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1.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 751-757, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594173

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of body composition (BC) in gout patients and its clinical significance. Methods: Consecutive gout patients were recruited between August 2017 and December 2018. Demographic information, clinical characteristics and comorbidities were collected. BC was assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis including body fat percentage (BF%), trunk and limb BF%, appendicular skeletal muscle index. Overfat was defined by BF% ≥25% for male and ≥35% for female. The association between BC and serum uric acid (sUA) was evaluated by multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 362 gout patients were recruited with median age 38 (30, 52) years, 96.1% (348/362) were male. Mean sUA was (551±133) µmol/L. The mean BF% was (25.8±6.4)% with 53.6%(194/362) patients overfat. Male gout patients with overfat showed more affected joints [4(2, 6) vs. 2(2, 5)], higher sUA [(576±126)µmol/L vs. (523±134) µmol/L], higher prevalence of dyslipidemia [70.1%(131/187) vs. 54.0%(87/161)], metabolic syndrome [60.8%(118/187) vs. 28.0%(47/161)], fatty liver [58.2%(113/187) vs. 35.1%(59/161)] and hypertension [44.4%(83/187) vs. 25.5%(41/161)] than male patients with normal fat (all P<0.05). Their BF%, trunk BF% and limb BF% were positively correlated with the numbers of affected joints, sUA, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, and hypertension, respectively (r=0.154-0.435, all P<0.05). Multivariable linear regression suggested that BF% (ß=4.29, P=0.020) and trunk BF% (ß=9.11, P=0.007), but not limb BF%, were positively correlated with sUA. Conclusion: Overfat is very common in gout patients. The proportion of trunk fat in male patients is positively correlated with sUA. When assessing obesity in gout patients clinically, body composition analysis should be performed simultaneously.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Gota/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gota/sangue , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Prevalência
2.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(3): 169-178, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897862

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of human antigen R on lysosomal acidification during autophagy in mouse cardiomyocytes cultured in vitro. Methods: The hearts of 20 C57BL/6 mice aged 1-2 days no matter male or female were isolated to culture primary cardiomyocytes which were used in the following experiments. (1) The cells were divided into 5 groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), i. e., normal control group and sugar-free serum-free 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups. The cells in normal control group were routinely cultured for 54.0 h with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) medium (the same regular culture condition below), and the cells in sugar-free serum-free 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups were firstly regularly cultured for 53.5, 53.0, 51.0, 48.0 h and then cultured with replaced sugar-free serum-free medium for 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h, respectively. The protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 Ⅱ (LC3Ⅱ), autophagy-related protein 5, and adenosine triphosphatase V1 region E1 subunit (ATP6V1E1) were detected by Western blotting. (2) The cells were divided into normal control group and sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group. The cells in corresponding groups were treated the same as those in experiment (1), and the cell lysosomal acidification level was observed and detected under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (3) Two batches of cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (1). The protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells of one batch and its protein expression in the cytoplasm and nucleus protein of cells of the other batch were detected by Western blotting. (4) The cells were divided into normal control group, simple control small interfering RNA (siRNA) group, simple human antigen R-siRNA1 (HuR-siRNA1) group, simple HuR-siRNA2 group, sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group, sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group, and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group. After 48 hours of regular culture, the cells in simple control siRNA group and sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group were transfected with negative control siRNA for 6 h, the cells in simple HuR-siRNA1 group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group were transfected with HuR-siRNA1 for 6 h, and the cells in simple HuR-siRNA2 group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group were transfected with HuR-siRNA2 for 6 h. Hereafter, the cells in these 8 groups were continuously cultured for 48 h with regular conditon, and then the cells in normal control group and each simple siRNA-treated group were replaced with DMEM/F12 medium, the cells in the other groups were replaced with sugar-free serum-free medium, and they were cultured for 3 h. The protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells was detected by Western blotting. (5) Two batches of cells were divided into sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group, and the cells in corresponding groups were treated the same as those in experiment (4). The distribution and expression of human antigen R in the cells of one batch were observed and detected by immunofluorescence method, and the lysosomal acidification level in the cells of the other batch was observed and detected under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (6) Three batches of cells were divided into sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group, sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group, and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group, and the cells in corresponding groups were treated the same as those in experiment (4). The protein expressions of cathepsin D in the whole protein of cells of one batch, human antigen R in the cytoplasm protein of cells of one batch, and ATP6V1E1 in the whole protein of cells of the other batch were detected by Western blotting. (7) The cells were divided into normal control group, sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group, sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group, and the cells in corresponding groups were treated the same as those in experiment (4). The mRNA expression of ATP6V1E1 in cells was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The sample number of each experiment was 3. Data were processed with independent data t test, one-way analysis of variance, least significant difference t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) Compared with those of normal control group, the protein expressions of LC3Ⅱ and ATP6V1E1 in the whole protein of cells of sugar-free serum-free 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups were significantly increased (t=12.16, 4.05, 4.82, 11.64, 3.29, 8.37, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with that of normal control group, the protein expression of autophagy-related protein 5 in the whole protein of cells of sugar-free serum-free 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups was significantly increased (t=6.88, 10.56, 5.76, 9.91, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (2) Compared with 1.03±0.08 of normal control group, the lysosomal acidification level in the cells of sugar-free serum-free 3.0 group (2.92±0.30) was significantly increased (t=6.01, P<0.01). (3) There was no statistically significant difference in the overall comparison of protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells among the 5 groups (F=1.09, P>0.05). Compared with that of normal control group, the protein expression of human antigen R in the cytoplasm protein of cells was significantly increased in sugar-free serum-free 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups (t=43.05, 11.07, 5.39, P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the protein expression of human antigen R in the nucleus protein of cells was significantly decreased in sugar-free serum-free 3.0 and 6.0 h groups (t=11.18, 12.71, P<0.01). (4) Compared with that of simple control siRNA group, the protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells of simple HuR-siRNA1 group and simple HuR-siRNA2 group was significantly decreased (t=4.82, 4.44, P<0.05). Compared with that of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells of sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group was significantly decreased (t=4.39, 6.27, P<0.05). (5) Compared with those of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the distribution of human antigen R in the cytoplasm of cells and its expression level were significantly decreased in sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group (t=10.13, P<0.01). Compared with 1.00±0.06 of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the lysosomal acidification level (0.73±0.06) in the cells of sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group was significantly decreased (t=3.28, P<0.01). (6) Compared with those of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the protein expressions of cathepsin D in the whole protein of cells, human antigen R in the cytoplasm protein of cells, and ATP6V1E1 in the whole protein of cells were significantly decreased in sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group (t=4.16, 3.99, 4.81, 5.07, 11.68, 12.97, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (7) Compared with that of normal control group, the mRNA expression of ATP6V1E1 in the cells of sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group was significantly increased (t=5.51, P<0.05). Compared with that of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the mRNA expression of ATP6V1E1 in the cells of sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group was significantly decreased (t=5.97, P<0.05). Conclusions: After sugar-free serum-free treatment in vitro, the autophagy in mouse primary cardiomyocytes is activated, the lysosomal acidification is enhanced, and the expression of human antigen R in cytoplasm is increased. Human antigen R function is activated and involved in maintaining lysosomal acidification during autophagy in mouse cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(3): 186-192, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897864

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on autophagy in early hypoxic mouse cardiomyocytes and the mechanism in vitro. Methods: The hearts of 120 C57BL/6 mice aged 1-2 days, no matter male or female, were isolated, and then primary cardiomyocytes were cultured and used for the following experiments, the random number table was used for grouping. (1) The cells were divided into normoxia group and hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups, with one well in each group. The cells in normoxia group were routinely cultured (the same below), the cells in hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups were treated with fetal bovine serum-free and glucose-free Dulbecco' s modified Eagle medium under low oxygen condition in a volume fraction of 1% oxygen, 5% carbon dioxide, and 94% nitrogen for 3, 6, and 9 h, respectively. The protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, TRPV1 were determined with Western botting. (2) The cells were divided into normoxia group and hypoxia group, with two coverslips in each group. The cells in hypoxia group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h as above. The positive expression of TRPV1 was detected by immunofluorescence assay. (3) The cells were divided into 4 groups, with one well in each group. The cells in simple hypoxia group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h as above, and the cells in hypoxia+ 0.1 µmol/L capsaicin group, hypoxia+ 1.0 µmol/L capsaicin group, and hypoxia+ 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin group were respectively treated with 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin for 30 min before hypoxia for 6 h. The protein expressions of LC3, Beclin-1, and TRPV1 were detected by Western blotting. (4) The cells were divided into 5 groups, with 5 wells in each group. The cells in hypoxia group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h as above, the cells in hypoxia+ chloroquine group, hypoxia+ capsaicin group, and hypoxia+ capsaicin+ chloroquine group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h after being cultured with 50 µmol/L chloroquine, 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin, and 50 µmol/L chloroquine+ 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin for 30 min, respectively. Viability of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 assay. (5) The cells were divided into simple hypoxia group and hypoxia+ 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin group, with one well in each group. The cells in hypoxia group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h as above, the cells in hypoxia+ 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin group were treated with 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin for 30 minutes and then with hypoxia for 6 h. The protein expressions of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) and LAMP-2 were detected by Western blotting. Each experiment was repeated for 3 or 5 times. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, least significant difference t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) Compared with those of normoxia group, the protein expressions of LC3, Beclin-1, and TRPV1 were significantly increased in cardiomyocytes of hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups (t(3 h)=4.891, 5.890, 4.928; t(6 h)=9.790, 6.750, 10.590; t(9 h)=6.948, 6.764, 5.049, P<0.05 or P<0.01), which of hypoxia 6 h group were the highest (1.08±0.05, 1.12±0.10, 0.953±0.071, respectively). (2) The density of TRPV1 in cell membrane and inside the cardiomyocytes in hypoxia group was significantly increased with lump-like distribution, and the expression of TRPV1 was higher than that in normoxia group. (3) Compared with those of simple hypoxia group, the protein expression of Beclin-1 in cardiomyocytes of hypoxia+ 0.1 µmol/L capsaicin group was increased (t=10.488, P<0.01), while the protein expressions of LC3 and TRPV1 were increased without statistically significant differences (t=4.372, 3.026, P>0.05); the protein expressions of LC3, TRPV1, and Beclin-1 in cardiomyocytes of hypoxia+ 1.0 µmol/L capsaicin group and hypoxia+ 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin group were significantly increased (t=15.505, 5.773, 13.430; 20.915, 8.054, 16.384; P<0.05 or P<0.01), which of hypoxia+ 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin group were the highest (2.33±0.09, 1.34±0.07, 1.246±0.053, respectively). (4) Compared with 0.585±0.045 in normoxia group, the cardiomyocyte viability in hypoxia group was significantly decreased (0.471±0.037, t=4.365, P<0.05). Compared with that in hypoxia group, the cardiomyocyte viability in hypoxia+ chloroquine group was further decreased (0.350±0.023, t=6.216, P<0.01), while 0.564±0.047 in hypoxia+ capsaicin group was significantly increased (t=3.489, P<0.05). Compared with that in hypoxia+ chloroquine group, the cardiomyocyte viability in hypoxia+ capsaicin+ chloroquine group did not significantly change (0.364±0.050, t=0.545, P>0.05). (5) Compared with 0.99±0.04 and 0.54±0.04 in simple hypoxia group, the protein expressions of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 in hypoxia+ 10.0 µmol/L capsaicin group were significantly increased (1.49±0.06, 0.81±0.05, t=12.550, 7.442, P<0.01). Conclusions: TRPV1 can further promote the expression of autophagy-related proteins in hypoxic cardiomyocytes through autophagy-lysosomal pathway, enhance autophagy activity, and improve autophagic flow for alleviating early hypoxic cardiomyocyte injury.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/farmacologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxigênio
4.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(2): 116-124, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798578

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of hexokinase Ⅱ in the changes of autophagic flow in cardiomyocytes of mice with ischemia-hypoxia in vitro. Methods: The hearts of totally six male and female C57BL/6 mice aged from 1 to 2 days were isolated to culture primary cardiomyocytes which were used for the following experiments. (1) The cells were divided into 6 groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), i. e., normal control 3, 6, and 9 h groups and ischemia-hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups, with 4 wells in each group. After being regularly cultured for 48 h with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) medium (the same regular culture condition below), the cells in normal control 3, 6, and 9 h groups were cultured with replaced fresh DMEM/F12 medium for 3, 6, and 9 h, respectively, and the cells in ischemia-hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups were cultured with replaced sugar-free serum-free medium in the low-oxygen incubator with a volume fraction of 1% oxygen and a volume fraction of 5% carbon dioxide at 37 ℃ (the same hypoxic culture condition below) for 3, 6, and 9 h, respectively. Cell viability was measured by the cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) method. (2) The cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (1), with 1 well in each group. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 Ⅰ (LC3Ⅰ), LC3Ⅱ, p62, and hexokinase Ⅱ. (3) The cells were divided into normal control group, simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) group, with 4 wells in each group. After a regular culture for 48 h, the cells in normal control group were cultured with replaced fresh DMEM/F12 medium for 9 h; the cells in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group were replaced with sugar-free serum-free medium, and the cells in ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-DG group were replaced with sugar-free serum-free medium in which 2-DG was dissolved in a concentration of 10 mmol/L (20 µmol), and then they were cultured with hypoxia for 9 h. Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 method. (4) The cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (3), with 1 well in each group. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of LC3Ⅰ, LC3Ⅱ, and p62. (5) The cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (3), with 2 wells in each group. Transmission electron microscope was used to observe autophagosomes/autolysosomes in cardiomyocytes. (6) The cells were divided into normal control group, simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ hexosinase Ⅱ small interfering RNA1 (HK-ⅡsiRNA1) group, and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group, with 4 wells in each group. The cells in normal control group and simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group were regularly cultured for 48 h, and the cells in ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA1 group and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group were respectively transfected with 200 nmol/L HK-ⅡsiRNA1 and HK-ⅡsiRNA2 and then also cultured for 48 h. The cells in normal control group were cultured with replaced fresh DMEM/F12 medium for 9 h, and the cells in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA1 group, and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group were cultured with replaced sugar-free serum-free medium and hypoxia for 9 h. Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 method. (7) The cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (6), with 1 well in each group. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of LC3Ⅰ, LC3Ⅱ, p62, and hexokinase Ⅱ. Except for experiment (5), each experiment was repeated 3 times. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and lest significant difference t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) The viabilities of cardiomyocytes in ischemia-hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups were 0.450±0.022, 0.385±0.010, and 0.335±0.015, respectively, which were significantly lower than 0.662±0.026, 0.656±0.028, and 0.661±0.021 of the corresponding normal control 3, 6, and 9 h groups, respectively (t=6.21, 9.12, 12.48, P<0.01). (2) Compared with those of corresponding normal control 3, 6, and 9 h groups, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio and protein expressions of p62 and hexokinase Ⅱ in cardiomyocytes of ischemia-hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups were significantly increased (t(3 h)=16.15, 10.99, 5.30, t(6 h)=6.79, 10.42, 9.42, t(9 h)=15.76, 16.51, 7.20, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (3) The viability of cardiomyocytes in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group was 0.353±0.022, which was significantly lower than 0.673±0.027 of normal control group (t=9.29, P<0.01). The viability of cardiomyocytes in ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-DG group was 0.472±0.025, which was significantly higher than that of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group (t=3.60, P<0.05). (4) Compared with those of normal control group, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio and protein expression of p62 in cardiomyocytes of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group were significantly increased (t=9.45, 8.40, P<0.01). Compared with those of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰratio and protein expression of p62 in cardiomyocytes of ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-DG group were significantly decreased (t=4.39, 4.74, P<0.05). (5) In cardiomyocytes of normal control group, only single autophagosome/autolysosome with bilayer membrane structure was observed. Compared with that of normal control group, the number of autophagosome/autolysosome with bilayer membrane structure in cardiomyocytes of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group was increased significantly. Compared with that of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, the number of autophagosome/autolysosome with bilayer membrane structure in cardiomyocytes of ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-DG group was significantly decreased. (6) The viability of cardiomyocytes in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group was 0.358±0.023, which was significantly lower than 0.673±0.026 in normal control group (t=9.12, P<0.01). The viabilities of cardiomyocytes in ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA1 group and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group were 0.487±0.027 and 0.493±0.022, respectively, which were significantly higher than the viability in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group (t=3.63, 4.28, P<0.05). (7) Compared with those of normal control group, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰratio and protein expressions of p62 and hexokinase Ⅱ in cardiomyocytes of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group were significantly increased (t=6.08, 6.31, 4.83, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with those of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio and protein expressions of p62 and hexokinase Ⅱ in cardiomyocytes of ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA1 group and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group were significantly decreased (t=5.10, 7.76, 15.33, 4.17, 8.42, 12.11, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions: Ischemia-hypoxia upregulates the expression level of hexokinase Ⅱ protein in mouse cardiomyocytes cultured in vitro, which decreases the viability of cardiomyocytes by impairing autophagic flow. To inhibit the activity of hexokinase Ⅱ or its expression can alleviate the ischemia-hypoxia damage of cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Hipóxia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 40(11): 1776-1783, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the sustained, low-dose and constant administration of the thyroid receptor-ß (TRß)-selective agonist GC-1 (sobetirome) from a novel nanochannel membrane device (NMD) for drug delivery. As it known to speed up metabolism, accomplish weight loss, improve cholesterol levels and possess anti-diabetic effects, GC-1 was steadily administered by our NMD, consisting of an implantable nanochannel membrane, as an alternative to conventional daily administration, which is subject to compliance issues in clinical settings. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Diet-induced obese C57BL/J6 male mice were fed a very high-fat diet (VHFD) and received NMD implants subcutaneously. Ten mice per group received capsules containing GC-1 or phosphate-buffered saline (control). Weight, lean and fat mass, as well as cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose, were monitored for 24 days. After treatment, plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine were compared. mRNA levels of a panel of thermogenic markers were examined using real-time PCR in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Adipose tissue, liver and local inflammatory response to the implant were examined histologically. Pancreatic islet number and ß-cell area were assessed. RESULTS: GC-1 released from the NMD reversed VHFD-induced obesity and normalized serum cholesterol and glycemia. Significant reductions in body weight and fat mass were observed within 10 days, whereas reductions in serum cholesterol and glucose levels were seen within 7 days. The significant decrease in TSH was consistent with TRß selectivity for GC-1. Levels of transcript for Ucp1 and thermogenic genes PGC1a, Cidea, Dio2 and Cox5a showed significant upregulation in WAT in NMD-GC-1-treated mice, but decreased in BAT. Although mice treated by NMD-GC-1 showed a similar number of pancreatic islets, they exhibited significant increase in ß-cell area. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the NMD implant achieves steady administration of GC-1, offering an effective and tightly controlled molecular delivery system for treatment of obesity and metabolic disease, thereby addressing compliance.


Assuntos
Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Receptores beta dos Hormônios Tireóideos/agonistas , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia
6.
Genet Mol Res ; 13(2): 2827-39, 2014 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24535906

RESUMO

Exogenous gibberellins (GAs) are widely applied to increase crop yields, with knowledge about the physiological functioning and biochemistry mechanisms of these phytohormones improving; however, information remains limited about the effect of GAs on seed filling. In this study, the siliques (containing the seeds) of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were treated with GA3 at 3 stages of seed filling. We confirmed that GA3 regulates the deposition of storage reserves in developing seeds. The percentage of crude fat in the seeds increased during the early stage, but remained stable during the middle and late stages. In comparison, the percentage of total protein decreased during the early and middle stages, but significantly increased during the late stage. In addition, Q-PCR was employed to analyze the expression level of related genes in response to GA3. It was found that the expression of WRI and ABI3 transcription factors corresponded to crude fat content and total protein content, respectively. The expression of storage reserve related genes DGAT, MCAT, SUC2, and GPT was consistent with crude fat content, whereas the expression of Napin corresponded to total protein content. The results of this study indicate that exogenous GA3 has a different effect on storage reserve deposition in seed during different stages of seed filling, and the effect might be achieved via changing the expression of related genes.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giberelinas/administração & dosagem , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/genética
7.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 190(2): 158-64, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24408055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is suboptimal for systemic control in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). To improve systemic control, we developed an alternative approach in which an intensified oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOX) chemotherapy regimen was administered concomitantly with radiation and extended to the resting period (consolidation chemotherapy) for high-risk LARC. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and toxicity of this strategy. METHODS: Patients with high-risk LARC were treated with CRT. Two cycles of XELOX were administered concomitantly with radiation. Thereafter, an additional cycle of the same regimen was administered during the resting period after completion of CRT. Tumor response, toxicities and surgical complications were recorded. RESULTS: This study includes 36 patients treated with the above strategy. All patients completed the planned concurrent CRT. Because of grade 3 toxicities, 2 patients were unable to complete the additional chemotherapy. Grade 3 toxicities were leucopenia (2.8 %), diarrhea (2.8 %) and radiodermatitis (2.8 %). All patients underwent optimal surgery with total mesorectal excision (TME) and a sphincter-saving procedure was performed in 27 patients (75 %). There was no perioperative mortality. Postoperative complications developed in 7 patients (19.4 %). Pathologic complete regression (pCR),"nearly pCR" (major regression), and moderate or minimal regression were achieved in 13 (36.1 %), 16 (44.4 %), and 7 patients (19.5 %), respectively. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that a XELOX regimen initially administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and then extended to the resting period in high-risk LARC patients is well tolerated. The strategy is highly effective in terms of pCR and nearly pCR rates, and thus warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , China , Terapia Combinada , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
8.
J Int Med Res ; 39(3): 838-45, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21819716

RESUMO

This prospective study evaluated the prognostic value of antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA), detected by indirect immunosorbent assay, in the serum of colorectal carcinoma patients. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentrations, measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, were elevated in 26 (37.7%) of 69 patients with colorectal cancer and could not be detected among the 28 patients with benign intestinal conditions or 37 healthy individuals who comprised the control groups. Anti-CEA immuno globulin (Ig)G or IgM was detected by immunonephelometry in 44 (63.8%) patients with colorectal cancer, three (10.7%) with benign intestinal conditions and four (10.8%) healthy blood donors. Differences in antibody detection frequencies between the cancer patient group and the control groups were statistically significant. Titres of anti-CEA correlated significantly with CEA levels and Dukes' cancer stage. Antibody titre was an independent, significant, favourable predictor for 5-year recurrence-free survival. It is concluded that measurement of serum anti-CEA combined with CEA might be useful as a tumour marker and to assess prognosis. These results need to be confirmed in large, well-controlled, randomized clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/sangue , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva
9.
J Int Med Res ; 38(2): 645-54, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20515578

RESUMO

This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of pre-operative radiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with rectal cancer. Forty-seven patients with rectal adenocarcinoma (stages T3 - T4; node-positive) were enrolled and received radiotherapy (46 Gy in 23 fractions) in combination with capecitabine (1000 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1 - 14 and 22 - 35) and oxaliplatin (130 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 22) (XELOX regimen). The main endpoints were safety and efficacy, as assessed by pathological complete response (pCR). All patients received pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) as planned. The most common severe toxicity was diarrhoea (12.8%); post-operative complications were rare (9.8%). The pCR rate was 20.9% in all patients and 34.8% in patients with normal pre-CRT serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA < or = 5 ng/ml) level, compared with 5.0% in the patients with elevated CEA (> 5 ng/ml). In conclusion, pre-operative radiotherapy with concurrent XELOX regimen in rectal cancer patients is feasible and effective. Serum CEA may be a suitable predictor of pCR.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Capecitabina , Terapia Combinada , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Neoplasias Retais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Indução de Remissão , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Indoor Air ; 17(1): 2-18, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17257148

RESUMO

There have been few recent studies demonstrating a definitive association between the transmission of airborne infections and the ventilation of buildings. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003 and current concerns about the risk of an avian influenza (H5N1) pandemic, have made a review of this area timely. We searched the major literature databases between 1960 and 2005, and then screened titles and abstracts, and finally selected 40 original studies based on a set of criteria. We established a review panel comprising medical and engineering experts in the fields of microbiology, medicine, epidemiology, indoor air quality, building ventilation, etc. Most panel members had experience with research into the 2003 SARS epidemic. The panel systematically assessed 40 original studies through both individual assessment and a 2-day face-to-face consensus meeting. Ten of 40 studies reviewed were considered to be conclusive with regard to the association between building ventilation and the transmission of airborne infection. There is strong and sufficient evidence to demonstrate the association between ventilation, air movements in buildings and the transmission/spread of infectious diseases such as measles, tuberculosis, chickenpox, influenza, smallpox and SARS. There is insufficient data to specify and quantify the minimum ventilation requirements in hospitals, schools, offices, homes and isolation rooms in relation to spread of infectious diseases via the airborne route. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: The strong and sufficient evidence of the association between ventilation, the control of airflow direction in buildings, and the transmission and spread of infectious diseases supports the use of negatively pressurized isolation rooms for patients with these diseases in hospitals, in addition to the use of other engineering control methods. However, the lack of sufficient data on the specification and quantification of the minimum ventilation requirements in hospitals, schools and offices in relation to the spread of airborne infectious diseases, suggest the existence of a knowledge gap. Our study reveals a strong need for a multidisciplinary study in investigating disease outbreaks, and the impact of indoor air environments on the spread of airborne infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/normas , Ventilação/normas , Movimentos do Ar , Infecção Hospitalar , Humanos
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 268(1477): 1715-21, 2001 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11506685

RESUMO

When assigning conservation priorities in endangered species, two common management strategies seek to protect remnant populations that (i) are the most genetically divergent or (ii) possess the highest diversity at neutral genetic markers. These two approaches assume that variation in molecular markers reflects variation in ecologically important traits and ignore the possibility of local adaptation among populations that show little divergence or variation at marker loci. Using common garden experiments, we demonstrate that populations of the rare endemic plant Arabis fecunda are physiologically adapted to the local microclimate. Local adaptation occurs despite (i) the absence of divergence at almost all marker loci and (ii) very small effective population sizes, as evidenced by extremely low levels of allozyme and DNA sequence polymorphism. Our results provide empirical evidence that setting conservation priorities based exclusively on molecular marker diversity may lead to the loss of locally adapted populations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Brassicaceae/enzimologia , Brassicaceae/genética , Enzimas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 98(2): 531-6, 2001 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11149938

RESUMO

Patterns of nucleotide sequence diversity in the predominantly self-fertilizing species Hordeum vulgare subspecies spontaneum (wild barley) are compared between the putative alcohol dehydrogenase 3 locus (denoted "adh3") and alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (adh1), two related but unlinked loci. The data consist of a sequence sample of 1,873 bp of "adh3" drawn from 25 accessions that span the species range. There were 104 polymorphic sites in the sequenced region of "adh3." The data reveal a strong geographic pattern of diversity at "adh3" despite geographic uniformity at adh1. Moreover, levels of nucleotide sequence diversity differ by nearly an order of magnitude between the two loci. Genealogical analysis resolved two distinct clusters of "adh3" alleles (dimorphic sequence types) that coalesce roughly 3 million years ago. One type consists of accessions from the Middle East, and the other consists of accessions predominantly from the Near East. The two "adh3" sequence types are characterized by a high level of differentiation between clusters ( approximately 2.2%), which induces an overall excess of intermediate frequency variants in the pooled sample. Finally, there is evidence of intralocus recombination in the "adh3" data, despite the high level of self-fertilization characteristic of wild barley.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Genes de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Afeganistão , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Duplicação Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Hordeum/enzimologia , Iraque , Israel , Jordânia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Recombinação Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Síria , Turquia , Turcomenistão
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 24(3): 227-33, 2000 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11108388

RESUMO

The response of the predatory mite Amblyseius longispinosus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the webnest of the spider mite Schizotetranychus nanjingensis (Acari: Tetranychidae) was examined using two-choice tests in the laboratory. A. longispinosus females were found significantly more often on leaves with webnests than on leaves without webnests and were often observed searching under the webbing. Because spider mites and their eggs were removed from the webnests before experiments, predators responded to stimuli associated with webbing, mite feeding damage and other residues in the webnests.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Feminino , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Poaceae/parasitologia
14.
Genome ; 43(4): 628-33, 2000 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10984174

RESUMO

Loci with large phenotypic effects are generally not thought to be important in the evolution of quantitative traits because of their deleterious pleiotropic effects, yet empirical studies of such pleiotropic effects are lacking. Here I use molecular markers to test the extent of deleterious pleiotropy of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that have large effects on mating system differences between the wild plants Mimulus guttatus and M. platycalyx (Scrophulariaceae). Six fitness-related traits, namely germination rate (GR), number of nodes (NN), number of flowers (NF), plant height (HT), above-ground biomass (WT), and flowering time (FT) were examined in a growth chamber for a backcross population between M. guttatus and M. platycalyx (with M. platycalyx as recurrent parent). Interval mapping based upon a linkage map consisting of isozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers detected no QTL for fitness-related traits near the mating system QTLs. Single-marker analysis based upon 13 markers flanking the mating system QTLs detected three significant marker-fitness trait associations, and these associations indicate beneficial effects of mating system loci. This suggests that QTLs with large effects on mating system traits do not have significant deleterious pleiotropic effects, and that they could be important factors in adaptive evolution of Mimulus.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Alelos , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
15.
Genetics ; 146(3): 1115-21, 1997 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9215912

RESUMO

Theoretical predictions about the evolution of selfing depend on the genetic architecture of loci controlling selfing (monogenic vs. polygenic determination, large vs. small effect of alleles, dominance vs. recessiveness), and studies of such architecture are lacking. We inferred the genetic basis of mating system differences between the outbreeding Mimulus guttatus and the inbreeding M. platycalyx by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using random amplified polymorphic DNA and isozyme markers. One to three QTL were detected for each of five mating system characters, and each QTL explained 7.6-28.6% of the phenotypic variance. Taken together, QTL accounted for up to 38% of the variation in mating system characters, and a large proportion of variation was unaccounted for. Inferred QTL often affected more than one trait, contributing to the genetic correlation between those traits. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that quantitative variation in plant mating system characters is primarily controlled by loci with small effect.


Assuntos
Plantas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Reprodução/genética
16.
Genome ; 39(1): 63-70, 1996 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18469878

RESUMO

As a first step to mapping quantitative trait loci for mating system differences, a genetic linkage map was generated from an interspecific backcross between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus platycalyx. The linkage map consists of 99 RAPD and two isozyme markers. Eighty-one of these markers were mapped to 15 linkage groups, spanning 1437 contiguous centiMorgans, and covering 58% of the estimated genome. The genome length of Mimulus is estimated at 2474 +/- 35 cM; bootstrapping indicates that only ca. 40 markers are needed to give an accurate estimate of genome length. Further statistical analyses indicate that many RAPD markers cannot be ordered with certainty and that uncertain linkage groups tend to map nonlinearly even under commonly used mapping functions. Strategies for speeding up the mapping process for a wild species and possible applications of a partial linkage map in evolutionary studies are discussed. Key words : linkage map, mating system, Mimulus, RAPD.

17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 93(8): 1261-6, 1996 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24162538

RESUMO

Selective genotyping is the marker assay of only the more extreme phenotypes for a quantitative trait and is intended to increase the efficiency of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. We show that selective genotyping can bias estimates of the recombination frequency between linked QTLs - upwardly when QTLs are in repulsion phase, and downwardly when QTLs are in coupling phase. We examined these biases under simple models involving two QTLs segregating in a backcross or F2 population, using both analytical models and computer simulations. We found that bias is a function of the proportion selected, the magnitude of QTL effects, distance between QTLs and the dominance of QTLs. Selective genotyping thus may decrease the power of mapping multiple linked QTLs and bias the construction of a marker map. We suggest a large proportion than previously suggested (50%) or the entire population be genotyped if linked QTLs of large effects (explain > 10% phenotypic variance) are evident. New models need to be developed to explicitly incorporate selection into QTL map construction.

18.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 23(1): 29-30, 1994 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8044859

RESUMO

According to the pathological observations on BALB/c mice after being given steroid hormone, the following results were obtained: secondary thymic atrophy could be observed 24 hours after steroid therapy. The degree of atrophy correlated with the amount of medication and duration of therapy; the weight and pathological changes under light and electron microscope examination almost returned to normal 7 days after the drug was stopped except in individual animals. Our study indicated that secondary atrophy of the thymus can be reversed after elimination of the pathogenic factor.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/toxicidade , Timo/patologia , Animais , Atrofia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi ; 25(2): 72-3, 125, 1990.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2363982

RESUMO

Acute bacterial otitis media was induced in guinea pigs with H. influenzae to investigate the ultrastructural changes of the organ of Corti. The results showed that the stereocilia in the organ of Corti adjacent to the round window was disoriented and partially disappeared, there was an increase in the number of lysosomes and marked aggregation of smooth endoplasmic reticula, the surface of the supporting cells was damaged and broken. The most prominent damages were observed on specimens 7 days following the middle ear inoculation with H. influenzae. The damages to the supporting cells were repaired 21 days after the inoculation though the damaged stereocilia did not show any sign of recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Órgão Espiral/ultraestrutura , Otite Média/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Cobaias , Masculino , Otite Média/etiologia
20.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 69(12): 674-6, 46, 1989 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2630014

RESUMO

The endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) of H. influenzae extracted with phenol-water method was injected into the perilymphatic compartment of guinea pig via the round window membrane. The CAP thresholds of the cochleas injected with LPS rose to 70.00 +/- 21.76 dB. The N1 latency at threshold prolonged until 2.63 +/- 0.28 ms. Compared with the controls, the differences were significant statistically at the level of 1% and 5% respectively. Electron microscopy found that the neural fibers of the organ of Corti were swollen, organelles degenerated, axon atrophied and disappeared. The myelin sheaths collapsed. The organelles and vesicles in the synapses decreased and disappeared. The synaptic membrane destroyed. The results exhibited that the LPS of H. influenzae had toxic effects on the neural components of the organ of Corti and the degeneration of the neural components was the pathological basis of the elevation of CAP thresholds and the N1 latency delay. It is concluded that once endotoxin enters into the perilymphatic compartment, it not only causes physiological changes but results in irreversible alterations of the neural components pathologically.


Assuntos
Doenças Cocleares/patologia , Órgão Espiral/ultraestrutura , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças Cocleares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cocleares/fisiopatologia , Endotoxinas , Feminino , Cobaias , Haemophilus influenzae , Masculino
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