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1.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 89, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy and toxicity of three IC regimens (TPF: taxanes, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil; TP: taxanes and cisplatin; and PF: cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) followed by CCRT in locoregionally advanced NPC. METHODS: The retrospective study involved 1354 patients with newly diagnosed stage III-IVA NPC treated with IC and CCRT. The median follow-up time in our cohort was 50 months. Based on EBV DNA level, all the patients with stage IV were divided into low- (pre-EBV DNA < 1500 copies) and high-risk group (pre-EBV DNA ≥ 1500 copies). Progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), locoregional relapse free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and grade 3-4 toxicities were compared among different IC regimens. The survival rates were compared using log-rank test and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to perform multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A multivariate analysis revealed TPF to be more effective than TP. Among stage III patients, no significant difference in clinical outcome between the different IC regimens was showed, while TPF was associated with significantly better survival conditions in the stage IV patients. A further subgroup analysis revealed that only patients with pre-EBV DNA ≥ 1500 copies could benefit from the application of TPF among stage IV NPC. In terms of acute toxicities, PF was associated with fewer grade 3/4 acute toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: In low-risk NPC patients, PF-based IC showed similar efficacy as TPF and TP but was associated with fewer grade 3/4 acute toxicities. In high-risk patients, however, the TPF regimen was superior to PF and TP, although grade 3/4 toxicities were more common with the TPF regimen.

2.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 29, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987051

RESUMO

Currently there are no therapies for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) that can effectively halt disease progression. Existing drugs such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or NMDA receptor antagonists offers only symptomatic benefit. More recently, transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) to treat neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, has been investigated as a new therapeutic approach. Transplanted cells have the potential to replace damaged neural circuitry and secrete neurotrophic factors to counter symptomatic deterioration or to alter lesion protein levels. However, since there are animal models that can recapitulate AD in its entirety, it is challenging to precisely characterize the positive effects of transplanting NSCs. In the present review, we discuss the types of mouse modeling system that are available and the effect in each model after human-derived NSC (hNSC) or murine-derived NSC (mNSC) transplantation. Taken together, results from studies involving NSC transplantation in AD models indicate that this strategy could serve as a new therapeutic approach.

3.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104422, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756377

RESUMO

Peniterester (1), a new tricyclic sesquiterpene, together with 6 known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the secondary metabolites of an artificial mutant Penicillium sp. T2-M20 which was obtained from the parental strain Penicillium sp. T2-8 via UV irradiation as well as nitrosoguanidine (NTG) induction. Peniterester was only produced by the mutant T2-M20 on the basis of LC-MS analysis. Meanwhile, the results of in vitro bioactivities screening indicated that peniterester owned obvious antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs of 8.0, 8.0 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Penicillium/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Rizoma/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Bioorg Chem ; 95: 103503, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855825

RESUMO

An investigation of a co-culture of the Armillaria sp. and endophytic fungus Epicoccum sp. YUD17002 associated with Gastrodia elata led to the isolation of eight new compounds, including five protoilludane-type sesquiterpenes (1-5) and three aryl esters (6-8), together with six known analogues (9-14). The assignments of their structures were conducted via extensive analyses of the spectroscopic data and comparison of experimental and calculatedelectronic circular dichroism(ECD)data. Notably, these new compounds were not present in the pure culture controls and were only detected in the co-cultures. Compound 4 is the first example of an ent-protoilludane sesquiterpenoid scaffold bearing a five-membered lactone. Compound 6 exhibited moderate in vitro cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A549, MCF-7, SMMC-7721, and SW480) with IC50 values ranging from 15.80 to 23.03 µM. Moreover, 6 showed weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 23.85 µM).

5.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 9743-9748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814769

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and reproductive factors and family history of malignancy are considered as high risk factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the synergistic effect of reproductive factors and family history on breast cancer. Method: A total of 1215 breast cancer patients and 1215 control participants from two medical centers were enrolled, and reproductive factor history and family cancer history information was collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR), and synergy index (SI) was used to assess the combined effect of potential factors. Results: Compared to the controls, a negative association between full-term pregnancy/breastfeeding and breast cancer was observed regardless of the status of family cancer history (OR: 0.675, 95% CI: 0.560-0.814 and OR: 0.631, 95% CI: 0.503-0.789 respectively) after adjustment of other confounders, while the risk effect of abortion was unproven. The synergistic effect of history of full-term pregnancy and family history of malignancy was indicated in the combined analyses with SI as 9.429 (95% CI:1.248-71.245). Conclusion: Full-term pregnancy/breastfeeding were protective factors against breast cancer and synergistic additive effect was demonstrated between no full-term pregnancy/breastfeeding and a family history of malignancy on the risk of breast cancer.

6.
ChemSusChem ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883308

RESUMO

The diverse nature of organic precursors offers a versatile platform for precisely tailoring the electronic properties of semiconducting polymers. In this study, three fully conjugated sp2 carbon-linked polymers have been designed and synthesized for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light illumination, by copolymerizing different C3 -symmetric aromatic aldehydes as knots with the 1,4-phenylene diacetonitrile (PDAN) linker through a C=C condensation reaction. The hydrogen evolution (HER) is achieved at a maximum rate of 30.2 mmol g-1 h-1 over a polymer based on 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine units linked by cyano-substituted phenylene, with an apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 7.20 % at 420 nm. Increasing the degree of conjugation and planarity not only extends visible-light absorption, but also stabilizes the fully conjugated sp2 -carbon-linked donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer. Incorporating additional electron-withdrawing triazine units into the D-A polymer to form multiple electron donors and acceptors can greatly promote exciton separation and charge transfer, thus significantly enhancing the photocatalytic activity.

7.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703405

RESUMO

A simple, sensitive and effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) technique was developed for the extraction of pyrethroid pesticides from environmental water samples, followed by gas chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry determination. An adsorbent of magnetic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8@deep eutectic solvent (M-ZIF-8@DES) was prepared using deep eutectic solvent coated on the surface of M-ZIF-8. The features of M-ZIF-8@DES were confirmed by material characterizations, and the results indicated that M-ZIF-8@DES has a good magnetism (61.3 emu g-1), a decent surface area (96.83 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.292 mL g-1). Single factor experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of different conditions on the performance of MSPE. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method performs good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9916) in the concentration range of 1-500 µg L-1. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.05-0.21 µg L-1 (signal/noise = 3/1). The intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) and interday RSD were less than 9.40%. Finally, the proposed technique was applied for the determination of pyrethroid pesticides in environmental water samples. This work shows the potential of DES-modified metal-organic frameworks for different sample pretreatment techniques.

8.
Curr Probl Cancer ; : 100513, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the growing evidence that sarcopenia and inflammation influence the survival of patients with cancer, we evaluated the prognostic significance of the skeletal muscle index (SMI) combined with an inflammation marker in patients with breast cancer who underwent postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 301 patients with breast cancer who received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy between 2010 and 2012. The SMI was measured using preradiotherapy computed tomography (CT) simulation images at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra (T4). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine the optimal cutoff values for the SMI and inflammatory marker. Patients were divided into 2 groups (high SMI and low SMI), based on the SMI cutoff of 10.57 cm2/m2. RESULTS: Patients in the high-SMI group had a median overall survival (OS) of 62.4 months, which was significantly shorter than those in the low-SMI group, with a median OS of 68.5 months (P = 0.025). Patients in the high-SMI group had a median recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 62.3 months, which was shorter but not significantly than the median RFS of 65.2 months of the low-SMI group (P = 0.159). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses revealed SMI was an independent predictor of OS (P = 0.044). The SMI-MLR combination was found to be an independent predictor of OS (P = 0.006) and RFS (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The current findings support the SMI as a promising indicator for predicting clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer receiving postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. A high SMI accompanied by systemic inflammation was significantly associated with reduced OS and RFS.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(50): 18290-18294, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646733

RESUMO

A metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) photosystem based on covalent organic framework (COF) semiconductors was designed for robust and efficient hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation. A maximal H2 evolution rate of 8.42 mmol h-1 g-1 and a turnover frequency of 789.5 h-1 were achieved by using a MIS photosystem prepared by electrostatic self-assembly of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) insulator-capped Pt nanoparticles (NPs) with the hydrophilic imine-linked TP-COFs having =C=O-H-N= hydrogen-bonding groups. The hot π-electrons in the photoexcited n-type TP-COF semiconductors can be efficiently extracted and tunneled to Pt NPs across an ultrathin PVP insulating layer to reduce protons to H2 . Compared to the Schottky-type counterparts, the COF-based MIS photosystems give a 32-fold-enhanced carrier efficiency, attributed to the combined enhancement of photoexcitation rate, charge separation, and oxidation rate of holes accumulated in the valence band of the TP-COF semiconductor.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 462-477, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of a clinically useful fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) hormone has been impeded by its inherent instability and weak FGF receptor (FGFR) binding affinity. There is an urgent need for innovative approaches to overcome these limitations. METHODS: We devised a structure-based chimerisation strategy in which we substituted the thermally labile and low receptor affinity core of FGF21 with an HS binding deficient endocrinised core derived from a stable and high receptor affinity paracrine FGF1 (FGF1ΔHBS). The thermal stability, receptor binding ability, heparan sulfate and ßKlotho coreceptor dependency of the chimera were measured using a thermal shift assay, SPR, SEC-MALS and cell-based studies. The half-life, tissue distribution, glucose lowering activity and adipose tissue remodeling were analyzed in normal and diabetic mice and monkeys. FINDINGS: The melting temperature of the engineered chimera (FGF1ΔHBS-FGF21C-tail) increased by ∼22 °C relative to wild-type FGF21 (FGF21WT), and resulted in a ∼5-fold increase in half-life in vivo. The chimera also acquired an ability to bind the FGFR1c isoform - the principal receptor that mediates the metabolic actions of FGF21 - and consequently was dramatically more effective than FGF21WT in correcting hyperglycemia and in ameliorating insulin resistance in db/db mice. Our chimeric FGF21 also exerted a significant beneficial effect on glycemic control in spontaneous diabetic cynomolgus monkeys. INTERPRETATION: Our study describes a structure-based chimerisation approach that effectively mitigates both the intrinsically weak receptor binding affinities and short half-lives of endocrine FGFs, and advance the development of the FGF21 hormone into a potentially useful drug for Type 2 diabetes.

11.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3296-3302, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589343

RESUMO

Carbofuran residue in vegetables is a concern to human health. Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dcELISA) and dipstick immunoassay were developed in the present study. The dcELISA showed a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) and working range of 1.3 and 0.2 to 7.5 ng/mL, respectively, while the cutoff value of dipstick immunoassay was 20 ng/mL. Applying the two immunoassays, we achieved the goal of rapid screening of carbofuran residue in commercial vegetables with a simple sample processing method. Among 46 leek, 39 potato, and 39 sweet potato samples, carbofuran residue was detected in 22% of the leek samples, and two samples exceeded the maximum residue limit of China (0.02 mg/kg). In addition, carbofuran residue was found at less than 2.5 ng/g in one potato and one sweet potato samples. The residual level of carbofuran measured by immunoassays agreed well with those determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To ensure food safety and human health, it is greatly necessary and meaningful to monitor carbofuran residue in commercial vegetables. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Rapid monitoring of carbofuran residue in vegetables is very necessary and important for consumers, regulatory agencies, and food industry.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Inseticidas/análise , Verduras/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos
12.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 5813-5819, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303790

RESUMO

Purpose: Besides the smoking and occupational exposures, heritable factors have been proven to be a risk factor for lung cancer by several population-based studies, which would misestimate the risk of lung cancer. Patients and methods: To quantify the magnitude of the high risk of lung cancer with family history, we performed a case-based study with 1373 enrolled individuals, which may be more accurate than a population-based study. Results: Risk of lung cancer was higher in people with lung cancer family history than in the control group (OR 2.50, p<0.001). Individuals with family history of liver cancer also had a higher risk of lung cancer than the control group (OR 1.78, p=0.038) while there was no significant difference within the individuals with family history of colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer or breast cancer. Furthermore, the risk of lung cancer in the subjects with early-onset cancers (age <50 years) was higher than the later-onset cancers (age ≥50 years), especially in individuals with family history of liver cancer (OR 9.24 vs 1.39). Risk of lung cancer in females with family history of lung cancer or liver cancer was higher than in males. Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the familial aggregation of lung cancer and liver cancer manifests higher risks of lung cancer, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancer and liver cancer are attributable to common familial predisposition.

13.
Front Neurol ; 10: 599, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275222

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive dysfunction and may even progress to dementia. However, the underlying mechanism of altered functional topological organization and cognitive impairments remains unclear. This study explored the topological properties of functional whole brain networks in T2DM patients with graph theoretical analysis using a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technique. Thirty T2DM patients (aged 51.77 ± 1.42 years) and 30 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) (aged 48.87 ± 0.98 years) underwent resting-state functional imaging in a 3.0 T MR scanner in addition to detailed neuropsychological and laboratory tests. Then, graph theoretical network analysis was performed to explore the global and nodal topological alterations in the functional whole brain networks of the T2DM patients. Finally, correlation analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the altered topological parameters, cognitive performances and clinical variables. Compared to HCs, we found that T2DM patients displayed worse performances in general cognitive function and several cognitive domains, including episodic memory, attention and executive function. In addition, T2DM patients showed a higher small-worldness (σ), a higher normalized clustering coefficient (γ) and a higher local efficiency (Eloc). Moreover, decreased nodal topological properties were mainly distributed in the occipital lobes, frontal lobes, left median cingulate and paracingulate gyri, and left amygdala, while increased nodal topological properties were mainly distributed in the right gyrus rectus, right anterior cingulate and paracingulate gyri, right posterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral caudate nucleus, bilateral cerebellum 3, bilateral cerebellum crus 1, vermis (1, 2) and vermis 3. Some disrupted nodal topological properties were correlated with cognitive performance and HbA1c levels in T2DM patients. This study shows altered functional topological organization in T2DM patients, mainly suggesting a compensation mechanism of the functional whole brain network in the relatively early stage to counteract cognitive impairments.

14.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 186, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis is critical to reduce the mortality caused by nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dysregulated and play important roles in carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to identify diagnostically relevant circulating miRNA signatures in patients with NPC. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from whole blood samples obtained from 120 patients with NPC, 30 patients with head-neck tumors (HNT), and 30 healthy subjects (HSs), and examined by using a custom microarray. The expression levels of four miRNAs identified by using the microarray were validated with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The 120 patients with NPC and 30 HSs were randomly assigned to training group-1 and validation group-1, respectively. By using significance analysis of microarray (SAM), the specific miRNA expression profiles in whole blood from patients with NPC are obtained. By using lasso regression and adaptive boosting, a diagnostic signature was identified in training group-1, and its accuracy was verified in validation group-1. By using the same methods, another signature to distinguish patients with NPC from those with HNT and HSs was identified in training group-2 and confirmed in validation group-2. RESULTS: There were 117 differentially expressed miRNAs (upregulated and downregulated fold change ≥ 1.5) between the patients with NPC and HSs, among which an 8-miRNA signature was identified with 96.43% sensitivity and 100% specificity [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.995] to diagnose NPC in training group-1 and 86.11% sensitivity and 88.89% specificity (AUC = 0.941) in validation group-1. Compared with traditional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seromarkers, this signature was more specific for NPC. Furthermore, a 16-miRNA signature to differentiate NPC from HNT and HS (HNT-HS) was established from 164 differentially expressed miRNAs, which diagnosed NPC and HNT-HS with 100% accuracy (AUC = 1.000) in training group-2 and 87.04% (AUC = 0.924) in validation group-2. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified two miRNA signatures for the highly accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with NPC from HSs and patients with HNT. The identified miRNAs might represent novel serological biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for NPC.

15.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(6)2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238547

RESUMO

Near-infrared fluorescence probes (NIFPs) have been widely used in immunoassay, bio-imaging and medical diagnosis. We review the basic principles of near-infrared fluorescence and near-infrared detection technology, and summarize structures, properties and characteristics of NIFPs (i.e., cyanines, xanthenes fluorescent dyes, phthalocyanines, porphyrin derivates, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), quantum dots and rare earth compounds). We next analyze applications of NIFPs in immunoassays, and prospect the application potential of lateral flow assay (LFA) in rapid detection of pathogens. At present, our team intends to establish a new platform that has highly sensitive NIFPs combined with portable and simple immunochromatographic test strips (ICTSs) for rapid detection of food-borne viruses. This will provide technical support for rapid detection on the port.

16.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 185, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease modeling with patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis and developing safe and effective treatments. Patient peripheral blood (PB) cells are used for iPSC generation in many cases since they can be collected with minimum invasiveness. To derive iPSCs that lack immunoreceptor gene rearrangements, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are often targeted as the reprogramming source. However, the current protocols generally require HSPC mobilization and/or ex vivo expansion owing to their sparsity at the steady state and low reprogramming efficiencies, making the overall procedure costly, laborious, and time-consuming. METHODS: We have established a highly efficient method for generating iPSCs from non-mobilized PB-derived CD34+ HSPCs. The source PB mononuclear cells were obtained from 1 healthy donor and 15 patients and were kept frozen until the scheduled iPSC generation. CD34+ HSPC enrichment was done using immunomagnetic beads, with no ex vivo expansion culture. To reprogram the CD34+-rich cells to pluripotency, the Sendai virus vector SeVdp-302L was used to transfer four transcription factors: KLF4, OCT4, SOX2, and c-MYC. In this iPSC generation series, the reprogramming efficiencies, success rates of iPSC line establishment, and progression time were recorded. After generating the iPSC frozen stocks, the cell recovery and their residual transgenes, karyotypes, T cell receptor gene rearrangement, pluripotency markers, and differentiation capability were examined. RESULTS: We succeeded in establishing 223 iPSC lines with high reprogramming efficiencies from 15 patients with 8 different disease types. Our method allowed the rapid appearance of primary colonies (~ 8 days), all of which were expandable under feeder-free conditions, enabling robust establishment steps with less workload. After thawing, the established iPSC lines were verified to be pluripotency marker-positive and of non-T cell origin. A majority of the iPSC lines were confirmed to be transgene-free, with normal karyotypes. Their trilineage differentiation capability was also verified in a defined in vitro assay. CONCLUSION: This robust and highly efficient method enables the rapid and cost-effective establishment of transgene-free iPSC lines from a small volume of PB, thus facilitating the biobanking of patient-derived iPSCs and their use for the modeling of various diseases.

17.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 50(6): 684-695, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related skeletal muscle loss and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms are both associated with increased liver steatosis and fibrosis in the absence of obesity. AIM: To investigate the influence of PNPLA3 polymorphism on the relationship between skeletal muscle loss and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Liver fat content was measured using a quantitative ultrasound method, and liver fibrosis was assessed by NAFLD fibrosis, BARD and FIB-4 scores in 3969 Chinese adults. The degree of sarcopenia was measured by weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM% = appendicular skeletal muscle mass(kg)/body weight(kg)  100%). RESULTS: The NAFLD proportion increased from 19.9% to 41.2% in men and 26.3% to 42.3% in women with decreasing ASM% quartiles (P < 0.001). Low ASM% was inversely associated with NAFLD in PNPLA3 CC (odds ratio [OR]: men, 0.735 [0.610-0.885] and women, 0.812 [0.718-0.918], both P = 0.001) and CG (OR: men, 0.673 [0.573-0.790] and women, 0.798 [0.713-0.893], both P < 0.001) but not GG genotype carriers. The association remained significant after adjustment for age, cigarette smoking, fat mass, interaction between fat mass and ASM%, obesity, diabetes and all components of metabolic syndrome. Subgroup analyses found that PNPLA3 GG gene variant did not increase the risk for NAFLD in individuals with low ASM% regardless of obesity status. Low ASM% also increased risk for liver fibrosis (all P < 0.05), which became insignificant after multiple adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: Low ASM% is associated with NAFLD and liver fibrosis. Dissociation of sarcopenia and NAFLD was found in PNPLA3 GG genotype carriers. A stratification based on PNPLA3 genotypes might facilitate personalised treatment for NAFLD.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(6)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248127

RESUMO

Insulin resistance and metabolic derangement are present in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the metabolomic signature of T2DM in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not been investigated thus far. In this prospective metabolomic study, fasting CSF and plasma samples from 40 T2DM patients to 36 control subjects undergoing elective surgery with spinal anesthesia were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR spectra of CSF and plasma metabolites were analyzed and correlated with the presence of T2DM and diabetic microangiopathy (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) using an area under the curve (AUC) estimation. CSF metabolomic profiles in T2DM patients vs. controls revealed significantly increased levels of alanine, leucine, valine, tyrosine, lactate, pyruvate, and decreased levels of histidine. In addition, a combination of alanine, histidine, leucine, pyruvate, tyrosine, and valine in CSF showed a superior correlation with the presence of T2DM (AUC:0.951), diabetic retinopathy (AUC:0.858), nephropathy (AUC:0.811), and neuropathy (AUC:0.691). Similar correlations also appeared in plasma profiling. These metabolic alterations in CSF suggest decreasing aerobic metabolism and increasing anaerobic glycolysis in cerebral circulation of patients with T2DM. In conclusion, our results provide clues for the metabolic derangements in diabetic central neuropathy among T2DM patients; however, their clinical significance requires further exploration.

19.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 4809-4814, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213902

RESUMO

Introduction: Albumin and alkaline phosphatase have been previously demonstrated as independent prognostic factors for various types of cancer. Here, we aimed to explore the potential value of pretreatment albumin to alkaline phosphatase ratio (AAPR) on overall survival (OS) in nonmetastatic breast cancer patients. Methods: A total of 746 nonmetastatic breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study. Receiver characteristic curve was used to analyze the AAPR threshold. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression methodology. Results: The optimal cutoff value of AAPR in predicting OS in nonmetastatic breast cancer patients was 0.525. Increased pretreatment AAPR level was related to age at diagnosis (≥60 years vs <60 years, P=0.000), tumor size (T≤2 cm vs T>2 cm, P=0.034), estrogen receptor (positive vs negative, P=0.022), progesterone receptor (positive vs negative, P=0.025), carcino-embryonic antigen (abnormal vs normal, P=0.016), surgery (lumpectomy vs mastectomy, P=0.002), chemotherapy (yes vs no, P=0.004), radiotherapy (yes vs no, P=0.013), endocrine therapy (yes vs no, P=0.027) but not with lymph node involvement, HER-2 status or CA-153. The 5-year OS rate was 80.16% for the low AAPR group and 92.66% for the high AAPR group. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with low-AAPR levels had shorter OS than patients with high-AAPR levels (P=0.001). N classification (P<0.05), Ki-67 (HR=3.603, 95% CI=1.046-12.414, P=0.042) and AAPR (HR=0.447, 95% CI=0.205-0.976, P=0.043) were related to OS in multivariate analyses, respectively. Conclusion: AAPR is an independent prognostic factor for OS in nonmetastatic breast cancer patients. Further prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.

20.
Front Oncol ; 9: 270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041190

RESUMO

Introduction: It is still controversial whether post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is necessary for women with T1-2 N1mic ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer. The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay has been validated in T1-2 N1 breast cancer to be prognostic of locoregional recurrence (LRR) and overall survival (OS). This study aims to evaluate the predict value of 21-gene recurrence score assay for the benefit of PMRT in T1-2 N1mic ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer. Methods: A population-based cohort study was performed on women with T1-2 N1mic ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and were evaluated using the 21-gene RS in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry between 2004 and 2015. Clinical characteristics as well as OS and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were compared between patients with and without PMRT in patients with a Low-, Intermediate-, and High-RS. Multivariate COX regression analysis was performed to investigate if the 21-gene RS assay could predict benefit of PMRT in this group of breast cancer patients. Results: A total of 1571 patients met the criteria of our study and were enrolled, including 970 patients in the Low-Risk group (score <18), 508 in the Intermediate-Risk group (score 18-30), and 93 patients in the High-Risk group (score >30). In the High-Risk group, there were more patients with age ≥50 (87.0 vs. 64.3%, P = 0.040) and received chemotherapy with a borderline significance (91.3 vs. 72.9%, P = 0.066) in the PMRT subgroup than in the no PMRT subgroup. In all three groups, OS was comparable between the PMRT subgroup and the no PMRT subgroup. Furthermore, multivariate analysis did not show any OS benefit for PMRT based on the 21-gene recurrence score. Conclusion: This study showed that the 21-gene RS assay was not able to predict the benefit of PMRT for OS in women with T1-2 N1mic ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer. However, further prospective larger sample-size trials are warranted to determine if a benefit exists.

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