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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In the phase 3 CONCUR trial (NCT01584830), regorafenib improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo in Asian patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of Chinese patients in CONCUR. METHODS: Adults with mCRC progressing despite at least two prior treatment regimens and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. Dose modifications were permitted. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, objective overall response, disease control rate, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 172 Chinese patients were randomized and treated (regorafenib n = 112, placebo n = 60). OS was significantly improved with regorafenib versus placebo (8.4 vs 6.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.80; one-sided P = 0.000632), as was progression-free survival (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.47; one-sided P < 0.000001). The most common drug-related grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; regorafenib, placebo) were hand-foot skin reaction (19%, 0%), hypertension (13%, 3%), hypophosphatemia (7%, 0%), increased alanine aminotransferase (6%, 0%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (5%, 0%). In patients receiving regorafenib and placebo, respectively, TEAEs led to treatment discontinuation in 14% and 7%, dose reduction in 39% and 0%, and dose interruption in 64% and 20%. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis showed that regorafenib provided an OS benefit over placebo for Chinese patients with previously treated mCRC. TEAEs were consistent with the regorafenib safety profile and manageable with treatment modifications.

2.
Cancer Med ; 9(2): 476-486, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assumed that targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mismatch repair-associated genes could improve the detection of driving mutations in colorectal cancers (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI) and microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST) and clarify the somatic mutation patterns of CRC subtypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNAs from tumors and white blood cells were obtained from 81 patients with EMAST(+)/MSI-high (MSI-H), 78 patients with EMAST(+)/microsatellite stable (MSS), and 72 patients with EMAST(-)/MSI-H. The germline and somatic mutations were analyzed with a 16-genes NGS panel. RESULTS: In total, 284 germline mutations were identified in 161 patients. The most common mutations were in EPCAM (24.8%), MSH6 (24.2%), MLH1 (21.7%), and AXIN2 (21.7%). Germline mutations of AXIN2, POLE, POLD1, and TGFBR2 also resulted in EMAST and MSI. EMAST(+)/MSI-H tumors had a significant higher mutation number (205.9 ± 95.2 mut/MB) than tumors that were only EMAST(+) or MSI-H (118.6 ± 64.2 and 106.2 ± 54.5 mut/MB, respectively; both P < .001). In patients with AXIN2 germline mutations, the number of pathological somatic mutations in the tumors was significantly higher than those without AXIN2 germline mutations (176.7 ± 94.2 mut/MB vs 139.6 ± 85.0 mut/MB, P = .002). CONCLUSION: Next-generation sequencing could enhance the detection of familial CRC. The somatic mutation burden might result from not only the affected genes in germline mutations but also through the dysfunction of downstream effectors. The AXIN2 gene might associate with hypermutation in tumors. Further in vitro experiments to confirm the causal relationship is deserved.

3.
World J Surg Oncol ; 17(1): 226, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perineal wound complications are a long-lasting issue for abdominoperineal resection (APR) patients. Complication rates as high as 60% have been reported, with the most common complication being delayed perineal wound healing. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for delayed perineal wound healing and its impact on prolonged hospital stay. METHODS: We included low rectal tumor patients who underwent APR at a referral medical center from April 2002 to December 2017; a total of 229 patients were included. The basic characteristics and surgical outcomes of the patients were analyzed to identify risk factors for delayed perineal wound healing (> 30 days after APR) and prolonged hospital stay (post-APR hospital stay > 14 days). RESULTS: All patients received primary closure for their perineal wound. The majority of patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (N = 213, 93.1%). In the univariate analysis, patients with hypoalbuminemia (albumin < 3.5 g/dL) had an increased risk of delayed wound healing (39.5% vs. 60.5%, P = 0.001), which was an independent risk factor in the multivariable analysis (OR 2.962, 95% CI 1.437-6.102, P = 0.003). Patients with delayed wound healing also had a significantly increased risk of prolonged hospital stay (OR 6.404, 95% CI 3.508-11.694, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoalbuminemia was an independent risk factor for delayed wound healing, which consequently led to a prolonged hospital stay. Further clinical trials are needed to reduce the incidence of delayed perineal wound healing by correcting albumin levels or nutritional status before APR.

4.
World J Surg ; 43(12): 3207-3215, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) have a higher risk of recurrence when they have certain risk factors, including clinical and pathological patterns. However, as the prognostic role of molecular patterns for stage II disease is still unclear, this study aimed to investigate it. METHODS: A total of 509 patients with stage II CRC were enrolled, and all clinical, pathological, and molecular data were collected. Molecular patterns included microsatellite instability (MSI); elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotides (EMAST) status; and expression of RAS/RAF genes, genes of the APC pathway, and other gene mutations. The endpoints were oncological outcomes, including overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), local recurrence (LR), and distant recurrence (DR). Cox regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Numerous molecular patterns influenced the oncological outcomes on univariate analysis, but no variable reached significance in LR. On multivariate analysis, a mucinous component (MC) > 50% (P < 0.01) was significant for OS and CSS. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI; P< 0.01), MC > 50% (P < 0.01), and EMAST-H (P = 0.02) significantly influenced DFS, whereas LVI (P < 0.01), MC > 50% (P < 0.01), and TP53 mutation (P = 0.02) were significant for DR. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, MSI, EMAST, and RAS/RAF alterations did not influence the oncological outcomes. Overall, LVI and MC were two significant prognostic factors for DFS and DR. Thus, the histopathology, rather than the genes, plays a major role in the prognosis of patients with stage II CRC.

5.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND OR PURPOSE: To compare the cost-performance between planned short-course radiation and upfront concurrent chemoradiation on metastatic rectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 75 patients with metastatic rectal cancer who underwent planned short-course radiation or upfront concurrent chemoradiation were enrolled. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute the survival rates. The χ2 test was used to compare baseline characteristics. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied to determine the prognostic influence of clinicopathological factors. RESULTS: The planned short-course radiation is superior to upfront concurrent chemoradiation in overall survival for the patients with metastatic rectal cancer (34.8 vs. 20.2 months, P = 0.010). The planned short-course radiation was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.009, HR (95% CI) = 0.319(0.135-0.752)). The efficacy of radiation on downstaging was similar between planned short-course radiation and upfront concurrent chemoradiation. The total cost of concurrent chemoradiation is 4.52-fold more expensive than that of short-course radiation (340,142 vs. 75,106 NT dollars, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the impressive cost-performance of planned short-course radiation compared with upfront concurrent chemoradiation (better OS, modest downstaging and lower cost), planned short-course radiation should be the preferred radiation approach for managing metastatic rectal cancer.

6.
Int J Biol Markers ; 34(1): 47-53, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854932

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways, and outcomes of colorectal cancer vary depending on the location of the tumor. This study aimed to compare the difference in tumor characteristics and the outcome between right-sided colon cancer and left-sided colorectal cancer (LCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1503 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between 2000 and 2010 were enrolled in this study. Right-sided colon cancer was defined as cancers in the cecum, ascending colon, and transverse colon, while LCRC was defined as cancers in the splenic flexure colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The endpoint was overall survival. The mutations were detected via polymerase chain reaction and MASS array. The prognostic value was determined using the log-rank test and the Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 407 and 1096 cases were classified as right-sided colon cancer and LCRC, respectively. Compared to patients with LCRC, those with right-sided colon cancer had more mucinous type cancer (7.4% vs. 3.5%), poorly differentiated tumor (11.5% vs. 3.6%), and advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage. The risk for peritoneal tumor seeding was higher in the right-sided colon cancer group (12.8% vs. 5.7%). Overall survival was better in LCRC than in right-sided colon cancer ( P=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, right-sided colon cancer had a more advanced tumor stage, a higher risk of peritoneal metastasis, and a poorer outcome than LCRC. Moreover, right-sided colon cancer had more gene mutations in BRAF, KRAS, SMAD4, TGF-ß, PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, and high microsatellite instability.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/secundário , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Cirurgia Colorretal/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
World J Surg Oncol ; 16(1): 128, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence, site distribution, and mortality rates of patients with colorectal cancer differ according to gender. We investigated gene mutations in colorectal patients and wanted to examine gender-specific differences. METHODS: A total of 1505 patients who underwent surgical intervention for colorectal cancer were recruited from March 2000 to January 2010 at Taipei Veterans' General Hospital and investigated for gene mutations in K-ras, N-ras, H-ras, BRAF, loss of 18q, APC, p53, SMAD4, TGF-ß, PIK3CA, PTEN, FBXW7, AKT1, and MSI. RESULTS: There were significant differences between male and female patients in terms of tumor location (p < 0.0001) and pathological stage (p = 0.011). The female patients had significantly more gene mutations in BRAF (6.4 vs. 3.3%, OR 1.985, p = 0.006), TGF-ß (4.7 vs. 2.5%, OR 1.887, p = 0.027), and revealed a MSI-high status (14.0 vs. 8.3%, OR 1.800, p = 0.001) than male patients. Male patients had significantly more gene mutations in N-ras (5.1 vs. 2.3%, OR 2.227, p = 0.012); however, the significance was maintained only for mutations in BRAF (OR 2.104, p = 0.038), MSI-high status (OR 2.003 p = 0.001), and N-ras (OR 3.000, p = 0.010) after the groups were divided by tumor site. CONCLUSION: Gene mutations in BRAF, MSI-high status, and N-ras differ according to gender among patients with colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Genes ras/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 33(9): 1173-1181, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognostic significance of the BRAFV600E mutation in Asian patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1969 patients with colorectal cancer admitted to Taipei Veterans General Hospital for surgical treatment between 2000 and 2013. The measured endpoint was overall survival after surgery. The prognostic value of the BRAFV600E mutation was analyzed using the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: The BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 106 (5.4%) patients and associated with female gender, abnormal cancer antigen (CA)19-9 at diagnosis, microsatellite status, right-sided primary tumors, mucinous histology, poor differentiation, and lymphovascular invasion. Metastatic patterns were more common in non-regional lymph node metastasis (20.8 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.06) and peritoneal seeding (41. vs. 21.2%, p = 0.04). Mutations were not prognostic in the overall survival of the entire study group but only in specific patients: age < 65, normal carcinoembryonic antigen at diagnosis, and stage IV disease. CONCLUSION: The BRAFV600E mutation was associated with distinct clinicopathological features and metastatic patterns. The overall survival rate was lower in selected colorectal patients with the BRAFV600E mutation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197681, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795620

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that aberrant DNA methylation might occur early and commonly in colorectal tumorigenesis. In 111 normal subjects, the mean LINE-1 methylation level of peripheral blood was 81.0 ± 5.7%. Of 143 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, the mean level of LINE-1 methylation was 60.5 ± 12.5%. We defined below 60% as cut-off value of LINE-1 hypomethylation, and 93 cases (65.0%) had LINE-1 hypomethylation in the tumor tissue. LINE-1 hypomethylation was not associated with any other clinical features. There was a trend that LINE-1 hypomethylation tumors were associated with advanced disease, but it did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between mutations of 12 genes, MSI-high, EMAST, and LINE-1 hypomethylation level. The median follow-up was 61.2 months. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival curves of patients with LINE-1 hypomethylation tumors were significantly lower than those of patients with normal LINE-1 methylation tumors (p = 0.032 and 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that only TNM staging was an independent prognostic factor for CRC patients including DFS and overall survival (OS). LINE-1 did not impact patients' outcomes in multivariate analysis including DFS and OS. In conclusion, LINE-1 hypomethylation is marginally related to advanced stage CRC and impacts patients' outcomes in univariate analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Dig Surg ; 35(3): 261-265, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic malignancy occurs rarely in the colon or rectum. We presented 14 patients with colorectal metastasis (CRM). METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on a computerized colorectal tumor database at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital from January 2000 to June 2013. RESULTS: The incidence of CRM was 0.19% (14 in 7,524 patients). There were 6 males and 8 females with a mean age of 66.9 ± 13.6 years. Origins of the CRM included lung cancers (n = 3), prostate cancers (n = 2), and others (n = 1, respectively). Clinical presentations were not specific and colonoscopic pictures were indistinguishable from primary colorectal cancers; 5 of the 9 biopsies identified metastasis. Eight patients had extracolonic metastasis and 6 patients had CRM only. Significantly better survival was observed in the CRM-only group (p = 0.037). The mean interval from the treatment of primary tumor to the diagnosis of CRM was 30.2 ± 49.0 months. The mean survival time after CRM was 24.9 ± 30.8 months. CONCLUSION: Clinical features and colonoscopic findings of CRM were indistinguishable from primary colorectal cancer. Histopathological review of the biopsy could be helpful in identifying the primary lesion. Surgical resection with curative intent provided longer survival in CRM-only patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias do Colo/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 14(1): 61-68, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28906589

RESUMO

AIM: This phase II, open-label study evaluated the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant therapy with bevacizumab plus XELOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) for untreated metastatic colorectal cancer with unresectable liver metastases and assessed conversion of unresectable to resectable metastases after neoadjuvant treatment. METHODS: Patients received bevacizumab 5 mg/kg and oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1, and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1-5 followed by 2 days of rest in a 14-day cycle for 12 cycles; bevacizumab was excluded in cycles 6 and 7. Patients were later divided into resected and unresected groups, depending upon whether they underwent curative resection after chemotherapy. Efficacy and safety were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 45 patients enrolled, 17.8% completed the study. The resection rate of liver metastases after neoadjuvant therapy was 42.2%. The median time to disease progression was 10.1 and 8.7 months in the resected and unresected groups, respectively (P = 0.1341). Response rate was significantly higher in the resected (47.4%) versus the unresected group (34.6%; P = 0.0010), and seven patients achieved complete response (resected group). Overall, 94.3% of adverse events were of mild or moderate severity, and grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 4.3% and 7.3% of patients in the resected and unresected groups, respectively. The most common adverse events in both groups were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, decreased appetite, thrombocytopenia, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, proteinuria and nausea. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant therapy with bevacizumab plus XELOX was well tolerated and effective in previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients with initially unresectable liver metastases.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina
12.
Intest Res ; 15(4): 487-494, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142516

RESUMO

Background/Aims: In Taiwan, due to budget limitations, the National Health Insurance only allows for a limited period of biologics use in treating moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to access the outcomes of CD patients following a limited period use of biologics, specifically focusing on the relapse rate and remission duration; also the response rate to second use when applicable. Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study and we enrolled CD patients who had been treated with adalimumab (ADA) according to the insurance guidelines from 2009 to 2015. Results: A total of 54 CD patients, with follow-up of more than 6 months after the withdrawal of ADA, were enrolled. The average period of treatment with ADA was 16.7±9.7 months. After discontinuing ADA, 59.3% patients suffered a clinical relapse. In the univariate analysis, the reason for withdrawal was a risk factor for relapse (P=0.042). In the multivariate analysis, current smoker became an important risk factor for relapse (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-14.8; P=0.044) and male sex was another risk factor (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6; P=0.049). For those 48 patients who received a second round of biologics, the clinical response was seen in 60.4%, and 1 anaphylaxis occurred. Conclusions: Fifty-nine percent of patients experienced a relapse after discontinuing the limited period of ADA treatment, and most of them occurred within 1 year following cessation. Male sex and current smoker were risk factors for relapse. Though 60.4% of the relapse patients responded to ADA again.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(7)2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678173

RESUMO

We compared the clinicopathological and molecular profiles between different age groups of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (age <50, 56-60, 60-70, 70-80, and >80); 1475 CRC patients were enrolled after excluding 30 individuals with Lynch syndrome. The mutation spectra for APC, TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, TGFbR, Akt1, and PTEN were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by MassArray and microsatellite (MSI-high) analysis by performing genotyping. Male patients (74.1%) were significantly predominant to females (25.9%) in the older age group (70-80, >80). There was an insignificantly linear trend between TNM staging and age-onset of CRC diagnosis. Patients aged < 50 had 58.7% diseases in the advanced stages (Stage III: 36.5% and IV: 22.2% respectively), while this decreased to 40.2% (Stage III: 26.2% and IV; 14.0% respectively) in patients >80. The distributions of mutation frequency were similar in majority of the genes studied among different age groups. Additionally, patients aged <50 had significantly higher frequency of MSI-high, PTEN, and HRAS mutations than those of other groups. Age-onset at diagnosis significantly affected overall survival (HR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.35-1.58), but not cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.99-1.18) in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, molecular and clinicopathological differences were not as significant among different age groups of CRC patients as previously suspected.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Intest Res ; 15(3): 266-284, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670225

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the colon, and the prevalence and incidence of UC have been steadily increasing in Taiwan. A steering committee was established by the Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease to formulate statements on the diagnosis and management of UC taking into account currently available evidence and the expert opinion of the committee. Accurate diagnosis of UC requires thorough clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessment and careful exclusion of differential diagnoses, particularly infectious colitis. The goals of UC therapy are to induce and maintain remission, reduce the risk of complications, and improve quality of life. As outlined in the recommended treatment algorithm, choice of treatment is dictated by severity, extent, and course of disease. Patients should be evaluated for hepatitis B virus and tuberculosis infection prior to immunosuppressive treatment, especially with steroids and biologic agents, and should be regularly monitored for reactivation of latent infection. These consensus statements are also based on current local evidence with consideration of factors, and could be serve as concise and practical guidelines for supporting clinicians in the management of UC in Taiwan.

15.
Intest Res ; 15(3): 285-310, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670226

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. CD is rare in Taiwan and other Asian countries, but its prevalence and incidence have been steadily increasing. A steering committee was established by the Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease to formulate statements on the diagnosis and management of CD taking into account currently available evidence and the expert opinion of the committee. Thorough clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessments are required for accurate diagnosis of CD. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are complementary to endoscopic evaluation for disease staging and detecting complications. The goals of CD management are to induce and maintain remission, reduce the risk of complications, and improve quality of life. Corticosteroids are the mainstay for inducing re-mission. Immunomodulating and biologic therapies should be used to maintain remission. Patients should be evaluated for hepatitis B virus and tuberculosis infection prior to treatment and receive regular surveillance for cancer. These consensus statements are based on current local evidence with consideration of factors, and could be serve as concise and practical guidelines for supporting clinicians in the management of patients with CD in Taiwan.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 78: 7-15, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient outcome after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following second-line preoperative chemotherapy (PCT) performed for insufficient response or toxicity of the first-line, is little known and has here been compared to the outcome following first-line. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2005 to June 2013, 5624 and 791 consecutive patients of a prospective international cohort received 1 and 2 PCT lines before CLM resection (group 1 and 2, respectively). Survival and prognostic factors were analysed. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 30.1 months, there was no difference in survival from CLM diagnosis (median, 3-, and 5-year overall survival [OS]: 58.6 months, 76% and 49% in group 2 versus 58.9 months, 71% and 49% in group 1, respectively, P = 0.32). After hepatectomy, disease-free survival (DFS) was however shorter in group 2: 17.2 months, 27% and 15% versus 19.4 months, 32% and 23%, respectively (P = 0.001). Among the initially unresectable patients of group 1 and 2, no statistical difference in OS or DFS was observed. Independent predictors of worse OS in group 2 were positive primary lymph nodes, extrahepatic disease, tumour progression on second line, R2 resection and number of hepatectomies/year <50. Positive primary nodes, synchronous and bilateral metastases were predictors of shorter DFS. Initial unresectability did not impact OS or DFS in group 2. CONCLUSION: CLM resection following second-line PCT, after oncosurgically favourable selection, could bring similar OS compared to what observed after first-line. For initially unresectable patients, OS or DFS is comparable between first- and second-line PCT. Surgery should not be denied after the failure of first-line chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Ablação por Cateter/mortalidade , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatectomia/métodos , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Humanos , Irinotecano , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Panitumumabe , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/mortalidade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
17.
Oncotarget ; 8(8): 13805-13817, 2017 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099153

RESUMO

We developed a series of models to predict the likelihood of recurrence and the response to chemotherapy for the personalized treatment of stage I and II colorectal cancer patients. A recurrence prediction model was developed from 235 stage I/II patients. The model successfully distinguished between high-risk and low-risk groups, with a hazard ratio of recurrence of 4.66 (p < 0.0001). More importantly, the model was accurate for both stage I (hazard ratio = 5.87, p = 0.0006) and stage II (hazard ratio = 4.30, p < 0.0001) disease. This model performed much better than the Oncotype and ColoPrint commercial services in identifying patients at high risk for stage II recurrence. And unlike the commercial services, the robust model included recurrence prediction for stage I patients. As stage I/II CRC patients usually do not receive chemotherapy, we generated chemotherapy efficacy prediction models with data from 358 stage III patients. The predictions were highly accurate: the hazard ratio of recurrence for responders vs. non-responders was 4.13 for those treated with FOLFOX (p < 0.0001), and 3.16 (p = 0.0012) for those treated with fluorouracil. We have thus created a prognostic model that accurately identifies patients at high risk for recurrence, and the first accurate chemotherapy efficacy prediction model for individual patients. In the future, complete personalized treatment plans for stage I/II patients may be developed if the drug prediction models generated from stage III patients are verified to be effective for stage I and II patients in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Oncotarget ; 8(22): 36707-36715, 2017 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888621

RESUMO

Ascites related to metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) reduces patient survival and quality of life, and systemic chemotherapy is largely ineffective for managing ascites. Here, we examined the clinical efficacy of intraperitoneal (IP) ziv-aflibercept for managing refractory ascites in 15 mCRC patients who did not respond to standard chemotherapy. Fifty or 100 mg of ziv-aflibercept in 100 mL of saline solution were infused through a pigtail catheter and retained for 24 h. When the ascites drainage volumes were subsequently monitored, 73.3% of patients showed an objective response (OR) to IP ziv-aflibercept treatment. Patients with low Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status or with serum ascites albumin gradients (SAAG) less than 1.1 g/dL had better responses to treatment, and 4 patients with SAAG less than 1.1 g/dL showed rapid objective responses (rOR). These findings indicate that intraperitoneal ziv-aflibercept therapy may be a highly effective means of treating refractory ascites in mCRC patients, and that SAAG may be predictive of a rapid response to this treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ascite/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 16(2): e73-e88, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27780749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with KRAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), outcomes with first-line chemotherapies are improved by adding weekly cetuximab. The APEC study investigated first-line once-every-2-weeks cetuximab plus chemotherapy for patients with KRAS wt mCRC; additional biomarker subgroups were also analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: APEC was a nonrandomized phase 2 trial conducted in the Asia-Pacific region. Patients (n = 289) received once-every-2-weeks cetuximab with investigator's choice of chemotherapy (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI). The primary end point was best confirmed overall response rate (BORR); progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary end points. Early tumor shrinkage (ETS) and depth of response (DpR) were also evaluated. RESULTS: In the KRAS wt population, BORR was 58.8%, median PFS 11.1 months, and median OS 26.8 months. Expanded RAS mutational analysis revealed that patients with RAS wt mCRC had better outcomes (BORR = 64.7%; median PFS = 13.0 months; median OS = 28.4 months). The data suggest that ETS and DpR may be associated with survival outcomes in the RAS wt population. Although this study was not designed to formally assess differences in outcome between treatment subgroups, efficacy results appeared similar for patients treated with FOLFOX and FOLFIRI. There were no new safety findings; in particular, grade 3/4 skin reactions were within clinical expectations. CONCLUSION: The observed activity and safety profile is similar to that reported in prior first-line pivotal studies involving weekly cetuximab, suggesting once-every-2-weeks cetuximab is effective and tolerable as first-line therapy and may represent an alternative to weekly administration.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Proteínas ras/genética
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(2): 3009-3017, 2017 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from blood has become a clinically feasible biomarker in various types of cancer. However, the clinical significance of cfDNA in gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer among Asian populations requires further investigation. RESULTS: The median cfDNA copy number was highest in esophageal cancer, followed by colorectal cancer and gastric cancer, which were all significantly higher than those of healthy individuals. The cfDNA levels were higher in GI tract cancer, followed by those in carcinoma in situ and then healthy individuals (P = 0.019). During the postoperative surveillance, the cfDNA level tended to be more sensitive than the carcinoembryonic antigen level in predicting recurrence. For recurrent gastric cancer, a persistently high cfDNA level and an increasing trend was observed after surgery. For stage IV colorectal cancer, dynamic changes in the cfDNA level were correlated with the responses to chemotherapy and surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 95 healthy individuals and from 855 patients diagnosed with GI tract malignancy, including 98 with esophageal cancer, 428 with stomach cancer, 329 with colorectal cancer and 30 with carcinoma in situ. The copy numbers of extracted cfDNA were analyzed and compared among the different types of GI cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The cfDNA level can serve as a feasible biomarker for detecting tumors in GI tract cancer. The cfDNA level may play a role in predicting tumor responses to chemotherapy and surgery in colorectal cancer; tumor recurrence should be considered in gastric cancer with a persistently high cfDNA level after surgery.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , DNA de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/terapia , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Especificidade de Órgãos , Curva ROC
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