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1.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Outlet-type VSD is frequently associated with aortic valve prolapse that surgery is frequently required. The literature regarding outcomes of transcatheter closure of outlet-type VSDs is scant. This study was conducted to know the safety and efficacy of transcatheter closure of outlet-type ventricular septal defects (VSDs) with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADO II). METHODS: Medical records of patients underwent attempted transcatheter closure of outlet-type VSD with ADO II between October 2013 and August 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Among 49 patients, transcatheter closure was successful in 45 (91.8%; 33 males and 12 females; mean [± standard deviation] age and body weight: 15.8 (±17.7) years and 36.6 (±23.3) kg, respectively). The median VSD diameter was 4.0 mm (range: 1.2-6.0 mm). Device closure failed in four because the sheath could not be advanced through a prograde or retrograde route in one patient, occluder embolization in the two patients, and failed right ventricular disc anchoring in one patient. After a mean follow-up of 22.7 months (range: 0.3-51.1 months), only nine (20.0%) patients had increased severity in aortic regurgitation (AR) on the echocardiography. Preprocedural AR decreased in severity or even disappeared in 11 (24.4%) patients. No heart block or device failure occurred during follow-up. A trivial-to-small residual shunt was detected in 19 patients (42.2%) in the most recent echocardiography. CONCLUSION: Transcatheter closure of outlet-type VSDs with ADO II is feasible. Although no significant aggravation of AR was observed in the short-to-mid-term follow-up, long-term follow-up is mandatory.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(16): 166404, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383917

RESUMO

The nonlinear optical responses from topological semimetals are crucial in both understanding the fundamental properties of quantum materials and designing next-generation light sensors or solar cells. However, previous work focused on the optical effects from bulk states only, disregarding the responses from topological surface states. In this Letter, we propose a new surface-only photocurrent response from chiral Fermi arcs. Using the ideal topological chiral semimetal RhSi as a representative, we quantitatively compute the photogalvanic currents from Fermi arcs on different surfaces. By rigorous crystal symmetry analysis, we demonstrate that Fermi arc photogalvanic currents can be perpendicular to the bulk injection currents regardless of the choice of materials surface. We then generalize this finding to other cubic chiral space groups and predict material candidates. Our theory reveals a powerful notion where common crystalline symmetry can be used to completely disentangle bulk and surface optical responses in many conducting material families.

3.
Microb Pathog ; 146: 104222, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387390

RESUMO

Inflammasome activation is an important host response to infectious diseases, but the difference in inflammasome activation between typhoid fever and non-typhoidal Salmonella infection has been rarely studied. To determine whether inflammasome activation in macrophages after S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium infection is different, we measured pyroptosis, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1ß secretion in monocyte-derived macrophages infected with S. Typhi or S. Typhimurium both in vitro and ex vivo. The role of Vi capsule and virulence genes in Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1), belonging to type III secretion system, was also examined. S. Typhi caused more pyroptosis, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1ß production than S. Typhimurium did, predominantly within 2 h of infection, in the context of high number of infecting bacteria. Mutagenesis and complementation experiments confirmed that SPI-1 effectors but not Vi were associated with greater inflammasome activation. The expression levels of invA and hilA were significantly higher in S. Typhi than in S. Typhimurium at early log phase in SPI-1 environment. Thus, S. Typhi, relative to its non-typhoidal counterpart, S. Typhimurium, induces greater SPI-1-dependent inflammasome activation in monocyte-derived macrophages. This finding may explain why S. Typhi causes a hyperinflammatory state at bacteremic stage in typhoid fever.

4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The FUT2 gene is a histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) that determines the susceptibility to Norovirus (NoV) infection. This study investigated the clinical significance of the FUT2 gene profile and HBGA expression in NoV infection. METHODS: Fecal specimens were collected from children in Chang-Gung Children's Hospital with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). The medical records were reviewed for clinical data. The viral etiology of gastroenteritis was validated using molecular methods. Genomic DNA was isolated from saliva or whole blood with the Puregene B Kit, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined by real-time PCR assays. RESULTS: FUT2 gene DNA was examined in 98 children with AGE. NoV was detected by RT-PCR in 44 patients (44.8%), while 54 (55.2%) had non-NoV AGE. Of the 44 NoV patients, 38 (86.3%) were secretors (no G428A mutation) and six (13.7%) were non-secretors (G428A mutation). Of the 54 non-NoV AGE patients, 28 (51.9%) were secretors and 20 (48.1%) were non-secretors. NoV-infected patients who were secretors had more frequent vomiting (P < 0.001), longer duration of diarrhea (P < 0.001), and greater overall disease severity score (P < 0.001) compared with non-secretors. Non-NoV infection secretor AGE patients had a longer duration of diarrhea (P < 0.001) than non-secretors. CONCLUSION: FUT2 secretor status affects NoV AGE in children. Secretor patients have prolonged diarrhea, more frequent vomiting, more severe disease, and greater infection transmissibility than non-secretors.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0226313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396576

RESUMO

This descriptive study aimed to explore the physiological factors that determine tolerance to exertion during high-intensity interval effort. Forty-seven young women (15-28 years old) were enrolled: 23 athletes from Taiwan national or national reserve teams and 24 moderately active females. Each participant underwent a maximal incremental INC (modified Bruce protocol) cardiopulmonary exercise test on the first day and high-intensity interval testing (HIIT) on the second day, both performed on a treadmill. The HIIT protocol involved alternation between 1-min effort at 120% of the maximal speed, at the same slope reached at the end of the INC, and 1-min rest until volitional exhaustion. Gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and muscle oxygenation at the right vastus lateralis, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, were continuously recorded. The number of repetitions completed (Rlim) by each participant was considered the HIIT tolerance index. The results showed a large difference in the Rlim (range, 2.6-12.0 repetitions) among the participants. Stepwise linear regression revealed that the variance in the Rlim within the cohort was related to the recovery rates of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), HR at the second minute after INC, and muscle tissue saturation index at exhaustion (R = 0.644). In addition, age was linearly correlated with Rlim (adjusted R = -0.518, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the recovery rates for [Formula: see text] and HR after the incremental test, and muscle saturation index at exhaustion, were the major physiological factors related to HIIT performance. These findings provide insights into the role of the recovery phase after maximal INC exercise testing. Future research investigating a combination of INC and HIIT testing to determine training-induced performance improvement is warranted.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a non-typhoidal food-borne pathogen, causes acute enterocolitis, bacteremia, extraintestinal focal infections in humans. Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) contribute to invading into host cellular cytosol, residing in Salmonella-containing vacuoles for intracellular survival, and inducing cellular apoptosis. This study aimed to better understand the mechanism underlying apoptosis in Salmonella-infected macrophages. METHODS: S. Typhimurium SL1344 was used to evaluate extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways in THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages in response to Salmonella infection. RESULTS: Activated caspase-3-induced apoptosis pathways, including extrinsic (caspase-8-mediated) and intrinsic (caspase-9-mediated) pathways, in Salmonella-infected macrophages were verified. THP-1 cells with dysfunction of TLR-4 and TLR-5 and Salmonella SPI-1 and SPI-2 mutants were constructed to identify the roles of the genes associated with programmed cell death in the macrophages. Caspase-3 activation in THP-1 macrophages was induced by Salmonella through TLR-4 and TLR-5 signaling pathways. We also identified that SPI-1 structure protein PrgH and effectors SipB and SipD, but not SPI-2 structure protein SsaV, could induce apoptosis via caspase-3 activation and reduce the secretion of inflammation marker TNF-α in the Salmonella-infected cells. The two effectors also reduced the translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB into the nucleus and the expression of TNF-α, and then inflammation was diminished. CONCLUSION: Non-typhoid Salmonella induced apoptosis of macrophages and thereby reduced inflammatory cytokine production through the expression of SPI-1. This mechanism in host-pathogen interaction may explain why Salmonella usually manifests as occult bacteremia with less systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the bloodstream infection of children.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an effective alternative to surgical ligation in preterm infants. However, data on device deformation and risk of left pulmonary artery (LPA) obstruction remain scant. This study describes the outcomes and complications of transcatheter closure of PDA in preterm infants weighing <2500 g. METHODS: Amplatzer Piccolo Occluder and Amplatzer Vascular Plug were used. Echocardiography was repeated at prespecified intervals. The device waist and length were assessed through lateral fluoroscopy immediately and at least 3 months after deployment. RESULTS: Fourteen infants were prospectively enrolled (mean procedural weight 1335 g, procedural age 24 days), and all procedures were successful. There was no obstruction of adjacent vessels immediately after deployment. At follow-up, three infants developed aortic coarctation, all of which resolved gradually. Obstruction of the LPA occurred in eight infants, with five being severe cases. Compared with the shape immediately after deployment, the devices became significantly more flattened and lengthened at follow-up in patients with LPA obstruction. This deformation was nonsignificant in infants without any LPA obstruction. The ratio of the device waist after deployment to the nominal waist (<0.75) was highly predictive of LPA obstruction and late device deformation. The cannulated femoral vein was patent compared with the contralateral side. CONCLUSIONS: Device deformation occurring late at follow-up is common and may be associated with LPA obstruction in preterm infants after transcatheter PDA closure. Meticulous device selection and implantation technique are crucial for minimizing the associated risks.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1106: 168-175, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145845

RESUMO

A ratiometric electrochemical molecular sensing platform for real-time quantification of extracellular hypochlorous acid (HClO) production has been developed based on a latent electrochemical probe aminoferrocene thiocarbamate (AFTC 3). The substrate AFTC consist of a masked redox reporter amino ferrocene (AF 4) linked with a dimethylthiocarbamate trigger via hydroxyl benzyl alcohol. The conceptual idea behind the probe design is based on a specific chemical interaction between HClO and dimethylthiocarbamate, which allows only HClO to unmask the probe to releases AF. The scheme was manipulated to establish a highly selective (in presence of various reactive oxygen species, anions and other biological interfering species) and sensitive (detection limit 75 nM) sensing platform not only in lab samples but also in real samples (food samples, and live cells). Real-time in situ quantification platform was developed to profile HClO productions in macrophages, and it did so with great consistency.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(13): 6390-6399, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182422

RESUMO

Herein we report the first highly enantioselective allenoate-Claisen rearrangement using doubly axially chiral phosphate sodium salts as catalysts. This synthetic method provides access to ß-amino acid derivatives with vicinal stereocenters in up to 95% ee. We also investigated the mechanism of enantioinduction by transition state (TS) computations with DFT as well as statistical modeling of the relationship between selectivity and the molecular features of both the catalyst and substrate. The mutual interactions of charge-separated regions in both the zwitterionic intermediate generated by reaction of an amine to the allenoate and the Na+-salt of the chiral phosphate leads to an orientation of the TS in the catalytic pocket that maximizes favorable noncovalent interactions. Crucial arene-arene interactions at the periphery of the catalyst lead to a differentiation of the TS diastereomers. These interactions were interrogated using DFT calculations and validated through statistical modeling of parameters describing noncovalent interactions.

11.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198608

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find clinical demographics of pterygium surgery and prevalence of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in pterygium specimen. METHODS: This is a retrospective, institutional study. The records of patients who had received pterygium excision from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed. Patients after complete ophthalmic "examinations", surgical procedures, and pathological reports were enrolled. Surgical procedures, pathology, external eye photography, prevalence of CIN in specimen, and demographic data were described. RESULTS: Of 1787 pterygium cases, 928 were male and 859 were female. The mean age was 65.19 ± 14.21 years. Of these 1787 cases, 1435 (80.3%) cases had primary pterygium excision, while the others (n = 352; 19.7%) had pterygium excision for recurrence. Four cases presented CIN within pterygium tissue (0.22%). The mean age of pterygium patients with CIN was 57.75 ± 7.80 years. In stratified data, our patients who received primary and secondary pterygium excision were found prevalent in the eighth (28.2%) and seventh (26.1%) decade, respectively. Twelve percent of patients who underwent secondary pterygium excision had a recurrence and required another surgery. Patients requiring amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) during primary pterygium excision were significantly younger (median, 58 years) than those (median, 67 years) without the assistance of AMT (p < 0.001). Similarly, AMT was utilized in younger patients (median, 56 years) during secondary pterygium excision, compared to those without AMT (median, 64 years) (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CIN combined with pterygium is very rare. However, the possibility of the development of ocular surface squamous neoplasia in pterygium tissue should not be ignored. Meticulous pathological investigation of the surgical samples is important.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182911

RESUMO

The global depression population is showing a significant increase. Hemerocallis fulva L. is a common Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Its flower buds are known to have ability to clear away heat and dampness, detoxify, and relieve depression. Ancient TCM literature shows that its roots have a beneficial effect in calming the spirit and even the temper in order to reduce the feeling of melancholy. Therefore, it is inferred that the root of Hemerocallis fulva L. can be used as a therapeutic medicine for depression. This study aims to uncover the pharmacological mechanism of the antidepressant effect of Hemerocallis Radix (HR) through network pharmacology method. During the analysis, 11 active components were obtained and screened using ADME-absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion- method. Furthermore, 267 HR targets and 740 depressive disorder (DD) targets were gathered from various databases. Then protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of HR and DD targets were constructed and cluster analysis was applied to further explore the connection between the targets. In addition, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and pathway analysis was applied to further verify that the biological process related to the target protein is associated with the occurrence of depression disorder. In conclusion, the most important bioactive components-anthraquinone, kaempferol, and vanillic acid-can alleviate depression symptoms by regulating MAOA, MAOB, and ESR1. The proposed network pharmacology strategy provides an integrating method to explore the therapeutic mechanism of multi-component drugs on a systematic level.

13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(3): e17084, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are over 2 million newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer worldwide with more than 10,000 cases in Taiwan each year. During 2017-2018, the National Yang-Ming University, the Taiwan University of Science and Technology, and the Taiwan Breast Cancer Prevention Foundation collaborated to develop a breast cancer self-management support (BCSMS) mHealth app for Taiwanese women with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer in Taiwan after using the BCSMS app. METHODS: After receiving a first diagnosis of breast cancer, women with stage 0 to III breast cancer, who were recruited from social networking sites or referred by their oncologists or oncology case managers, were randomized 1:1 into intervention and control groups. Intervention group subjects used the BCSMS app and the control group subjects received usual care. Two questionnaires-the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and the EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (QLQ-BR23)-were distributed to subjects in both arms. Paper-based questionnaires were used at baseline; paper-based or Web-based questionnaires were used at 1.5-month and 3-month follow-up evaluations. All evaluations were self-assessed and anonymous, and participants were blinded to their allocation groups. Descriptive analysis, the Pearson chi-square test, analysis of variance, and the generalized estimating equation were used to analyze the data. Missing values, with and without multi-imputation techniques, were used for sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: A total of 112 women were enrolled and randomly allocated to either the experimental group (n=53) or control group (n=59). The follow-up completion rate was 89.3% (100/112). The demographic data showed homogeneity between the two groups in age (range 50-64 years), breast cancer stage (stage II), marital status (married), working status (employed), and treatment status (receiving treatments). The mean total QoL summary scores from the QLQ-C30 (83.45 vs 82.23, P=.03) and the QLQ-BR23 (65.53 vs 63.13, P=.04) were significantly higher among the experimental group versus the control group, respectively, at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: This research provides support for using a mobile health care app to promote the QoL among women in Taiwan after a first diagnosis of breast cancer. The BCSMS app could be used to support disease self-management, and further evaluation of whether QoL is sustained is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT004174248; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04174248.

14.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 108: 103668, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145295

RESUMO

Catecholamines (CAs) play critical roles in regulating physiological and immunological homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates under stressful environments. DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), an enzyme responsible for the decarboxylation step of dopamine synthesis, participates in neurotransmitter metabolism and innate immunity. In shrimp, two genes encoding CA-related enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase, were further identified and characterized as neuroendocrine-immune regulators. In this study, full-length complementary DNA of DDC cloned from the thoracic ganglia of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, (LvDDC) was predicted to encode a 452-amino acid protein with a pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase-conserved domain, and this deduced protein of LvDDC was phylogenetically closely related to insect DDC. LvDDC messenger RNA expression was analyzed by a semiquantitative RT-PCR and a real-time quantitative RT-PCR and found to be abundant in the hepatopancreas and nervous system but at low levels in haemocytes, heart, stomach, and gills. To determine the role of LvDDC, double-stranded (ds)RNA was used for in vivo assessments. LvDDC-depleted shrimp revealed significant increases in the total haemocyte count, hyaline cells, granular cells, phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory bursts of haemocytes per unit of haemolymph, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency toward Vibrio alginolyticus. Further, decreased LvDDC mRNA expression was accompanied by decreases in dopamine, glucose, and lactate levels in haemolymph. In shrimp that received LvDDC-dsRNA for 3 days and were then challenged with V. alginolyticus, the survival rate of LvDDC-depleted shrimp was significantly higher than that of shrimp that received diethyl pyrocarbonate-water or non-targeted dsRNA. In conclusion, the cloned LvDDC was responsible for controlling dopamine synthesis, which then regulated physiological and immune responses in L. vannamei.

15.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015531

RESUMO

The spin Hall effect (SHE) is usually observed as a bulk effect in high-symmetry crystals with substantial spin-orbit coupling (SOC), where the symmetric spin-orbit field imposes a widely encountered trade-off between spin Hall angle (θSH) and spin diffusion length (Lsf), and spin polarization, spin current and charge current are constrained to be mutually orthogonal. Here, we report a large θSH of 0.32 accompanied by a long Lsf of 2.2 µm at room temperature in a low-symmetry few-layered semimetal MoTe2, thus identifying it as an excellent candidate for simultaneous spin generation, transport and detection. In addition, we report that longitudinal spin current with out-of-plane polarization can be generated by both transverse and vertical charge current, due to the conventional and a newly observed planar SHE, respectively. Our study suggests that manipulation of crystalline symmetries and strong SOC opens access to new charge-spin interconversion configurations and spin-orbit torques for spintronic applications.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 182, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal genomics and comparative genomics are becoming more important in clinical practice and genome research. Both fields require sequence alignment to discover sequence conservation and variation. Though many methods have been developed, some are designed for small genome comparison while some are not efficient for large genome comparison. Moreover, most existing genome comparison tools have not been evaluated the correctness of sequence alignments systematically. A wrong sequence alignment would produce false sequence variants. RESULTS: In this study, we present GSAlign that handles large genome sequence alignment efficiently and identifies sequence variants from the alignment result. GSAlign is an efficient sequence alignment tool for intra-species genomes. It identifies sequence variations from the sequence alignments. We estimate performance by measuring the correctness of predicted sequence variations. The experiment results demonstrated that GSAlign is not only faster than most existing state-of-the-art methods, but also identifies sequence variants with high accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: As more genome sequences become available, the demand for genome comparison is increasing. Therefore an efficient and robust algorithm is most desirable. We believe GSAlign can be a useful tool. It exhibits the abilities of ultra-fast alignment as well as high accuracy and sensitivity for detecting sequence variations.

17.
Nature ; 578(7796): 545-549, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103195

RESUMO

Chirality is ubiquitous in nature, and populations of opposite chiralities are surprisingly asymmetric at fundamental levels1,2. Examples range from parity violation in the subatomic weak force to homochirality in biomolecules. The ability to achieve chirality-selective synthesis (chiral induction) is of great importance in stereochemistry, molecular biology and pharmacology2. In condensed matter physics, a crystalline electronic system is geometrically chiral when it lacks mirror planes, space-inversion centres or rotoinversion axes1. Typically, geometrical chirality is predefined by the chiral lattice structure of a material, which is fixed on formation of the crystal. By contrast, in materials with gyrotropic order3-6, electrons spontaneously organize themselves to exhibit macroscopic chirality in an originally achiral lattice. Although such order-which has been proposed as the quantum analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals-has attracted considerable interest3-15, no clear observation or manipulation of gyrotropic order has been achieved so far. Here we report the realization of optical chiral induction and the observation of a gyrotropically ordered phase in the transition-metal dichalcogenide semimetal 1T-TiSe2. We show that shining mid-infrared circularly polarized light on 1T-TiSe2 while cooling it below the critical temperature leads to the preferential formation of one chiral domain. The chirality of this state is confirmed by the measurement of an out-of-plane circular photogalvanic current, the direction of which depends on the optical induction. Although the role of domain walls requires further investigation with local probes, the methodology demonstrated here can be applied to realize and control chiral electronic phases in other quantum materials4,16.

18.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically compromised by upper airway anatomical impaired properties, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be categorized into different phenotypic traits, mainly including oropharyngeal muscle dysfunction. The upper airway muscle strength training was targeted on oropharyngeal muscle dysfunction by re-educating the oropharyngeal muscles to maintain the upper airway patency. OSA was characterized with multilevel collapsibility of the upper airway; however, the programs are still inconsistent and the effects are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a comprehensive physical therapy on OSA. METHODS: Fifteen subjects with newly diagnosed moderate or severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15) were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group underwent a 12-week-intervention of hospital based physical therapy, while the control group was kept on waiting for 12 weeks. Polysomnography (PSG) data, oropharyngeal and respiratory muscle performance were measured before and after intervention. RESULTS: In intervention group (n = 8), AHI was significantly improved (from 46.96 ± 19.45 to 32.78 ± 10.78 events/h, p = 0.017); in control group (n = 7), AHI was significantly increased (from 35.77 ± 17.49 to 42.96 ± 17.32 events/h, p = 0.043). While the control group remained no change between pre- and post- intervention, the intervention group demonstrated that other PSG outcomes significantly improved, including arousal index (46.04 ± 18.9 versus 32.98 ± 8.35/h), mean SpO2 (92.88 ± 2.1 versus 94.13 ± 1.46%), and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) (31.13 ± 19.48 versus 20.57 ± 7.83/h). CONCLUSION: This comprehensive physical therapy can be prescribed for the significant clinical improvement on sleep apnea for the patients with moderate and severe OSA.

19.
Plant Sci ; 292: 110391, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005396

RESUMO

Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs, which are composed of 20-24 nucleotides. MiRNAs play important roles in plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Wounding is one of the most serious stresses for plants; however, the regulation of miRNAs in plants upon wounding is not well studied. In this study, miR2111, a wound-repressed miRNA, identified previously in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv Tainung 57) by small RNA deep sequencing was chosen for further analysis. Based on sweet potato transcriptome database, F-box/kelch repeat protein (IbFBK), a target gene of miR2111, was identified. IbFBK is a wound-inducible gene, and the miR2111-induced cleavage site in IbFBK mRNA is between the 10th and 11th nucleotides of miR2111. IbFBK is a component of the E3 ligase SCF (SKP1-Cullin-F-box) complex participating in protein ubiquitination and degradation. The results of yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrate that IbFBK was conjugated with IbSKP1 through the F-box domain in IbFBK N-terminus to form SCF complex, and interacted with IbCNR8 through the kelch-repeat domain in IbFBK C-terminus. The interaction of IbFBK and IbCNR8 may lead to the ubiquitination and degradation of IbCNR8. In conclusion, the suppression of miR2111 resulted in the increase of IbFBK, and may regulate protein degradation of IbCNR8 in sweet potato responding to wounding.

20.
Mycoses ; 63(4): 407-415, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colletotrichum is a rare cause of human infection. Previous reports about Colletotrichum keratitis were limited, and most diagnoses from past reports were based on morphological distinction, which could have led to underestimation of the prevalence of Colletotrichum species. OBJECTIVE: We reported phylogenetic analysis, clinical feature and treatment outcome of molecularly diagnosed Colletotrichum keratitis in our hospital. PATIENTS/METHODS: We recruited 65 patients with culture-proven filamentous fungal keratitis between January 1, 2015 and December 30, 2018. Through molecular sequencing including internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of fungal DNA, seven patients were verified as infected with Colletotrichum species, and their medical records were reviewed to determine the clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Six of seven patients had predisposing factors including trauma (5) and immunosuppressive status (1). Six isolates were initially misidentified as other fungi through morphological identification. ITS sequencing identified the isolates belonged to two species complex (SC): C. truncatum and C. gloeosporioides; multi-locus phylogenetic analysis enabled species identification including C. tropicale (3), C. fructicola (2), C. truncatum (1) and C. fusiforme (1). Five patients with C. gloeosporioides SC responded well to medical treatment and two patients with C truncatum SC underwent evisceration because of either no visual potential or intractable pain. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular approach provides accurate diagnosis and raises epidemiological awareness of Colletotrichum keratitis. Through multi-locus phylogenetic analysis, we report the human infections caused by C. tropicale, C. fructicola and C. fusiforme. We also highlight the different clinical outcomes between C. gloeosporioides SC and C. truncatum SC.

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