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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(19): e3717, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27175714

RESUMO

The negative impact of environmental exposure of cadmium has been well established in the general population. However, the effect of cadmium exposure in chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remains uncertain.A total of 306 chronic PD patients were included in this 36-month observational study. Patients were stratified into 3 groups by the tertile of baseline blood cadmium levels (BCLs): high (>0.244 µg/L, n = 101), middle (0.130-0.244 µg/L, n = 102), and low (<0.130 µg/L, n = 103) for cross-sectional analyses. Mortality rates and cause of death were recorded for longitudinal analyses.Patients in the high-BCL group were older, more likely to have diabetes mellitus, had lower levels of serum albumin and lower percentage of lean body mass than patients in the low-BCL group. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that logarithmic transformed BCL was independently associated with a higher risk of low turnover bone disease (odds ratio = 3.8, P = 0.005). At the end of the 36-month follow-up, 66 (21.6%) patients died. Mortality rates increased with higher BCLs (P for trend = 0.005). A Cox multivariate analysis showed that, using the low-BCL group as the reference, the high-BCL group had increased hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality in chronic PD patients after adjusting for related variables (HR = 2.469, 95% confidence interval = 1.078-5.650, P = 0.043).In conclusion, BCL showed significant association with malnutrition and low turnover bone disease in chronic PD patients. Furthermore, BCL is an important determinant of mortality. Our findings suggest that avoiding environmental exposure to cadmium as much as possible is warranted in chronic PD patients.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Peritoneal/mortalidade , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(42): e1755, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26496294

RESUMO

Previous studies of general populations indicated environmental exposure to low-level cadmium increases mortality. However, the effect of cadmium exposure on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients is unclear.A total of 937 MHD patients from 3 centers in Taiwan were enrolled in this 36-month observational study. Patients were stratified by baseline blood cadmium level (BCL) into 3 groups: high BCL (>0.521 µg/L; n = 312), intermediate BCL (0.286-0.521 µg/L; n = 313), and low BCL (<0.286 µg/L; n = 312). The mortality rates and causes of death were analyzed.The analytic results demonstrated patients in the high BCL group had a significantly higher prevalence of malnutrition and inflammation than patients in the low and intermediate BCL groups. After 3 years of follow-up, 164 (17.5%) patients died and the major cause of death was cardiovascular disease. A Cox multivariate analysis indicated the high BCL group had increased hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.63; P = 0.018), cardiovascular-related mortality (HR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.09-3.23; P = 0.032), and infection-related mortality (HR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.12-4.55; P = 0.035). A Cox multivariate analysis of MHD patients who never smoked (n = 767) indicated the high BCL group had increased HRs for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.04-2.63; P = 0.048) and cardiovascular-related mortality (HR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.08-4.00; P = 0.044).In conclusion, BCL is an important determinant of mortality in MHD patients. Therefore, MHD patients should avoid cadmium exposure as much as possible, such as tobacco smoking and eating cadmium-containing foods.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Comorbidade , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estado Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Diálise Renal , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0118995, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25745854

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many cases of carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan are due to burning charcoal. Nevertheless, few reports have analyzed the mortality rate of these patients who survive to reach a hospital and die despite intensive treatment. Therefore, this study examined the clinical features, physiological markers, and outcomes after carbon monoxide poisoning and the associations between these findings. METHODS: We analyzed the records of 261 patients who were referred for management of carbon monoxide intoxication between 2000 and 2010. Patients were grouped according to status at discharge as alive (survivor, n = 242) or dead (non-survivor, n = 19). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. RESULTS: Approximately half of the cases (49.4%) attempted suicide by burning charcoal. Most of the patients were middle-aged adults (33±19 years), and were referred to our hospital in a relatively short period of time (6±10 hours). Carbon monoxide produced many serious complications after exposure: fever (26.1%), hypothermia (9.6%), respiratory failure (34.1%), shock (8.4%), myocardial infarction (8.0%), gastrointestinal upset (34.9%), hepatitis (18.4%), renal failure (25.3%), coma (18.0%) and rhabdomyolysis (21.8%). Furthermore, the non-survivors suffered greater incidences of hypothermia (P<0.001), respiratory failure (P<0.001), shock (P<0.001), hepatitis ((P=0.016), renal failure (P=0.003), coma (P<0.001) than survivors. All patients were treated with high concentration of oxygen therapy using non-rebreather mask. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was only used in 18.8% of the patients. In a multivariate-Cox-regression model, it was revealed that shock status was a significant predictor for mortality after carbon monoxide poisoning (OR 8.696, 95% CI 2.053-37.370, P=0.003). Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with shock suffered greater cumulative mortality than without shock (Log-rank test, Chi-square 147.404, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The mortality rate for medically treated carbon monoxide-poisoned patients at our center was 7.3%. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that shock was most strongly associated with higher risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/terapia , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e112160, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25386676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is a lethal method of suicide used around the world. Although restricting its accessibility had been widely discussed, the underlying psychopathological mechanism of paraquat self-poisoning and its association with mortality have not yet been explicitly evaluated. METHODS: We included all patients admitted to a tertiary general hospital in Taiwan between 2000 and 2010 following a suicide attempt by paraquat self-administration. Diagnoses were made upon psychiatric consultation based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The risk of mortality was calculated by logistic regression with various psychiatric or medical covariates. RESULTS: The consultation-liaison psychiatry team assessed 157 patients who attempted suicide by paraquat poisoning. Mood disorders (54.0%), including dysthymic (26.7%) and major depressive disorders (24.7%), were the most common psychiatric diagnoses among the self-poisoning patients. Among those who attempted suicide, 87 patients (58.0%) died and dysthymic disorder (OR = 5.58, 95% CI: 1.13-27.69; p < 0.05) significantly increased the mortality risk after adjustment for relevant medical variables, including age, gender, severity index of paraquat poisoning (SIPP), and risk for respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of comorbid psychiatric illnesses, especially dysthymic disorder, is vital in the prevention and treatment of suicide by paraquat poisoning.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Paraquat/envenenamento , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 93(7): e41, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25101985

RESUMO

Whether high body mass index (BMI) has an effect on progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or 4 remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and progression of renal function deterioration in type II DM patients with CKD stage 3 or 4.A total of 105 type II DM patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 participated in this 24-month prospective observational study. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to BMI as follows: normal group, BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m; overweight group, BMI of 23-24.9 kg/m; and obese group, BMI of ≥25 kg/m. The primary end point was a 2-fold elevation in serum creatinine levels (measured twice with a 1-month interval) from baseline values, need for long-term dialysis, or death during the 24-month observation period.In the linear regression analysis with the stepwise method, each 1 kg/m increase in BMI led to an increase of 0.32 mL min × 1.73 m in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.01-0.62; P = 0.04) during the 24-month study period. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that compared with the obese group, the normal BMI group (hazard ratio = 2.76, 95% CI : 1.27-6; P = 0.01) achieved the primary outcome after adjusting for other factors.In this 24-month prospective observational study, we showed that BMI of ≥25 kg/m was a protective factor for renal function deterioration in type II DM patients with CKD stage 3 or 4.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
6.
Environ Health ; 13(1): 11, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24597539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the mortality rates of patients with and without diabetes mellitus after acute large-dose exposure to organophosphate insecticides. All patients without diabetes mellitus were traced to examine the long-term risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. Previous reports indicated that organophosphate exposure might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We analyzed the records of 118 patients referred to Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for management of intentional organophosphate poisoning between 2000 and 2011. Patients were stratified by diabetes mellitus status. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and mortality data were analyzed. RESULTS: Most patients were middle aged (53.45 ± 16.20 years) and male (65.3%) and were referred to our hospital after a relatively short amount of time had elapsed since poisoning (median 3.0 hours). 18 (15.2%) of 118 patients died, including 15 (13.8%) of 109 patients without diabetes mellitus and 3 (33.3%) of 9 with diabetes mellitus. There was no significant difference in mortality between these groups (P = 0.117). In a multivariate Cox regression model, hypotension (P = 0.000), respiratory failure (P = 0.042), coma (P = 0.023), and corrected QT interval prolongation (P = 0.002) were significant risk factors for mortality. Conversely, diabetes mellitus status was not a significant variable in this model. At routine outpatient follow up a median of 1.25 months post exposure, random blood glucose measurements gave no evidence of new-onset diabetes in patients without pre-existing diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes mellitus status might not increase mortality risk following acute large-dose exposure to organophosphates, and the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus also might be minimal in the short term. Larger prospective studies with formal testing for diabetes at later times post-exposure are required.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Inseticidas/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Colinesterases/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/sangue
7.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 10: 61-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24465131

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Methanol poisoning continues to be a serious public health issue in Taiwan, but very little work has been done to study the outcomes of methanol toxicity in the Asian population. In this study, we examined the value of multiple clinical variables in predicting mortality after methanol exposure. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study on patients with acute poisoning who were admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital over a period of 9 years (2000-2008). Out of the 6,347 patients, only 32 suffered methanol intoxication. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. RESULTS: Most patients were middle aged (46.1±13.8 years), male (87.5%), and habitual alcohol consumers (75.0%). All the poisonings were from an oral exposure (96.9%), except for one case of intentionally injected methanol (3.1%). After a latent period of 9.3±10.1 hours, many patients began to experience hypothermia (50.0%), hypotension (15.6%), renal failure (59.4%), respiratory failure (50.0%), and consciousness disturbance (Glasgow coma scale [GCS] score 10.5±5.4). Notably, the majority of patients were treated with ethanol antidote (59.4%) and hemodialysis (58.1%). The remaining 41.6% of patients did not meet the indications for ethanol therapy. At the end of analysis, there were six (18.8%), 15 (46.9%), and eleven (34.4%) patients alive, alive with chronic complications, and dead, respectively. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was revealed that the GCS score (odds ratio [OR] 0.816, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.682-0.976) (P=0.026), hypothermia (OR 168.686, 95% CI 2.685-10,595.977) (P=0.015), and serum creatinine level (OR 4.799, 95% CI 1.321-17.440) (P=0.017) were significant risk factors associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: The outcomes (mortality rate 34.4%) of the Taiwanese patients subjected to intensive detoxification protocols were comparable with published data from other international poison centers. Furthermore, the analytical results indicate that GCS score, hypothermia, and serum creatinine level help predict mortality after methanol poisoning.

8.
BMC Nephrol ; 15: 17, 2014 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24428882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and may cause protein-energy wasting in individuals with chronic kidney disease. A previous study demonstrated that blood cadmium levels (BCLs) were associated with malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, the correlation between cadmium exposure and malnutrition remains unclear in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients. This study examined the possible adverse effects of environmental cadmium exposure in CPD patients. METHODS: A total of 301 CPD patients were enrolled and divided into 3 study groups based on the following BCL tertiles: low (<0.19 µg/L), middle (0.19-0.39 µg/L), and high (>0.39 µg/L). Demographic, hematological, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for analysis. The analysis also included values of nutritional and inflammatory markers. RESULTS: The BCLs of CPD patients were lower than those of MHD patients. At baseline, patients in the high BCL group were older and had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus but lower serum albumin, creatinine, and phosphate levels than the patients in the other 2 groups. After adjusting for potential variables, stepwise backward multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and alanine aminotransferase levels were positively associated with logarithmic transformation of BCLs (log BCLs), while serum albumin levels were negatively associated with log BCLs in CPD patients. The log BCLs were a significant determinant (beta coefficient ± standard error = -0.185 ± 0.074; P = 0.013) of nutritional status and significantly associated with the presence of malnutrition (odds ratio = 2.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-6.48; P = 0.035) in CPD patients after adjustment for related variables. CONCLUSIONS: BCL is significantly associated with nutritional status and malnutrition in CPD patients. Therefore, it is important for CPD patients to avoid environmental exposure to cadmium such as through smoking and consumption of cadmium-rich foods.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/etiologia , Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 8(12): e82695, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24349340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paraquat poisoning is characterized by acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure, and multi-organ failure, resulting in a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this study were to identify predictors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in cases of paraquat poisoning and determine the association between these parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 187 patients were referred for management of intentional paraquat ingestion between 2000 and 2010. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) scores were collected, and predictors of ARDS were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall mortality rate for the entire population was 54% (101/187). Furthermore, the mortality rate was higher in the ARDS patients than in the non-ARDS patients (80% vs. 43.80%, P<0.001). Additionally, the ARDS patients not only had higher AKIN48-h scores (P<0.009), SOFA48-h scores (P<0.001), and time to ARDS/nadir PaO2 (P=0.008) but also suffered from lower nadir PaO2 (P<0.001), nadir AaDO2 (P<0.001), and nadir eGFR (P=0.001) compared to those in the non-ARDS patients. Moreover, pneumomediastinum episodes were more frequent in the ARDS patients than in the non-ARDS patients (P<0.001). A multivariate Cox regression model revealed that blood paraquat concentrations (P<0.001), SOFA48-h scores (P=0.001), and steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse therapies (P=0.024) were significant predictors of ARDS. The cumulative survival rates differed significantly (P<0.001) between patients with SOFA48-h scores <3 and SOFA48-h scores ≥3, with a sensitivity of 95.8%, specificity of 58.4%, and overall correctness of 67.6%. Finally, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) analysis showed that SOFA48-h scores (P<0.001) had a better discriminatory power than blood paraquat concentrations (P=0.01) for predicting ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: The analytical results indicate that SOFA48-h scores, blood paraquat concentrations, and steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse therapies are significantly associated with ARDS complications after paraquat intoxication.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/envenenamento , Paraquat/envenenamento , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Springerplus ; 2: 505, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24130963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rodenticide poisoning remains a major public health problem in Asian countries. Nevertheless, very few data are available in world literature regarding the outcomes of these patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of rodenticide poisonings in our hospital and to compare these data with published reports from other international poison centers. FINDINGS: We retrospectively examined the records of 20 patients with rodenticide poisoning (8 brodifacoum, 12 bromadiolone) who were referred to Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2000 and 2011. It was found that most of the rodenticide patients were middle-aged adults. Both genders were equally affected and many patients had a past history of major depressive disorder or schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients with bromadiolone were referred significantly sooner than patients with brodifacoum poisoning (0.1 ± 0.1 versus 5.5 ± 10.5, P < 0.001). Furthermore, it was found that patients with brodifacoum suffered higher incidences of ecchymosis (50.0% versus 0%, P = 0.006) and hematuria (50.0% versus 0%, P = 0.006) than patients with bromadiolone poisoning. Laboratory analysis also demonstrated a poorer hemostatic profile of patients with brodifacoum [prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), 4.3 ± 4.8 versus 1.0 ± 0.1, P = 0.032; PT prolongation, 50.0% versus 0%, P = 0.006; activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) prolongation, 50.0% versus 0%, P = 0.006] than patients with bromadiolone poisoning. At the end of analysis, no patient died of the poisoning. CONCLUSION: The favorable outcome (zero mortality rate) is comparable to the published reports from other international poison centers. Further studies are warranted.

13.
PLoS One ; 8(9): e74358, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24058552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. METHODS: A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. RESULTS: Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Gen Med ; 6: 677-83, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23983484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the spectrum of corrosive injury to the esophagus after paraquat or glyphosate-surfactant ingestion are sparse in the literature and confined to case studies and brief reports. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the clinical features, degrees of esophageal injury, and clinical outcomes after paraquat or glyphosate herbicide ingestion, and sought to determine what association, if any, may exist between these findings. METHODS: We performed an observational study on 47 patients with paraquat or glyphosate ingestion who underwent endoscopic evaluation over a period of 11 years (2000-2011). RESULTS: Corrosive esophageal injuries were classified as grade 1 in 14 (glyphosate-surfactant) and three (paraquat), grade 2a in nine (glyphosate-surfactant) and 18 (paraquat), and grade 2b in one (glyphosate-surfactant) and two (paraquat) patients. No patients had grade 0, 3a, or 3b esophageal injuries. Therefore, the severity of corrosive injury was more severe in the paraquat group (P = 0.005). After toxin ingestion, systemic toxicity occurred, with rapid development of systemic complications in many cases. Neurologic complications occurred more frequently in the glyphosate-surfactant group (29.2% versus 0%, P = 0.005), although respiratory failure (4.2% versus 34.8%, P = 0.008), hepatitis (12.5% versus 52.2%, P = 0.004), and renal failure (20.8% versus 52.2%, P = 0.025) developed more frequently in the paraquat group. Patients with glyphosate poisoning had shorter hospital stays than patients with paraquat poisoning (13.3 ± 15.1 days versus 26.8 ± 10.2 days, P = 0.001). Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in mortality rate between the glyphosate-surfactant and paraquat groups (8.3% versus 13.0%, P = 0.601). We ultimately found that patients with grade 2b esophageal injury suffered from a greater incidence of respiratory (100.0% versus 5.9%, P = 0.001) and gastrointestinal (66.7% versus 11.8%, P = 0.034) complications than patients with grade 1 injury, regardless of herbicide type. CONCLUSION: Paraquat and glyphosate are mild caustic agents that produce esophageal injuries of grades 1, 2a, and 2b only. Our data also suggest a potential relationship between the degree of esophageal injury and systemic complications.

15.
Blood Purif ; 35(4): 316-26, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23920269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of the correlation between education levels and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients are rare. The aim of this multi-center study was to investigate the relationship between education levels and 3-year mortality rates in HD patients. METHODS: A total of 935 HD patients from 3 HD centers participated in this 3-year prospective observational study. Education levels were categorized as either less than senior high school and above or equal to senior high school. The causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. RESULTS: At the end of the 3-year follow-up period, 164 patients had died. In the male group, forward stepwise Cox regression analysis revealed that age, HD duration, hypertension, creatinine level, serum albumin level ≥3.6 g/dl, anuria, Kt/Vurea, and high education level were significant predictive factors for 3-year mortality rates. CONCLUSION: This prospective observational study demonstrated that education level was associated with mortality in men undergoing HD.


Assuntos
Educação não Profissionalizante , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 19(16): 2466-72, 2013 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23674847

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate outcomes of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Four hundred and forty patients referred between 2000 and 2002 for management of HCCs were categorized according to their CKD stage, i.e., estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 90 (stage 1), 60-90 (stage 2), 30-60 (stage 3), 15-30 (stage 4), and < 15 (stage 5) mL/min per 1.73 m², respectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and mortality rates and cause of mortality were analyzed. The mortality data were examined with Kaplan-meier method and the significance was tested using a log-rank test. An initial univariate Cox regression analysis was performed to compare the frequency of possible risk factors associated with mortality. To control for possible confounding factors, a multivariate Cox regression analysis (stepwise backward approach) was performed to analyze those factors that were significant in univariate models (P < 0.05) and met the assumptions of a proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Most HCC patients with CKD were elderly, with mean age of diagnosis of 60.6 ± 11.9 years, and mostly male (74.8%). Hepatitis B, C and B and C co-infection virus were positive in 61.6%, 45.7% and 14.1% of the patients, respectively. It was found that patients with stages 4 and 5 CKD were not only older (P = 0.001), but also had higher hepatitis C virus carrier rate (P = 0.001), lower serum albumin level (P = 0.001), lower platelet count (P = 0.037), longer prothrombin time (P = 0.001) as well as higher proportions of advanced cirrhosis (P = 0.002) and HCCs (P = 0.001) than patients with stages 1 and 2 CKD. At the end of analysis, 162 (36.9%) patients had died. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with stages 4 and 5 CKD suffered lower cumulative survival than stages 1 and 2 CKD (log-rank test, χ² = 11.764, P = 0.003). In a multivariate Cox-regression model, it was confirmed that CKD stage [odds ratio (OR) = 1.988, 95%CI: 1.012-3.906, P = 0.046)], liver cirrhosis stage (OR = 3.571, 95%CI: 1.590-8.000, P = 0.002) and serum albumin level (OR = 0.657, 95%CI: 0.491-0.878, P = 0.005) were significant predictors for mortality in this population. CONCLUSION: HCC patients with stages 4 and 5 CKD had inferior survival than stages 1 and 2 CKD. This warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Lineares , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2013: 742545, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23555094

RESUMO

Whether environmental lead exposure has a long-term effect on progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic patients remains unclear. A total of 107 type II diabetic patients with stage 3 diabetic nephropathy (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) range, 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) with normal body lead burden (BLB) (<600 µ g/72 hr in EDTA mobilization tests) and no history of exposure to lead were prospectively followed for 2 years. Patients were divided into high-normal BLB (>80 µ g) and low-normal BLB (<80 µ g) groups. The primary outcome was a 2-fold increase in the initial creatinine levels, long-term dialysis, or death. The secondary outcome was a change in eGFR over time. Forty-five patients reached the primary outcome within 2 years. Although there were no differences in baseline data and renal function, progressive nephropathy was slower in the low-normal BLB group than that in the high-normal BLB group. During the study period, we demonstrated that each 100 µ g increment in BLB and each 10 µ g increment in blood lead levels could decrease GFR by 2.2 mL/min/1.72 m(2) and 3.0 mL/min/1.72 m(2) (P = 0.005), respectively, as estimated by generalized equations. Moreover, BLB was associated with increased risk of achieving primary outcome. Environmental exposure to lead may have a long-term effect on progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Chumbo/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal
19.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 29(4): 487-91, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23528512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This observational study examined the outcome of Taiwanese pediatric patients with paraquat poisoning and compared these data with the published data on paraquat poisonings from other international poisoning centers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on children with acute paraquat poisoning that were admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Of the 193 paraquat poisoning patients, only 6 were children. RESULTS: The mean age was 8.85 ± 5.55 (1-15.6) years. Younger patients had accidentally swallowed paraquat, whereas older patients had intentionally ingested paraquat. Most patients were referred within a relatively short period (0.5-2.0 hours). Paraquat poisoning was associated with high morbidity and often resulted in severe complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple-organ failure. The complications included shock (50.0%), hypoxemia (33.3%), respiratory failure (33.3%), nausea/vomiting (16.7%), abdominal pain (33.3%), hepatitis (66.7%), gastrointestinal tract bleeding (33.3%), acute renal failure (33.3%), and seizures (16.7%). Patients were treated aggressively with a standard detoxification protocol consisting of gastric lavage, active charcoal, charcoal hemoperfusion, and cyclophosphamide and steroid pulse therapies. Secondary bacterial infections were common after hospitalization and included sepsis (33.3%), pneumonia (33.3%), and urinary tract infection (50.0%). In the end, 2 patients (33.3%) died from multiple-organ failure, despite intensive resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data (mortality rate, 33.3%) are comparable to the data of other published reports from other international poison centers. Evidently, a prompt diagnosis of paraquat poisoning and an immediate institution of a detoxification protocol is a prerequisite for a favorable outcome.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Paraquat/envenenamento , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
20.
Springerplus ; 2: 674, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24386620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an overall paucity of data regarding the outcomes of patients with acetaminophen-associated toxic hepatitis in Taiwan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recruit a larger number of patients and to examine the clinical features, the degrees of toxic hepatitis, the physiological markers, and the clinical outcomes after intentional acetaminophen poisoning, and to determine what association, if any, might exist between these findings. METHODS: We examined the medical records of 187 patients with intentional acetaminophen poisoning who were examined at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2000 and 2011. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to hepatic complications, i.e. with (n = 15) or without (n = 172) toxic hepatitis. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected, and the mortality rate was analyzed. RESULTS: It was found that patients with toxic hepatitis had higher serum acetaminophen level (P = 0.007), but they also arrived to the hospital later (P < 0.001) than patients without toxic hepatitis. Furthermore, patients with toxic hepatitis showed higher incidences of acute respiratory failure (P = 0.012) than those shown by patients who did not have hepatitis. The laboratory examinations also revealed greater degrees of granulocytosis (P < 0.001) and poorer liver function tests (P < 0.001) in patients with hepatitis than in patients without hepatitis. Nevertheless, a univariate logistic regression model failed to identify any significant risk factors for toxic hepatitis complication after ingestion (P > 0.05). At the end of the analysis, 1 patient with toxic hepatitis died of liver failure. Finally, there was no significant difference in mortality between patients with and without hepatitis (P = 0.080). CONCLUSION: The analytical data revealed that toxic hepatitis was not uncommon (15/187 or 8.0%) after acetaminophen overdose. Further studies are warranted.

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