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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679555

RESUMO

This cohort study aimed to investigate urinary cytokines expression to help identify a less invasive method of cytokine detection for Kawasaki disease (KD). Patients with confirmed KD were recruited. Patients with fever or urinary tract infection (UTI) were enrolled as control groups. Urinary samples were collected before and 3 days after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. The levels of cytokines were detected by MILLPLEX® MAP human multiplex assay. All cytokines, i.e., epidermal growth factor (EGF), interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-33, interferon-gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) except monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were significantly higher in the KD group, compared with the fever-control (FC) group, whereas the expressions of IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-33, MCP-1, MIP-1ß, and TNF-α were significantly lower in the urine of KD patients, as compared with the UTI group. The expressions of EGF, IFN-γ, IL-8, IL-13, and IL-17A were higher in the urine of KD patients than in the FC group, whereas the level of IL-1ß was lower in KD than in the UTI group after age adjustment by logistic regression. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IP-10, and MCP-1 were significantly higher in the pre-IVIG urine of KD patients than in the post-IVIG treatment group. Additionally, urine IL-4 and blood C-reactive protein were higher in the KD group with coronary artery lesion (CAL) than in the non-CAL group. Results of this study provide a new view of urinary cytokine expression in the disease progress of KD, which may help clinicians to predict and prevent morbidity early and non-invasively.

2.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 100, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The deleterious effect of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on the fetal rat liver may cause later development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal HFD-induced maternal hepatic steatosis and dysbiosis on the fetal liver and intestines, and the effect of prenatal metformin in a rat model. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups (N = 6 in each group). Before mating, the rats were randomly assigned to HFD or normal-chow diet (NCD) group for 7 weeks. After mating, the HFD group rats were continued with high-fat diet during pregnancy and some of the HFD group rats were co-treated with metformin (HFMf) via drinking water during pregnancy. All maternal rats and their fetuses were sacrificed on gestational day 21. The liver and intestinal tissues of both maternal and fetal rats were analyzed. In addition, microbial deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from the maternal fecal samples was analyzed. RESULTS: HFD resulted in maternal weight gain during pregnancy, intrahepatic lipid accumulation, and change in the serum short-chain fatty acid profile, intestinal tight junctions, and dysbiosis in maternal rats. The effect of HFD on maternal rats was alleviated by prenatal metformin, which also ameliorated inflammation and apoptosis in the fetal liver and intestines. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the beneficial effects of prenatal metformin on maternal liver steatosis, focusing on the gut-liver axis. In addition, the present study indicates that prenatal metformin could ameliorate maternal HFD-induced inflammation and apoptosis in the fetal liver and intestines. This beneficial effect of in-utero exposure of metformin on fetal liver and intestines has not been reported. This study supports the use of prenatal metformin for pregnant obese women.

3.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 69: 102737, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457262

RESUMO

Background: Medical school tuition has increased dramatically. We aimed to characterize allopathic and osteopathic medical school tuition and its association with geographic region, pre-clerkship and clerkship curriculums, and compare tuition between allopathic and osteopathic schools. Methods: US allopathic and osteopathic in-state tuition were extracted from the AAMC and AACOM databases and adjusted for cost-of-living. Schools were divided by geographic regions (West, Midwest, South, Northeast). Pre-clerkship and clerkship curricula characteristics were collected from school websites. Pre-clerkship curricula were categorized into one of six categories: 1) discipline-based, 2) organ system-based, 3) combined discipline/organ system based, 4) team-based learning, 5) mixed, and 6) other. Clerkship curricula characteristics collected included; required research block, out-of-state elective option, and global health (international) elective option. This study was reported according to STROCSS guidelines. Results: For allopathic schools, unadjusted and adjusted tuition was significantly higher in the Northeast. After adjusting for cost of living, the West displayed significantly larger in-state tuition than the South. No association was seen between tuition and pre-clerkship curriculum. Of the clerkship characteristics, presence of a required research block or global health electives corresponded to higher tuitions. For osteopathic schools, tuition in the West was significantly higher than the South and Midwest. Schools that offered a discipline-based pre-clerkship curriculum had higher tuitions than other curricula. Clerkship characteristics were not associated with tuition variation. Conclusions: US medical school tuition is highly variable, demonstrating associations with geographic regions and curriculum characteristics. There is increasing value in team-based learning modalities in improving professional communication skills.

4.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 67: 102512, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295463

RESUMO

•The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) assessment is not meant for an acute trauma and is administered to assess PTSD symptoms experienced over the past month. This screening tool is indicated for children ages 7 or above, which spans a wider age range than does the PHQ-9.•It is difficult to say how widely available psycho-trauma resources are in the acute care setting at PTCs. However, the literature demonstrates the importance of immediate, adequate psychologic care for pediatric trauma cases.•We hope that trauma centers moving forward, stop only healing the broken bones and start healing the broken bones, the broken minds, and comforting the broken hearts.

5.
Biomed J ; 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a common, lethal cardiovascular disease. There is no cure except the valve replacement at last stage. Therefore, an understanding of the detail mechanism is imperative to prevent and intervene AS. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the major risk factors of AS whereas fructose overconsuming tops the list of MetS risk factors. However, whether the fructose under physiological level induces AS is currently unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The human valve interstitial cells (hVICs), a crucial source to develop calcification, were co-incubated with fructose at 2 or 20 mM to mimic the serum fructose at fasting or post-fructose consumption, respectively, for 24 hours. The cell proliferation was evaluated by WST-1 assays. The expressions of osteogenic and fibrotic proteins, PI3K/AKT signaling, insulin receptor substrate 1 and mitochondrial dynamic proteins were detected by Western blot analyses. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) was examined by Seahorse analyzer. RESULTS: hVICs proliferation was significantly suppressed by 20 mM fructose. The expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were enhanced concurrent with the upregulated PI3K p85, AKT, phospho(p)S473-AKT, and pS636-insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS-1) by high fructose. Moreover, ATP production capacity and maximal respiratory capacity were enhanced in the high fructose groups. Synchronically, the expressions of mitochondrial fission 1and optic atrophy type 1 were increased. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that high fructose stimulated the osteogenic differentiation of hVICs via the activation of PI3K/AKT/mitochondria signaling at the early stage. These results implied that high fructose at physiological level might have a direct, hazard effect on the progression of AS.

6.
Neuroreport ; 32(13): 1091-1099, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284453

RESUMO

Increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine can be encountered in chronic inflammatory disease, liver damage, renal failure, and multiple organ failure. In addition, an association between circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine levels and all-cause mortality has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, postnatal day 17 ± 1, received continuous asymmetric dimethylarginine infusion via an intraperitoneal pump. Spatial performance and dorsal hippocampal asymmetric dimethylarginine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined, and the effect of resveratrol was tested. A 4-week continuous asymmetric dimethylarginine infusion in young male rats caused spatial deficits, increased asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, and decreased BDNF expression in the dorsal hippocampus. Increased oxidative stress and altered molecules in the dorsal hippocampus linked to asymmetric dimethylarginine and BDNF functions were detected. Resveratrol protected against these effects, reversing spatial deficits, and reducing the changes in the dorsal hippocampal asymmetric dimethylarginine and BDNF levels.

7.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 67: 102471, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150208

RESUMO

Background: There is a paucity of literature addressing COVID-19 case-fatality ratios (CFR) by zip code (ZC). We aim to analyze trends in COVID-19 CFR, population density, and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators (unemployment, median household income) to identify ZCs heavily burdened by COVID-19. Methods: Cross-sectional study to investigate the US prevalence of COVD-19 fatalities by ZC and SES. CFRs were calculated from state/county Departments of Health. Inclusion criteria were counties that reported cases/deaths by ZC and a CFR≥2%. This study was reported in line with the STROCSS criteria. Results: 609/1,853 ZCs, spanning 327 counties in 7 states had CFRs ≥2%. A significant positive correlation was found between the CFR and median household income (Pearson correlation:0.107; 95% CI [289.1,1937.9]; p < 0.001). No significant correlations exist between the CFR, and population/mi (Sen-Crowe et al., 2020) [2] or unemployment rate. Significant associations exist between the CFR and young males and elderly females without public insurance. CFR was inversely associated with persons aged <44 and individuals aged ≥65. The percentage of nursing homes (NHs) within cities residing within high CFR ZCs range from 8.7% to 67.6%. Conclusion: Significant positive association was found between the CFR and median household income. Population/mi (Sen-Crowe et al., 2020) [2] and unemployment rates, did not correlate to CFR. NHs were heavily distributed in high CFR zip codes. We recommend the targeted vaccination of zip codes with a large proportion of long-term care facilities. Finally, we recommend for improved screening and safety guidelines for vulnerable populations (e.g nursing home residents) and established protocols for when there is evidence of substantial infectious spread.

8.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 22(5): 719-730, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with metabolic syndrome; however, the relationship of psoriasis severity with individual cardiometabolic risk factors is not clear. There is a reporting gap between the cardiometabolic risks among patients with psoriasis and what has been reported in the literature using US samples. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the disease burden of psoriasis and assess the associations of psoriasis severity and cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using the weighted pooled data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) 2007 through 2016. The NAMCS data were collected from US office-based physicians. Each physician was randomly assigned a specific week to report a sample of their cases. Patients were categorized as severe psoriasis if they were prescribed at least one systemic therapy. We used logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders to estimate the associations of psoriasis severity with individual cardiometabolic factors. RESULTS: There were about 3.3 million office-based psoriasis visits per year with a mean age of 50 years, a female-to-male ratio of 1:1, and severe disease in 23%. We observed greater values of blood pressure, lipid profiles, and higher body mass index among patients with psoriasis, compared with patients without psoriasis. A higher proportion of the psoriasis patient group were overweight and obese (73.6% vs 62.9% in the non-psoriasis patient group). Compared to mild case groups, severe case groups tended to have a higher proportion of overweight/obese with a body mass index ≥  25 kg/m2 (77% vs 73%). Obesity was weakly associated with psoriasis severity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.91 for mild disease and adjusted odds ratio = 1.42, 95% confidence interval 0.80-2.52 for severe cases). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiometabolic factors are related health issues in psoriasis, and obesity is associated with greater psoriasis severity.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802643

RESUMO

Patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) usually show a dismal prognosis. It is this worthwhile to develop new, effective therapeutic regimens for these patients, such as molecular targeted therapy, which is promising as an alternative or combination treatment for HNSCC. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of HNSCC, is the most frequently activated, and is thus worthy of further investigation. In this study, two human HNSCC cell lines, FaDu and SAS, were evaluated for cell growth with trypan blue staining and tumor growth using an orthotopic xenograft model. The immunohistochemical expression of mTOR in the subcutaneous xenograft model and the inhibitory effects of docetaxel on the growth and state of activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway were also evaluated and examined by colony formation and Western blot, respectively. Cell proliferation and migration were measured by water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) and OrisTM cell migration assay, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of rapamycin and BEZ235, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) and mTOR inhibitor in combination with docetaxel or CCL20 were evaluated in the FaDu and SAS cells. The results showed that the expression of mTOR was significantly higher in the SAS and FaDu xenograft models than in the control. Docetaxel treatment significantly suppressed HNSCC cell proliferation and migration in vitro via the PI3K/mTOR/CCL-20 signaling pathway. Additionally, when administered in a dose-dependent fashion, mTOR inhibitors inhibited the growth and migration of the HNSCC cells. This combination was synergistic with docetaxel, resulting in almost complete cell growth and migration arrest. In conclusion, docetaxel significantly inhibited HNSCC cell proliferation and migration in vitro via the PI3K/mTOR/CCL-20 signaling pathway. The synergistic and additive activity of mTOR inhibitors combined with docetaxel shows potential as a new treatment strategy for HNSCC.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL20/metabolismo , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Acta Cardiol Sin ; 37(1): 58-64, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33488028

RESUMO

Background: Coronary cameral fistula (CCF), a rare abnormal coronary communication to cardiac chambers, may lead to coronary steal phenomenon and increase cardiac overload. We investigated the clinical and cardiovascular characteristics in children before and after transcatheter closure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed pediatric patients with CCFs diagnosed by echocardiography in a tertiary medical center between 1998 and 2019. Basic information, echocardiogram, catheterization and interventional procedures were obtained from medical charts. Results: A total of 12 pediatric subjects were included. The median ages at diagnosis and catheterization were 0.2 and 2.8 years, respectively. All CCFs were unilateral and single with varying degrees of coronary artery dilatation and aneurysm formation and diagnosed by echocardiography. The median follow-up periods before and after catheterization were 2.5 and 7.3 years, respectively. Seven of the CCFs originated from the left side. The drainage sites were all right hearts. Before catheterization, the median size of the proximal end of the fistula was 3.1 mm, concomitant with enlargement of conduit coronary arteries. Eleven of the 12 patients underwent transcatheter closure using coils in six and vascular plugs in five. Only one patient had a significant increase in pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio. The size of conduit coronary artery gradually decreased and the size of ipsilateral coronary branch increased after closure. Conclusions: Transcatheter occlusion for CCFs in children is safe and effective. The morphology of CCFs varies with the degrees of dilation, tortuosity, and aneurysmal formation. After occlusion, alterations in the size of coronary arteries may be a prognostic indicator.

12.
J Pediatr ; 228: 58-65.e3, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular features and endothelium in neonates born to mothers with preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: In this combined observational cohort and case-control study, neonates born to mothers with normotension and mothers with preeclampsia were recruited at a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary medical center. Cardiovascular measurements by echocardiography and the clinical measures upon admission were analyzed. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in umbilical arteries and in in vitro endothelial cell stimulation with plasma were examined. Continuous data were compared using nonparametric analysis, and their relationships were analyzed using linear regression. Binary logistic regression was performed in the model of adjustment of birth body weight and for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: In the cohort, almost all cardiovascular segments positively correlated to birth weight. Notably, neonates (n = 65) of mothers with preeclampsia had significantly larger coronary arteries at birth than neonates of mothers with normotension (n = 404) (median size of left main coronary artery 1.36 mm versus 1.08 mm, p <0.001; median size of right coronary artery, RCA 1.25 mm versus 1.0 mm, p <0.001). The size of the right coronary artery positively correlated to the maternal antepartum diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.298, P = .018) and was associated with in-hospital death (P < .001). Meanwhile, endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was significantly increased in the umbilical arteries of the preeclamptic group and following preeclamptic cord-plasma stimulation. The latter also correlated with their relative coronary sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Neonates of mothers with preeclampsia had distinctive coronary dilatation at birth. Coronary size might be useful as a severity index of neonatal endothelial inflammation as a result of maternal preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Dilatação Patológica/diagnóstico , Dilatação Patológica/etiologia , Dilatação Patológica/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(10): 872-878, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949547

RESUMO

Studies in experimental animals show transmissibility of amyloidogenic proteins associated with prion diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Although these data raise potential concerns for public health, convincing evidence for human iatrogenic transmission only exists for prions and amyloid ß after systemic injections of contaminated growth hormone extracts or dura mater grafts derived from cadavers. Even though these procedures are now obsolete, some reports raise the possibility of iatrogenic transmission of amyloid ß through putatively contaminated neurosurgical equipment. Iatrogenic transmission of amyloid ß might lead to amyloid deposition in the brain parenchyma and blood vessel walls, potentially resulting in cerebral amyloid angiopathy after several decades. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy can cause life-threatening brain haemorrhages; yet, there is no proof that the transmission of amyloid ß can also lead to Alzheimer's dementia. Large, long-term epidemiological studies and sensitive, cost-efficient tools to detect amyloid are needed to better understand any potential routes of amyloid ß transmission and to clarify whether other similar proteopathic seeds, such as tau or α-synuclein, can also be transferred iatrogenically.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Vigilância da População , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Animais , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/metabolismo , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/patologia , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/transmissão , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(6): 2521-2537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FPR1 over-expression and insufficiency of FPR2 and FPR3 are associated with disease severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that epigenetic modification of the FPR1/2/3 genes may underlie intermittent hypoxia with re-oxygenation (IHR) injury in OSA. METHODS: DNA methylation levels over 17 CpG sites of the FPR1/2/3 genes and their gene expression levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined in 40 treatment-naïve OSA patients, 12 severe OSA patients under long-term continuous positive airway pressure treatment, 16 primary snoring (PS) subjects, and 10 healthy non-snorers (HS). RESULTS: Both -524 and -264 CpG sites of the FPR1 gene were hypomethylated in treatment-naïve OSA versus HS, while -264 CpG site methylation level was negatively correlated with FPR1/FPR3 gene expression ratio and associated with prevalent diabetes mellitus. Both +8802 and +8845 CpG sites of the FPR2 gene were hypermethylated in treatment-naive OSA versus HS, while hypermethylated +9132 and +9150 CpG sites were both associated with prevalent hypertension. FPR3 gene expression and DNA methylation levels over -842/-516 CpG sites of the FPR3 gene were both decreased in treatment-naive OSA versus HS, while hypermethylated -429 CpG site was associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein level. In vitro IHR stimuli in human monocytic THP-1 cells resulted in gene promoter hypomethylation-mediated FPR1 over-expression, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and increased cell apoptosis, which could be reversed with re-methylation agent, folic acid, treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant DNA methylation patterns of the FPR1/2/3 gene promoters contribute to disease severity and diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease in OSA patients, probably through regulating FPR1/2/3 gene expressions.

15.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 61(5): 513-521, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains a critical issue in prematurity care. To predict the PDA closure early, we aimed to clarify the association of PDA closure with the initial postnatal 24-hour clinical characteristics and maternal and gestational histories of preterm neonates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a pediatric-neonatal-intensive-care-unit from 2008 to 2013. Data relating to birth histories, maternal histories, and clinical data from the first 24 h of life were analyzed according to three types of PDA closure-non-treated, medically-responsive, and surgically-ligated PDA and birth body weights (BBWs). Univariate analysis was performed using non-parametric analysis and Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Multivariate analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression to determine the independent risk factors for the PDA closure. RESULTS: This study involved 682 preterm infants with median gestational age of 31 (interquartile, IQR: 28-34) weeks and BBW of 1360 (IQR: 1085-1861) g. Inclusively, 16.7% of (P)DAs underwent medical and/or surgical treatment. For very low birth body weight (VLBW) neonates, surfactant use not only predicted the requirement of PDA treatment, but together with dopamine use and the larger amount of first 24-hour intravenous fluid (IVF) per kilogram of BBW, it also predicted the possibility of surgical ligation. Meanwhile, the cut-off values of the IVF amount (87 and 89.5 ml/kg/day, respectively) might predict the PDA treatment necessity and surgical ligation. For neonates with BBW ≥1500 g, placenta previa and lower BBW and systolic blood pressure (SBP) predicted the risk of treatment for PDA and its treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal care for PDA in prematurity should be meticulously personalized. Surfactant use, dopamine administration and the first 24-hour IVF management may be critical for PDA closure in VLBW neonates. Antepartum history of placenta previa, BBW and SBP control may be important for BBW≥1500 g.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/terapia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Adulto , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ligadura , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604820

RESUMO

Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) can originate during early-life. Tryptophan metabolites generated by different pathways have both detrimental and beneficial effects. In CKD, uremic toxins from the tryptophan-generating metabolites are endogenous ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The interplay between AHR, nitric oxide (NO), the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and gut microbiota is involved in the development of hypertension. We examined whether tryptophan supplementation in pregnancy can prevent hypertension and kidney disease programmed by maternal CKD in adult offspring via the aforementioned mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with 0.5% adenine for 3 weeks to induce CKD before pregnancy. Pregnant controls or CKD rats received vehicle or tryptophan 200 mg/kg per day via oral gavage during pregnancy. Male offspring were divided into four groups (n = 8/group): control, CKD, tryptophan supplementation (Trp), and CKD plus tryptophan supplementation (CKDTrp). All rats were sacrificed at the age of 12 weeks. We found maternal CKD induced hypertension in adult offspring, which tryptophan supplementation prevented. Maternal CKD-induced hypertension is related to impaired NO bioavailability and non-classical RAS axis. Maternal CKD and tryptophan supplementation differentially shaped distinct gut microbiota profile in adult offspring. The protective effect of tryptophan supplementation against maternal CKD-induced programmed hypertension is relevant to alterations to several tryptophan-metabolizing microbes and AHR signaling pathway. Our findings support interplay among tryptophan-metabolizing microbiome, AHR, NO, and the RAS in hypertension of developmental origins. Furthermore, tryptophan supplementation in pregnancy could be a potential approach to prevent hypertension programmed by maternal CKD.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 174, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is an emerging problem in the modern world. Growing evidence suggests that intrauterine high-fat (HF) exposure may predispose progeny to subsequent metabolic challenges. Progeny born to mothers who ate an HF diet also tends to eat an HF diet when growing and aggravate metabolic issues. Thus, the generational transmission of obesity is cyclical. Developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of metabolic syndrome related to prenatal and/or postnatal HF diet is important. In this study, the reprogramming effects of maternal resveratrol treatment for the progeny with maternal HF/postnatal HF diets were investigated. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either a control or a high-fat/high sucrose diet (HFHS) from mating to lactation. After weaning, the progeny was fed chow or an HF diet. Four experimental groups were yielded: CC (maternal/postnatal control diet), HC (maternal HF/postnatal control diet), CH (maternal control/postnatal HFHS diet), and HH (maternal/postnatal HFHS diet). A fifth group (HRH) received a maternal HFHS diet plus maternal resveratrol treatment and a postnatal chow diet to study the effects of maternal resveratrol therapy. RESULTS: Maternal resveratrol treatment lessened the weight and adiposity of progeny that were programmed by combined prenatal and postnatal HFHS diets. Maternal resveratrol therapy ameliorated the decreased abundance of the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) enzyme in retroperitoneal tissue and the altered leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio of progeny. Maternal resveratrol therapy also decreased lipogenesis and increased lipolysis for progeny. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal resveratrol intervention can prevent adiposity programmed by maternal and postnatal HFHS diets by inducing lipid metabolic modulation. This study offers a novel reprogramming role for the effect of maternal resveratrol supplements against obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Western Blotting , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
18.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(5): 539-542, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High cost of prescription medications presents a challenging issue for older patients with multimorbidities. Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses (AK), a highly prevalent condition among elderly populations, but it is often associated with unpredictable retail prices and high out-of-pocket costs. One online pharmacy offers branded prescription medications at fixed, low prices, but it may be less accessible to older patients for numerous reasons. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the number of patients receiving topical 5-FU from an online pharmacy is proportionate to the national data on expected payment types for patients prescribed topical 5-FU for AK. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using weighted pooled data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) on topical 5-FU prescriptions for AK from 2007-2016. Data regarding online pharmacy use were provided by Dermatology.com for the year 2019. RESULTS: Among patients with AK prescribed topical 5-FU, the most prevalent payment source was Medicare (54%) followed by private insurance (40%). On the online pharmacy, the majority of patients had commercial insurance (71%) followed by Medicaid (12%). LIMITATIONS: Data from Dermatology.com are limited. CONCLUSIONS: Lower-cost medications from the online pharmacy site may improve adherence and outcomes in older adults and decrease total cost associated with AK treatment. However, the online pharmacy is underutilized by this population. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(4): doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.4690.


Assuntos
Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Gastos em Saúde , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Disponibilidade de Medicamentos Via Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/economia , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/economia , Masculino , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/economia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disponibilidade de Medicamentos Via Internet/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Estados Unidos
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 317: 49-55, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospective registry studies of congenital heart disease (CHD)-associated pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) are rare. We established a multicenter registry of CHD-PAH: the TACHYON (TAiwan Congenital Heart disease associated with pulmonarY arterial hypertension) registry. METHODS: The prospective TACHYON registry was initiated in January 2016. Nine pediatric cardiology centers with 99 patients were included. Using this database, we evaluated clinical characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS: Twelve patients with incomplete data were excluded. For the remaining 87 patients, mean age of enrollment was 37.4(SD 18.2) years, and the male to female ratio was 60:27. PAH after defect closure accounted for 46 (52.9%) and Eisenmenger syndrome for 30 (34.5%) cases. Atrial septal defect was the most common (48.3%) disease, followed by ventricular septal defect. Mean pulmonary artery pressure was 56.7 (SD 19.4) mmHg. PAH-targeted therapy was used in 95.4% of patients. Sildenafil and bosentan were the most common drugs. After mean 23.9 months of follow-up, the 2-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 93.2%. According to univariate Cox regression analysis, significant risk factors included right heart failure signs, symptom progression, high-risk baseline N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)/BNP, high-risk baseline 6-min walking distance (6MWD), and high baseline hemoglobin/hematocrit level. Using the three noninvasive parameters (functional class, 6MWD, NT-pro BNP/BNP) proposed by the European Society of Cardiology, the total number of high-risk criteria predicted survival rate reliably. CONCLUSIONS: Using the TACHYON registry is feasible, but the physicians' adherences to guidelines are unsatisfactory. Midterm outcomes of PAH-target therapy are favorable and predictable using noninvasive parameters.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar , Sistema de Registros , Taiwan
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408716

RESUMO

To examine the effects of maternal resveratrol in rats borne to dams with gestational high-fat diet (HFD)/obesity with or without postnatal high-fat diet. We first tested the effects of maternal resveratrol intake on placenta and male fetus brain in rats borne to dams with gestational HFD/obesity. Then, we assessed the possible priming effect of a subsequent insult, male offspring were weaned onto either a rat chow or a HFD. Spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test. Blood pressure and peripheral insulin resistance were examined. Maternal HFD/obesity decreased adiponectin, phosphorylation alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (pAKT), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat placenta, male fetal brain, and adult male offspring dorsal hippocampus. Maternal resveratrol treatment restored adiponectin, pAKT, and BDNF in fetal brain. It also reduced body weight, peripheral insulin resistance, increased blood pressure, and alleviated cognitive impairment in adult male offspring with combined maternal HFD and postnatal HFD. Maternal resveratrol treatment restored hippocampal pAKT and BDNF in rats with combined maternal HFD and postnatal HFD in adult male offspring dorsal hippocampus. Maternal resveratrol intake protects the fetal brain in the context of maternal HFD/obesity. It effectively reduced the synergistic effects of maternal HFD/obesity and postnatal HFD on metabolic disturbances and cognitive impairment in adult male offspring. Our data suggest that maternal resveratrol intake may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy in the context of maternal HFD/obesity.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Desmame
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