment and no history of heart failure had a predicted mean time alive and free of AF of 9.9 years, whereas a 70-year-old man with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2, use of hypertension treatment, and with prevalent heart failure had a predicted mean time alive and free of AF of 7.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: The RMST can be used to develop risk prediction models to express results in a time scale. RMST may offer a complementary risk communication tool for AF in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
13.
iScience ; 23(4): 100973, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213464

RESUMO

Human genetics studies have uncovered genetic variants that can be used to guide biological research and prioritize molecular targets for therapeutic intervention for complex diseases. We have identified a missense variant (P746S) in EDEM3 associated with lower blood triglyceride (TG) levels in >300,000 individuals. Functional analyses in cell and mouse models show that EDEM3 deficiency strongly increased the uptake of very-low-density lipoprotein and thereby reduced the plasma TG level, as a result of up-regulated expression of LRP1 receptor. We demonstrate that EDEM3 deletion up-regulated the pathways for RNA and endoplasmic reticulum protein processing and transport, and consequently increased the cell surface mannose-containing glycoproteins, including LRP1. Metabolomics analyses reveal a cellular TG accumulation under EDEM3 deficiency, a profile consistent with individuals carrying EDEM3 P746S. Our study identifies EDEM3 as a regulator of blood TG, and targeted inhibition of EDEM3 may provide a complementary approach for lowering elevated blood TG concentrations.

14.
iScience ; 23(3): 100928, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151973

RESUMO

Obesity commonly co-exists with fatty liver disease with increasing health burden worldwide. Family with Sequence Similarity 13, Member A (FAM13A) has been associated with lipid levels and fat mass by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the function of FAM13A in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in vivo remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that rs2276936 in this locus has allelic-enhancer activity in massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA) and reporter assay. The DNA region containing rs2276936 regulates expression of endogenous FAM13A in HepG2 cells. In vivo, Fam13a-/- mice are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver accompanied by increased insulin sensitivity and reduced glucose production in liver. Mechanistically, loss of Fam13a led to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes. These findings demonstrate that FAM13A mediates obesity-related dysregulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Targeting FAM13A might be a promising treatment of obesity and fatty liver disease.

15.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(4): 352-367, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100372

RESUMO

We propose a novel variant set test for rare-variant association studies, which leverages multiple single-nucleotide variant (SNV) annotations. Our approach optimizes a convex combination of different sequence kernel association test (SKAT) statistics, where each statistic is constructed from a different annotation and combination weights are optimized through a multiple kernel learning algorithm. The combination test statistic is evaluated empirically through data splitting. In simulations, we find our method preserves type I error at α = 2.5 × 1 0 - 6 and has greater power than SKAT(-O) when SNV weights are not misspecified and sample sizes are large ( N ≥ 5 , 000 ). We utilize our method in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) to identify SNV sets associated with fasting glucose. While we are unable to detect any genome-wide significant associations between fasting glucose and 4-kb windows of rare variants ( p < 1 0 - 7 ) in 6,419 FHS participants, our method identifies suggestive associations between fasting glucose and rare variants near ROCK2 ( p = 2.1 × 1 0 - 5 ) and within CPLX1 ( p = 5.3 × 1 0 - 5 ). These two genes were previously reported to be involved in obesity-mediated insulin resistance and glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells, respectively. These findings will need to be replicated in other cohorts and validated by functional genomic studies.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Algoritmos , Glicemia/análise , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Estatísticos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética
16.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(2): e007607, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of protein biomarkers associated with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) may improve the understanding of the pathophysiology, risk prediction, and development of new therapeutics for AF. We examined the associations between 85 protein biomarkers and incident AF. METHODS: We included participants ≥50 years of age from the FHS (Framingham Heart Study) Offspring and Third Generation cohorts, who had 85 fasting plasma proteins measured using Luminex xMAP platform. Hazard ratios (per 1 SD increment of rank-normalized biomarker [hazard ratio]) and 95% CIs for incident AF were calculated using Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease, prevalent myocardial infarction, and prevalent heart failure. We used the false discovery rate to account for multiple testing. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 3378 participants (54% women) with mean (SD) age of 61.5 (8.4) years. In total, 401 developed AF over a mean follow-up of 12.3±3.8 years. We observed lower hazard of incident AF associated with higher mean levels of IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1; hazard ratio per 1 SD increment in protein level, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.76-0.93]), and higher hazard of incident AF associated with higher mean levels of both IGFBP1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1; hazard ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.1-1.39]) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; hazard ratio, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.52-1.96]). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased levels of IGF1 and increased levels of IGFBP1 and NT-proBNP were associated with higher risk of incident AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 163, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919418

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Risco
18.
Circ Res ; 126(3): 350-360, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801406

RESUMO

Rationale: GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) have identified hundreds of genetic loci associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, these loci explain only a small proportion of AF heritability. Objective: To develop an approach to identify additional AF-related genes by integrating multiple omics data. Methods and Results: Three types of omics data were integrated: (1) summary statistics from the AFGen 2017 GWAS; (2) a whole blood EWAS (Epigenome-Wide Association Study) of AF; and (3) a whole blood TWAS (Transcriptome-Wide Association Study) of AF. The variant-level GWAS results were collapsed into gene-level associations using fast set-based association analysis. The CpG-level EWAS results were also collapsed into gene-level associations by an adapted SNP-set Kernel Association Test approach. Both GWAS and EWAS gene-based associations were then meta-analyzed with TWAS using a fixed-effects model weighted by the sample size of each data set. A tissue-specific network was subsequently constructed using the NetWAS (Network-Wide Association Study). The identified genes were then compared with the AFGen 2018 GWAS that contained more than triple the number of AF cases compared with AFGen 2017 GWAS. We observed that the multiomics approach identified many more relevant AF-related genes than using AFGen 2018 GWAS alone (1931 versus 206 genes). Many of these genes are involved in the development and regulation of heart- and muscle-related biological processes. Moreover, the gene set identified by multiomics approach explained much more AF variance than those identified by GWAS alone (10.4% versus 3.5%). Conclusions: We developed a strategy to integrate multiple omics data to identify AF-related genes. Our integrative approach may be useful to improve the power of traditional GWAS, which might be particularly useful for rare traits and diseases with limited sample size.

19.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(12): e002489, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) may arise from alterations in metabolic, structural, and signaling pathways, but its genetic architecture is incompletely understood. To elucidate potential genetic contributors to cardiac remodeling and HF, we integrated genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, gene expression, and DNA methylation using a transomics analytical approach. METHODS: We used robust rank aggregation (where the position of a certain gene in a rank order list [based on statistical significance level] is tested against a randomly shuffled rank order list) to derive an integrative transomic score for each annotated gene associated with a HF trait. RESULTS: We evaluated ≤8372 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) participants (54% women; mean age, 55±17 years). Of these, 62 (0.7%) and 35 (0.4%) had prevalent HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 8.5 years (minimum-maximum, 0.005-18.6 years), 223 (2.7%) and 234 (2.8%) individuals developed incident HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with reduced ejection fraction, respectively. Top genes included MMP20 and MTSS1 (promotes actin assembly at intercellular junctions) for left ventricular systolic function; ITGA9 (receptor for VCAM1 [vascular cell protein 1]) and C5 for left ventricular remodeling; NUP210 (expressed during myogenic differentiation) and ANK1 (cytoskeletal protein) for diastolic function; TSPAN16 and RAB11FIP3 (involved in regulation of actin cytoskeleton) for prevalent HF with reduced ejection fraction; ANKRD13D and TRIM69 for incident HF with reduced ejection fraction; HPCAL1 and PTTG1IP for prevalent HF with reduced ejection fraction; and ZNF146 (close to the COX7A1 enzyme) and ZFP3 (close to SLC52A1-the riboflavin transporter) for incident HF with reduced ejection fraction. We tested the HF-related top single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the UK biobank, where rs77059055 in TPM1 (minor allele frequency, 0.023; odds ratio, 0.83; P=0.002) remained statistically significant upon Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: Our integrative transomics approach offers insights into potential molecular and genetic contributors to HF and its precursors. Although several of our candidate genes have been implicated in HF in animal models, independent replication is warranted.

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