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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009796, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529663

RESUMO

In the past decade, ecological surveys emphasized rats and dogs as the most significant animal reservoirs for Schistosoma japonicum (S.j) in the Philippines. However, recent studies demonstrated 51-91% prevalence of schistosomiasis among water buffalo using qPCR in the Sj endemic regions in the Philippines. In order to resolve the inconsistency of reported surveys regarding Sj endemicity among carabao, a domestic water buffalo that is the most important draught animal, we introduced 42 schistosome negative water buffalo to Macanip, Jaro municipality, Leyte, the Philippines, a subsistence rice-farming village that has been the focus of schistosomiasis japonica studies of our group for the past 20 years. We conducted perfusion to the remaining 34 buffalo that survived 10 months of nature exposure and Typhoon Haiyan. Thirty-three water buffalo were found to be positive with at least 1 pair of worms from the mesenteric vein. The infection rate is 97%, with the worm burden of 94 (95% confidence interval, 49-138 worms) worms. To our knowledge, this is the first report about S. japonicum worm burden in naturally infected water buffalo in the Philippines. The fact that with less than one-year of exposure, in this human schistosomiasis endemic area, only 1 out of 34 water buffalo was uninfected is striking. Urgent attention is needed for a cost-effective technique for monitoring Sj infection in animals and humans. Meanwhile, intervention implementation, including water buffalo treatment and vaccination, should be taken into consideration.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4654, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341342

RESUMO

Ligand-oligonucleotide transduction provides the critical pathway to integrate non-nucleic acid molecules into nucleic acid circuits and nanomachines for a variety of strand-displacement related applications. Herein, a general platform is constructed to convert the signals of ligands into desired oligonucleotides through a precise kinetic control. In this design, the ligand-aptamer binding sequence with an engineered duplex stem is introduced between the toehold and displacement domains of the invading strand to regulate the strand-displacement reaction. Employing this platform, we achieve efficient transduction of both small molecules and proteins orthogonally, and more importantly, establish logical and cascading operations between different ligands for versatile transduction. Besides, this platform is capable of being directly coupled with the signal amplification systems to further enhance the transduction performance. This kinetically controlled platform presents unique features with designing simplicity and flexibility, expandable complexity and system compatibility, which may pave a broad road towards nucleic acid-based developments of sophisticated transduction networks.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Cinética , Ligantes , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Moleculares , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Oligonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
3.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 242-252, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Huaiqihuang (HQH) granule is a traditional Chinese herbal complex that has been used as an adjuvant treatment in clinics for the primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) for many years. However, the effectiveness and safety of HQH have not been systematically discussed. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of HQH in paediatric patients with PNS. METHODS: The following databases were searched from inception to Mar 2019: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang Database, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database and the Chinese biomedical literature service system. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) eligible for inclusion were included. The primary outcomes were relapse, infection, remission and adverse events. The secondary outcomes included serum immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG or IgM), T-lymphocyte subtype (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD4+ /CD8+), IL-10, TNF-α, TNF-γ, total cholesterol and time of proteinuria turning negative. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs (885 patients) were identified. Treatment with HQH reduced the chance of relapse [relative risk (RR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.66; P < 0.001] and infections (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.62; P < 0.001). No significant difference was found in adverse events. HQH also increased the serum levels of IgA [weighted mean difference (WMD): 0.40; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.60; P < 0.001] and IgG (WMD: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.78; P < 0.001), as well as CD4+ [standard mean difference (SMD): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.12-1.68; P = 0.02], CD3+ (WMD: 4.04; 95% CI: 3.27-4.82; P < 0.001), and the CD4+/CD8+ratio (WMD: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.21-0.41; P < 0.001), but decreased the level of CD8+ cells (WMD: -3.39; 95% CI: -5.73-1.05; P = 0.004). No statistically significant difference was found in IgM (WMD: 0.05; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.24; P = 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: HQH could reduce the rate of relapse and the frequency of infection in children with PNS. No apparent adverse effects were found. Moreover, the beneficial influence of HQH may act through immunomodulation. Additional multi-center, large-sample, high-quality studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness and safety of HQH.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(44): 5418-5421, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949481

RESUMO

Ligand-induced activation of CRISPR/Cas9 function is achieved based on a synergic approach through the integration of the theophylline aptamer into protein-unrecognized regions of guide RNA. This design of allosteric regulation opens a new window towards the broad involvement of RNA aptamers for conditional control of CRISPR/Cas9 function.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Teofilina/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , RNA Guia/química , Teofilina/química
5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 34: 102318, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940209

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality that utilizes photodamage caused by photosensitizers and oxygen after exposure to a specific wavelength of light. Owing to its low toxicity, high selectivity, and minimally invasive properties, PDT has been widely applied to treat various malignant tumors, premalignant lesions, and infectious diseases. Moreover, there is growing evidence of its immunomodulatory effects and potential for the treatment of immune-related diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effect of PDT on immunity and its application in immune-related diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Oxigênio , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
6.
J Vis Exp ; (171)2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028436

RESUMO

Neutrons have historically been used for a broad range of biological applications employing techniques such as small-angle neutron scattering, neutron spin echo, diffraction, and inelastic scattering. Unlike neutron scattering techniques that obtain information in reciprocal space, attenuation-based neutron imaging measures a signal in real space that is resolved on the order of tens of micrometers. The principle of neutron imaging follows the Beer-Lambert law and is based on the measurement of the bulk neutron attenuation through a sample. Greater attenuation is exhibited by some light elements (most notably, hydrogen), which are major components of biological samples. Contrast agents such as deuterium, gadolinium, or lithium compounds can be used to enhance contrast in a similar fashion as it is done in medical imaging, including techniques such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray, and positron emission tomography. For biological systems, neutron radiography and computed tomography have increasingly been used to investigate the complexity of the underground plant root network, its interaction with soils, and the dynamics of water flux in situ. Moreover, efforts to understand contrast details in animal samples, such as soft tissues and bones, have been explored. This manuscript focuses on the advances in neutron bioimaging such as sample preparation, instrumentation, data acquisition strategy, and data analysis using the High Flux Isotope Reactor CG-1D neutron imaging beamline. The aforementioned capabilities will be illustrated using a selection of examples in plant physiology (herbaceous plant/root/soil system) and biomedical applications (rat femur and mouse lung).

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(18): 20982-20994, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913681

RESUMO

The generation of complex physicochemical signals on the surface of biomedical materials is still challenging despite the fact that a broad range of surface modification methods have been developed over the last few decades. Colloidal self-assembled patterns (cSAPs) are combinations of unique colloids differing in size and surface chemistry acting as building blocks that can be programmed to generate surface patterns with exquisite control of complexity. This study reports on producing a variety of pre-modified colloids for the fabrication of cSAPs as well as post-assembly modifications to yield complex surfaces. The surface of cSAPs presents hierarchical micro- and nanostructures, localized hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics, and tunable surface functionality imparted by the individual colloids. The selected cSAPs can control bacterial adhesion (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli) and affect the cell cycle of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs). Moreover, in a mouse subcutaneous model, cSAPs with selective [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium (SBMA) modification can reduce the inflammatory response after being challenged with bacteria. This study reveals that functionalized cSAPs are versatile tools for controlling cellular responses at biointerfaces, which is instructive for biomaterials or biodevices.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Coloides/química , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Ciclo Celular , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Camundongos , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Langmuir ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689360

RESUMO

The interaction of bitumen colloidal (a form of heavy oil) with inorganic solids, for example, mineral aggregates, in both air and water environments is ubiquitous in nature and engineering. However, our knowledge of the underlying physical mechanism of bitumen-/solid-wetting phenomena is still very limited. The current study aims to reveal how the mineralogy and topography of aggregate surfaces affect the wetting and water-induced dewetting of bitumen on aggregate surfaces. For this, contact angle tests were performed to measure the surface energies of bitumen and aggregate surfaces varying in both mineralogy and roughness. Based on the measurements, both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted for the interaction of bitumen/aggregate interface in air and water environments. Complete wetting and complete dewetting hold for the air/bitumen/aggregate and water/bitumen/aggregate interfaces, respectively. The negative interfacial adhesive energy for the air/bitumen/aggregate interface and the interfacial debonding energy for the water/bitumen/aggregate interface imply that both bitumen wetting and water-induced bitumen dewetting on flat surfaces are thermodynamically favorable. The Wenzel model approximation holds up for the rough aggregate surface interface systems. The interfacial adhesive energy and interfacial debonding energy are enhanced geometrically by the roughness factor r, which indicates that the textured aggregate surface is in favor of force-induced interfacial cracking resistance but shows an adverse effect to moisture damage resistance. The findings from the current study provide guidelines for materials design in pavement engineering.

9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 108, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718989

RESUMO

The combination of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and mesoporous silica materials favors the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs (PWSD). However, the influence of the surface property of the mesopores towards the drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics is still unknown. In this study, SBA-15 with hydroxyl groups (SBA-15-H), methyl groups (SBA-15-M), amino groups (SBA-15-A), or carboxyl groups (SBA-15-C) was combined with SMEDDS containing sirolimus (SRL). The diffusion and self-emulsifying of SMEDDS greatly improved the drug release over the raw SRL and SRL-SBA-15-R (R referred to as the functional groups). Results of drug absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed strong hydrogen binding between SRL and the amino groups of SBA-15-A, which hindered the drug release and oral bioavailability of SRL-SMEDDS-SBA-15-A. The favorable release of SRL-SMEDDS-SBA-15-C (91.31 ± 0.57%) and SRL-SMEDDS-SBA-15-M (91.76 ± 3.72%) contributed to enhancing the maximum blood concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0→48). In conclusion, the release of SRL-SMEDDS-SBA-15-R was determined by the surface affinity of the SBA-15-R and the interaction between the SRL molecules and the surface of SBA-15-R. This study suggested that the SMEDDS-SBA-15 was a favorable carrier for PWSD, and the surface property of the mesopores should be considered for the optimization of the SMEDDS-SBA-15.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cães , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Silício/química , Dióxido de Silício/farmacocinética , Sirolimo/química , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Small ; : e2007597, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619897

RESUMO

Metal oxide anode materials generally possess high theoretical capacities. However, their further development in potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) is limited by self-aggregation and large volume fluctuations during charge/discharge processes. Herein, hierarchical MnCo2 O4 hollow microspheres (ts-MCO HSs) with three porous shells that consist of aggregated primary nanoparticles are fabricated as anode materials of KIBs. The porous shells are in favor of reducing the diffusion path of K-ions and electrons, and thus the rate performance can be enhanced. The unique triple-shelled hollow structure is believed to provide sufficient contact between electrolyte and metal oxides, possess additional active storage sites for K-ions, and buffer the volume change during K-ions insertion/extraction. A high specific capacity of 243 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 in the 2nd cycle and a highly improved rate performance of 153 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 are delivered when cycled between 0.01 and 3.0 V. In addition, the transformation of substances during charging/discharging processes are intuitively demonstrated by the in situ X-ray diffraction strategy for the first time, which further proves that the unique structure of ts-MCO HSs with three porous shells can significantly enhance the potassium ions storage performance.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4598-4605, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164423

RESUMO

The soil fertility quality is one of the most critical indicators of soil productivity. It directly affects the yield, quality and agricultural efficiency of Chinese medicinal materials. In order to establish the American ginseng planting soil fertility quality evaluation method based on the effective components of American ginseng, Wendeng district, Weihai city, Shandong province, the main producing area of American ginseng, was cited as a case for the study. Twenty-two 4-years American ginseng sampling sites are located at 7 towns. The samples of soil and plant root were collected in the autumn of 2017-2019. The saponin contents of American ginseng and 11 soil chemical properties were measured. The minimum data set(MDS) for assessment of the quality of soil fertility quality was established by correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The evaluation indexes were normalized by membership function. Soil quality index(SQI) that indicates soil comprehensive fertility quality level was calculated according to the critical value of membership function and weight value of each soil index in MDS. The results showed that the total saponin(Rg_1+Re+Rb_1) content of American ginseng in samples ranged from 1.76% to 7.94%. The yield of 8 plots in 2019 ranged from 3 818.7 kg·hm~(-2) to 8 996.4 kg·hm~(-2). MDS includes organic matter, alkaline nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, effective iron, effective copper, and effective zinc. Based on the mean of 4.825% of total saponin, threshold value of SQI for the region was determined to be 0.15, and 86.36% of soil samples in the county were above the threshold value. The methods and parameters are applicable to selection of high quality American ginseng planting sites and guiding rational fertilization. It also provides a reference for the evaluation of soil fertility quality of other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Panax , Plantas Medicinais , Agricultura , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
12.
PhytoKeys ; 161: 11-26, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005087

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the genome evolution and systematics, karyotype analysis of mitotic metaphase chromosomes in 51 taxa of Epimedium and two species of Vancouveria was conducted. The 53 taxa were clustered, based on their karyotype similarity coefficients. Results showed that the 53 taxa studied were all diploid with 12 chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12). Each taxon had one pair of satellites located on pair I of homologous chromosomes. Moreover, the karyotype types of the 53 taxa studied were all type 1A or 2A of Stebbins. It can be concluded that the karyotypes between species are indeed very similar and the genome of Epimedium was conservative in evolution. The cluster analysis of karyotype similarity coefficients could provide valuable clues for the systematics and taxonomy of Epimedium. Results of the cluster analysis strongly supported the previous taxonomic division of E. subg. Rhizophyllum and E. subg. Epimedium. The results also showed that the interspecific relationship was closely correlated with geographical distribution in E. subg. Epimedium and the taxa native to east Asia had the highest genetic diversity in Epimedium. Finally, the origin of the modern geographical distribution of Epimedium was inferred. Results of the present study have significant scientific values in further studies on resource utilisation, taxonomy and phylogeny in Epimedium.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(21): 9476-9484, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108191

RESUMO

Cholesterol is believed to induce the formation of membrane domains, "rafts", which are implicated in a range of natural and pathologic membrane processes. Therefore, it is important to understand the role that cholesterol plays in the formation of these structures. Here, we use label-free spectroscopic imaging to investigate cholesterol fractioning in supported bilayer membranes at nanoscale. Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) was used to visualize the formation of cholesterol-induced domains in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes. Our results revealed the coexistence of phase separated domains in DMPC lipids with 10 mol % cholesterol content, whereas a mostly homogeneous bilayer was found at low (5 mol %) and high (15 mol %) cholesterol content. Near-field nano-FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify the cholesterol-rich domains based on their qualitative chemical compositions. It was determined that cholesterol binds to phosphodiester and alkyl glycerol ester moieties, likely via hydrogen bonding of the alcohol to either of the ester oxygens. The results also confirm the existence of an ideal cholesterol-lipid mixture ratio (∼15:85) with a geometrically defined packing. At lower cholesterol content there is phase separation between liquid ordered and almost neat DMPC domains. Thus, the liquid ordered phase exists at an energy minimum at a given lipid-cholesterol ratio.


Assuntos
Colesterol/química , Dimiristoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Glicerol/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Microscopia , Oxigênio/química , Transição de Fase , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(20): 11773-11784, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068434

RESUMO

A variety of nanodevices developed for nucleic acid computation provide great opportunities to construct versatile synthetic circuits for manipulation of gene expressions. In our study, by employing a two-hairpin mediated nucleic acid strand displacement as a processing joint for conditional guide RNA, we aim to build artificial connections between naturally occurring RNA expressions through programmable CRISPR/Cas9 function. This two-hairpin joint possesses a sequence-switching machinery, in which a random trigger strand can be processed to release an unconstrained sequence-independent strand and consequently activate the self-inhibitory guide RNA for conditional gene regulation. This intermediate processor was characterized by the fluorescence reporter system and applied for regulation of the CRISPR/Cas9 binding activity. Using plasmids to generate this sequence-switching machinery in situ, we achieved the autonomous genetic regulation of endogenous RNA expressions controlled by other unrelated endogenous RNAs in both E. coli and human cells. Unlike previously reported strand-displacement genetic circuits, this advanced nucleic acid nanomachine provides a novel approach that can establish regulatory connections between naturally occurring endogenous RNAs. In addition to CRISPR systems, we anticipate this two-hairpin machine can serve as a general processing joint for wide applications in the development of other RNA-based genetic circuits.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , RNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA/química , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional
15.
Waste Manag ; 114: 166-173, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679474

RESUMO

An environmentally benign leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries was developed. Glucose oxidase produced by Aspergillus niger can oxidize glucose to give the leaching agent gluconic acid. The presence of gluconic acid was proven by mass spectrometry. The cathode material morphology was characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, and the efficiencies with which valuable metals were leached from the Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. More than 95% of the Co, Li, Mn, and Ni were leached from spent lithium-ion batteries using a solid/liquid ratio of 30 g/L, 1 M gluconic acid leaching solution, a 1 vol% H2O2 reductant solution, a temperature of 70 °C, and a reaction time of 80 min. The leaching kinetics were perfectly described by the Avrami equation. The apparent activation energies for leaching of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn were determined as 41.76, 42.84, 43.59, and 45.35 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating that the surface chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step during this leaching process. This mild biocatalysis-aided acid leaching process is a promising method for effectively recovering valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.


Assuntos
Glucose Oxidase , Lítio , Biocatálise , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metais , Reciclagem
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(16): 18482-18489, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223210

RESUMO

With the undergoing unprecedented development of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the recycling of end-of-life batteries has become an urgent task considering the demand for critical materials, environmental pollution, and ecological impacts. Selective recovery of targeted element(s) is becoming a topical field that enables metal recycling in a short path with highly improved material efficiencies. This research demonstrates a process of selective recovery of spent Ni-Co-Mn (NCM)-based lithium-ion battery by systematically understanding the conversion mechanisms and controlling the sulfur behavior during a modified-sulfation roasting. As a result, Li from complex cathode components can be selectively extracted with high efficiency by only using water. Notably, the sulfur driven recovery processes can be divided into two stages: (i) part of the structure of NCM523 was destroyed, and Ni, Co, and Mn were reduced to divalent in different degrees to form sulfate (NiSO4, CoSO4, MnSO4) when reacting with H2SO4 at ambient temperature; (ii) with increasing temperature, Li ions in the unstable layered structure are released and combined with SO42- in the transition metal sulfate to form Li2SO4, and the sulfates of transition metals react to form Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O1.4. Studies have shown sulfur can be recirculated thoroughly in the form of SO42-, which in principle avoids secondary pollutions. By controlling the appropriate conversion temperature, we envisage that the sulfation selective roasting recovery technology could be easily applied to other spent lithium-ion battery materials. Besides, this work may also provide a unique platform for further study on the efficient extracting of other mineral resources.

17.
Light Sci Appl ; 9: 10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025293

RESUMO

The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light has been shown to be useful in diverse fields ranging from astronomy and optical trapping to optical communications and data storage. However, one of the primary impediments preventing such applications from widespread adoption is the lack of a straightforward and dynamic method to sort incident OAM states without altering the states. Here, we report a technique that can dynamically filter individual OAM states and preserve the incident OAM states for subsequent processing. Although the working principle of this technique is based on resonance, the device operation is not limited to a particular wavelength. OAM states with different wavelengths can resonate in the resonator without any additional modulation other than changing the length of the cavity. Consequently, we are able to demonstrate a reconfigurable OAM sorter that is constructed by cascading such optical resonators. This approach does not require specially designed components and is readily amenable to integration into potential applications.

18.
Chem Rev ; 120(14): 7020-7063, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990183

RESUMO

Tremendous efforts are being made to develop electrode materials, electrolytes, and separators for energy storage devices to meet the needs of emerging technologies such as electric vehicles, decarbonized electricity, and electrochemical energy storage. However, the sustainability concerns of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and next-generation rechargeable batteries have received little attention. Recycling plays an important role in the overall sustainability of future batteries and is affected by battery attributes including environmental hazards and the value of their constituent resources. Therefore, recycling should be considered when developing battery systems. Herein, we provide a systematic overview of rechargeable battery sustainability. With a particular focus on electric vehicles, we analyze the market competitiveness of batteries in terms of economy, environment, and policy. Considering the large volumes of batteries soon to be retired, we comprehensively evaluate battery utilization and recycling from the perspectives of economic feasibility, environmental impact, technology, and safety. Battery sustainability is discussed with respect to life-cycle assessment and analyzed from the perspectives of strategic resources and economic demand. Finally, we propose a 4H strategy for battery recycling with the aims of high efficiency, high economic return, high environmental benefit, and high safety. New challenges and future prospects for battery sustainability are also highlighted.

19.
Biomed Opt Express ; 10(12): 6569-6579, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853417

RESUMO

Here we report the results of shear-mode thicknesses and absorption coefficient measurements made on neat membranes using scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Biomimic neat membranes composed of two different types of phoshpholipid molecules: 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2- dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) were found to exhibit different absorption coefficients under the SNOM. The localization of the lipids could be identified and correlated to the morphology of the membrane domains indicating that SNOM can be an effective and accurate approach for the label-free characterization of the structure-function relationships in cell membranes.

20.
Nanoscale ; 11(39): 18303-18310, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573007

RESUMO

In recent years, light beams containing phase or polarization singularities, such as optical vortices (OVs) and cylindrical vector beams (CVBs), have contributed to significant applications including optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications, particle trapping and manipulation, and super-resolved imaging. However, traditional methods for detecting the phase and polarization singularities of light suffer from drawbacks, such as large device size, complicated optics, and limits in detection function. Here, we propose an alternative method for detecting simultaneously phase and polarization singularities based on a spin-multiplexing metasurface. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the metasurface device can be used to measure accurately the topological charge of OVs and the polarization order of CVBs individually or simultaneously, and exhibit beneficial attributes such as a broadband response, compactness, and system simplification. This method offers great potential in applications such as singular optical beam shaping and high-capacity OAM/CVB multiplexing communication.

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