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1.
Nanoscale ; 13(13): 6461-6474, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885526

RESUMO

Unlike stable atherosclerotic plaques, vulnerable plaques are very likely to cause serious cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Meanwhile, how to non-invasively identify vulnerable plaques at early stages has been an urgent but challenging problem in clinical practices. Here, we propose a macrophage-targeted and in situ stimuli-triggered T1-T2 switchable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nanoprobe for the non-invasive diagnosis of vulnerable plaques. Precisely, single-dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) modified with hyaluronic acid (HA), denoted as IONP-HP, show macrophage targetability and T1 MRI enhancement (r2/r1 = 3.415). Triggered by the low pH environment of macrophage lysosomes, the single-dispersed IONP-HP transforms into a cluster analogue, which exhibits T2 MRI enhancement (r2/r1 = 13.326). Furthermore, an in vivo switch of T1-T2 enhancement modes shows that the vulnerable plaques exhibit strong T1 enhancement after intravenous administration of the nanoprobe, followed by a switch to T2 enhancement after 9 h. In contrast, stable plaques show only slight T1 enhancement but without T2 enhancement. It is therefore imperative that the intelligent and novel nanoplatform proposed in this study achieves a substantial non-invasive diagnosis of vulnerable plaques by means of a facile but effective T1-T2 switchable process, which will significantly contribute to the application of materials science in solving clinical problems.

2.
Neoplasma ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884885

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant bone sarcoma characterized by a propensity for metastatic spread. Tmem41b is a multi-spanning membrane protein that acts as a novel autophagy-related (ATG) gene; however, its effect on the malignant phenotypes of tumor cells and the corresponding molecular details remains unknown. In the current study, RNA-sequencing, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and immunohistochemical analysis were conducted to prove Tmem41b upregulation in 103 OS tissue specimens and three OS cell lines (U-2OS, U87, and MG63). It was strongly correlated with tumor size (P < 0.01), metastases (P < 0.05), and recurrence (P < 0.05) as well as poor survival time in OS patients. Subsequently, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of U-2OS cells with Tmem41b knockdown links cell receptor activation, proliferation, and invasion according to RNA-sequence, and PCNA, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and MMP13 expression levels were decreased by western blotting assay. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of Tmem41b knockdown on cell proliferation and invasion was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, Tmem41b silencing could significantly inhibit the AKT and p38 signaling pathways. Last, MMP13 upregulation was positively correlated with Tmem41b expression and poor survival time in OS patients via analysis of immunohistochemical detection and bioinformatics. All together, these findings demonstrate the role of Tmem41b and MMP13 as a novel prognostic marker and an attractive therapeutic target for OS.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114119, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862102

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: WeiChang'An Pill (WCAP) is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clinically treat diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D); however, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are unclear to date. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of WCAP in IBS-D using a network pharmacology approach and in vivo experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The active compounds of WCAP were selected from the TCM Systems Pharmacology Database and TCM Integrated Database, and the potential targets were identified using the Swiss Target Prediction and Similarity Ensemble Approach (SEA) databases. The targets related to IBS-D were mined from the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database (NCBI), DrugBank database, and DisGeNET database. The intersecting protein-protein interactions (PPIs) of the drug-disease crossover genes were analysed, and the central PPI network was constructed using the String database, version 11.0, and Cytoscape version 3.7.2. Following Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses, the gene-pathway network was constructed for identifying the key target genes and pathways. Based on the results and existing evidence, it was selected the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling pathway for further validation using in vivo experiments. RESULTS: A total of 872 targets were identified from the 77 active compounds in WCAP, which shared 78 targets that were predicted to be related to IBS-D. Twenty-one core targets were identified from the PPI network, which was constructed from the common targets. The results of enrichment analysis revealed that HRT2B, ADRA1A, ADRA1D, and CHRM2 could be the key targets of WCAP in IBS-D, and 11 signalling pathways, including the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, calcium signalling, and cAMP signalling pathways, were identified as crucial for the therapeutic activity of WCAP in IBS-D. We also identified the possibility of several interactions and crosstalk between the different pathways. Subsequent molecular biology experiments revealed that the expression levels of cAMP, phospho-(Ser/Thr) protein kinase A substrates (p-PKA), 5-hydroxytryptamine, and proteins in the cAMP signalling pathway, including G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), adenylyl cyclase 5 (AC5), and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), were significantly upregulated in rat models of IBS-D following treatment with WCAP (P < 0.05). However, a reverse trend was observed in the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) (P < 0.05), which could be attributed to the low-grade inflammation that occurs in IBS-D. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that WCAP may alleviate the symptoms of diarrhoea and visceral sensitivity in IBS-D by regulating the cAMP signalling pathway.

4.
Clin Respir J ; 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866688

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of CT-guided microcoil localization for pulmonary nodules in the scapula-shadowed area before video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-seven consecutive patients (18 males, 19 females; mean age 57.5 years) with 48 pulmonary nodules covered by the scapulae were enrolled in this study respectively. Successful targeting, localization, and VATS were defined as implantation of microcoil at the target site on CT image obtained immediately after the marking procedure, visualization of nodule location during VATS, and complete resection of the target nodule with adequate margin, respectively. Meanwhile, the procedure-related complication rate was also recorded. RESULTS: The rates of successful targeting and localization were 95.8% (46/48) and 89.6% (43/48), respectively. Of all nodules, 47 were successfully resected with VATS (30 wedge resections; 17 anatomic resections) and one nodule was converted to open thoracotomy for diffuse pleural adhesion, thus the successful VATS rate was 97.9% (47/48). With respect to procedure-related complications, only minor complications (including localized pneumothorax and intrapulmonary haemorrhage) were developed and the rate of overall procedure-related complications was 37.5% (18/48), including minor pneumothorax developed in 15 of 48 nodules (31.3%) and intrapulmonary haemorrhage in 6 of 48 nodules (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided microcoil technique is a safe and effective localization method prior to VATS for the nodules in the scapula-shadowed area.

5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(2): 267-273, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829701

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the potential association between multimorbidity and the handgrip strength of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: The baseline (2011) and second-round follow-up (2015) data of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were used. Adults≥40 were selected as the subjects of the study. Variables incorporated in the study included handgrip strength, chronic disease prevalence, demographic variables, and health behavior variables. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the longitudinal association between handgrip strength and multimorbidity. Results: A total of 28 368 middle-aged and older adults were included in the baseline and follow-up samples, with an average age of (59.1±9.7) years old, the oldest being 96 while the youngest being 40. Among them, 6 239 were male, accounting for 47.3%. In the second-round follow-up, 9 186 baseline respondents and 5 994 new respondents were covered, reaching a total of 15 180 respondents. Compared with the baseline, a higher proportion of the second-round follow-up respondents were female ( P=0.033) and were older ( P<0.001). From the baseline to the second-round follow-up, Q1, the lowest grip strength category, increased from 23.4% to 26.6%, while Q4, the highest grip strength category, decreased from 26.5% to 21.2%. The prevalence of having more than three chronic diseases increased from 18.2% to 24.2% and the prevalence of having more than five chronic diseases increased from 3.3% to 6.2%. After adjusting for confounding variables, the interaction items of handgrip strength and time showed statistical significance. After stratification by gender, the interaction items of male handgrip strength and follow-up time were statistically significant in both models ( P<0.05). The marginal effect graph of the interactive item showed that the multimorbidity prevalence of respondents with lower handgrip levels grew faster with age. Individual effect analysis showed that the correlation between handgrip strength and multimorbidity was not statistically significant at baseline, but the follow-up done four years afterwards showed statistical significant correlation between handgrip strength and multimorbidity. Conclusion: Respondents with lower baseline handgrip strength are associated with increasingly higher risk of multimorbidity over time. Handgrip strength can be used as an effective screening tool for middle-aged and older adults in China to identify those at higher risks of multimorbidity of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Multimorbidade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Pai-Neng-Da Capsule (, panaxadiol saponins component, PNDC) in combination with the cyclosporine and androgen for patients with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA). METHODS: A total of 79 CAA patients was randomly divided into 2 groups by a random number table, including PCA group [43 cases, orally PNDC 320 mg/d plus cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 80 mg/d] and CA group [36 cases, orally cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 160 mg/d]. All patients were treated and followed-up for 6 treatment courses over 24 weeks. The complete blood counts, score of Chinese medical (CM) symptoms were assessed and urine routine, electrocardiogram, hepatic and renal function were observed for safety evaluation. Female masculinization rating scale was established according to the actual clinical manifestations to evaluate the accurate degree of masculinization in female CAA patients treated by andriol. RESULTS: The effective rates were 88.1% (37/42) in the PCA group and 77.8% (28/36) in the CA group based on the standard for the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of hematopathy. There was no significant difference in the white blood cell (WBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin concentration of peripheral blood between two groups after 6 months treatment. The masculinization score of female patient in the PCA group was significantly lower than the CA group (P<0.05). The mild abdominal distention was observed in 1 cases in the PCA group. In CA group, the abnormalities in the hepatic function developed in 2 cases and the renal disfunction was found in 1 case. CONCLUSION: The PNDC possesses certain curative effects in the treatment of CAA without obvious side-effects and can partially replace andriol thereby to reduce the degree of masculinization [Registried at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChicTR1900028153)].

7.
Ultraschall Med ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the usefulness of liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) by sound touch elastography (STE) and sound touch quantification (STQ) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients for staging fibrosis. METHODS: This prospective multicenter study recruited normal volunteers and CHB patients between May 2018 and October 2019. The volunteers underwent LSM by STE and supersonic shear imaging (SSI) or by STQ and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI). CHB patients underwent liver biopsy and LSM by both STE/STQ. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) for staging fibrosis were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 97 volunteers and 524 CHB patients were finally eligible for the study. The successful STE and STQ measurement rates were both 100 % in volunteers and 99.4 % in CHB patients. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the intra-observer stability of STE and STQ (0.94; 0.90) were similar to those of SSI and ARFI (0.95; 0.87), respectively. STE and STQ showed better accuracy than the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) (AUC: 0.87 vs 0.86 vs 0.73 vs 0.77) in staging cirrhosis. However, both STE and STQ were not superior to APRI and FIB-4 in staging significant fibrosis (AUC: 0.76 vs 0.73 vs 0.70 vs 0.71, all P-values > 0.05). CONCLUSION: STE and STQ are convenient techniques with a reliable LSM value. They have a similar diagnostic performance and are superior to serum biomarkers in staging cirrhosis in CHB patients.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0244641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793563

RESUMO

Academic institutions need to maintain publication lists for thousands of faculty and other scholars. Automated tools are essential to minimize the need for direct feedback from the scholars themselves who are practically unable to commit necessary effort to keep the data accurate. In relying exclusively on clustering techniques, author disambiguation applications fail to satisfy key use cases of academic institutions. Algorithms can perfectly group together a set of publications authored by a common individual, but, for them to be useful to an academic institution, they need to programmatically and recurrently map articles to thousands of scholars of interest en masse. Consistent with a savvy librarian's approach for generating a scholar's list of publications, identity-driven authorship prediction is the process of using information about a scholar to quantify the likelihood that person wrote certain articles. ReCiter is an application that attempts to do exactly that. ReCiter uses institutionally-maintained identity data such as name of department and year of terminal degree to predict which articles a given scholar has authored. To compute the overall score for a given candidate article from PubMed (and, optionally, Scopus), ReCiter uses: up to 12 types of commonly available, identity data; whether other members of a cluster have been accepted or rejected by a user; and the average score of a cluster. In addition, ReCiter provides scoring and qualitative evidence supporting why particular articles are suggested. This context and confidence scoring allows curators to more accurately provide feedback on behalf of scholars. To help users to more efficiently curate publication lists, we used a support vector machine analysis to optimize the scoring of the ReCiter algorithm. In our analysis of a diverse test group of 500 scholars at an academic private medical center, ReCiter correctly predicted 98% of their publications in PubMed.

9.
Sci Immunol ; 6(58)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893172

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can stimulate robust human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E-restricted CD8+ T cell responses. These T cells recognize a peptide from UL40, which differs by as little as a single methyl group from self-peptides that also bind HLA-E, challenging their capacity to avoid self-reactivity. Unexpectedly, we showed that the UL40/HLA-E T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire included TCRs that had high affinities for HLA-E/self-peptide. However, paradoxically, lower cytokine responses were observed from UL40/HLA-E T cells bearing TCRs with high affinity for HLA-E. RNA sequencing and flow cytometric analysis revealed that these T cells were marked by the expression of inhibitory natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL2/L3. On the other hand, UL40/HLA-E T cells bearing lower-affinity TCRs expressed the activating receptor NKG2C. Activation of T cells bearing higher-affinity TCRs was regulated by the interaction between KIR2D receptors and HLA-C. These findings identify a role for NKR signaling in regulating self/non-self discrimination by HLA-E-restricted T cells, allowing for antiviral responses while avoiding contemporaneous self-reactivity.

10.
JCI Insight ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905374

RESUMO

Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture and compromised function. Tuberculous pleurisy, asbestos injury and rheumatoid pleurisy are main causes of pleural fibrosis. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a key role in pleural fibrosis. However, detailed mechanisms are poorly understood. Serine/arginine-rich protein SRSF6 belongs to a family of highly conserved RNA-binding splicing-factor proteins. Based on its known functions, SRSF6 should be expected to play a role in fibrotic diseases. However, the role of SRSF6 in pleural fibrosis is totally unknown. In this study, SRSF6 protein was found to be increased in cells of tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPE) from patients, and decellularized TBPE, bleomycin and TGFB1 were confirmed to increase SRSF6 levels in PMCs. In vitro, SRSF6 mediated PMC proliferation and synthesis of the main fibrotic protein COL1A2. In vivo, SRSF6 inhibition prevented mouse experimental pleural fibrosis. Lastly, activated-SMAD2/3, increased-SOX4 and depressed-microRNA-506-3p were associated with SRSF6 up-regulation in PMCs. These observations support a model where SRSF6 induces pleural fibrosis through a cluster pathway including SRSF6/WNT5A and SRSF6/SMAD1/5/9 signaling. In conclusion, we propose inhibition of the splicing factor SRSF6 as a strategy for treatment of pleural fibrosis.

11.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 49: 102774, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713918

RESUMO

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ß2-microglobulin (ß2-MG) levels elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the levels of ß2-MG in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 46 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), in serum from 21 healthy controls (HC), in CSF from 25 disease controls with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND) with normal CSF results. CSF ß2-MG levels were significantly higher in patients with NMOSD than controls and with weak association with the number of white blood cells, protein and lactate levels in CSF. CSF ß2-MG is thus one more, non-specific indicator of inflammation in NMOSD.

12.
J Biophotonics ; : e202000413, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715302

RESUMO

Revealing the true structure of tissues and organs with tissue slicing technology is difficult since images reconstructed in three dimensions are easily distorted. To address the limitations in tissue slicing technology, tissue clearing has been invented and has recently achieved significant progress in three-dimensional imaging. Currently, this technology can mainly be divided into two types: aqueous clearing methods and solvent-based clearing methods. As one of the important parts of this technology, organic solvent-based tissue clearing techniques have been widely applied because of their efficient clearing speed and high clearing intensity. This review introduces the primary organic solvent-based tissue clearing techniques and their applications.

13.
BMC Biotechnol ; 21(1): 24, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to clone DNA sequences quickly and precisely into plasmids is essential for molecular biology studies. The recent development of seamless cloning technologies has made significant improvements in plasmid construction, but simple and reliable tools are always desirable for time- and labor-saving purposes. RESULTS: We developed and standardized a plasmid cloning protocol based on a universal MCS (Multiple Cloning Site) design and bacterial in vivo assembly. With this method, the vector is linearized first by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) or restriction digestion. Then a small amount (10 ~ 20 ng) of this linear vector can be mixed with a PCR-amplified insert (5× molar ratio against vector) and transformed directly into competent E. coli cells to obtain the desired clones through in vivo assembly. Since we used a 36-bp universal MCS as the homologous linker, any PCR-amplified insert with ~ 15 bp compatible termini can be cloned into the vector with high fidelity and efficiency. Thus, the need for redesigning insert-amplifying primers according to various vector sequences and the following PCR procedures was eliminated. CONCLUSIONS: Our protocol significantly reduced hands-on time for preparing transformation reactions, had excellent reliability, and was confirmed to be a rapid and versatile plasmid cloning technique. The protocol contains mostly mixing steps, making it an extremely automation-friendly and promising tool in modern biology studies.

14.
Korean J Radiol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the image quality of ultralow-dose CT (ULDCT) of the chest reconstructed using a cycle-consistent generative adversarial network (CycleGAN)-based deep learning method in the evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June 2019 and November 2019, 103 patients (mean age, 40.8 ± 13.6 years; 61 men and 42 women) with pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled to undergo standard-dose CT (120 kVp with automated exposure control), followed immediately by ULDCT (80 kVp and 10 mAs). The images of the two successive scans were used to train the CycleGAN framework for image-to-image translation. The denoising efficacy of the CycleGAN algorithm was compared with that of hybrid and model-based iterative reconstruction. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the objective measurements and the subjective image quality scores, respectively. RESULTS: With the optimized CycleGAN denoising model, using the ULDCT images as input, the peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity index improved by 2.0 dB and 0.21, respectively. The CycleGAN-generated denoised ULDCT images typically provided satisfactory image quality for optimal visibility of anatomic structures and pathological findings, with a lower level of image noise (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 19.5 ± 3.0 Hounsfield unit [HU]) than that of the hybrid (66.3 ± 10.5 HU, p < 0.001) and a similar noise level to model-based iterative reconstruction (19.6 ± 2.6 HU, p > 0.908). The CycleGAN-generated images showed the highest contrast-to-noise ratios for the pulmonary lesions, followed by the model-based and hybrid iterative reconstruction. The mean effective radiation dose of ULDCT was 0.12 mSv with a mean 93.9% reduction compared to standard-dose CT. CONCLUSION: The optimized CycleGAN technique may allow the synthesis of diagnostically acceptable images from ULDCT of the chest for the evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis.

15.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751878

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of miR-490 on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by sepsis in vitro and in vivo were through targeting multi-drug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4). MiR-490 agomir/NC agomir was injected into mice before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were transfected with or without miR-490 agomir/NC agomir/MRP4/empty vector before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Histopathology, injure score, and Wet/Dry (W/D) of lung tissues were assessed. The number of neutrophils, macrophages and total cells, total protein concentration, TNF-α and IL-1ß level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2, TNF-α, and IL-1ß were measured in MPVECs. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to analyze the relationship between MRP4 and miR-490. When compared to the sham group, in CLP mice, the alveolar lung tissue showed significantly hyperemic, alveolar collapse, the W/D ratio was increased, and the injury index was increased. The number of neutrophils, macrophages and total cells, total protein concentration, TNF-α and IL-1ß levels were significantly increased in BALF from CLP mice. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß were significantly increased in lung tissue from CLP mice. Overexpression of miR-490 alleviated lung injury caused by CLP and inhibited inflammation in mice. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and caspase-3 were significantly increased, but the level of Bcl-2 was significantly decreased in MPVECs treated with LPS compared to the control group. Overexpression of miR-490 also reversed the increase of TNF-α, IL-1ß, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2 caused by LPS in MPVECs. Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the target gene of miR-490 was MRP4. Besides, overexpression of MRP4 upregulated TNF-α, IL-1ß, and cleaved caspase-3, but downregulated the increase of Bcl-2 induced by miR-490 agomir transfection. These data suggested that miR-490 could relieve sepsis-induced acute lung injury in neonatal mice via targeting MRP4.

17.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(8): 1256-1259, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656285

RESUMO

A 60-year-old man was hospitalized because of numbness and weakness in the right upper limb. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large mass in the right upper lobe invading the right eighth cervical and first thoracic nerve root. Biopsy pathology confirmed primary lung adenocarcinoma with a clinical stage of cT4N0M0 IIIA, negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations but positive for programmed death ligand 1 (3%). Neoadjuvant tislelizumab and chemotherapy were offered to this patient with Pancoast tumor, and tumor shrinkage of 71% was achieved. After the operation, surgical pathology indicated pathologic complete response (pCR). Circulating tumor cells testing was negative after the first adjuvant treatment. In this case, we provide real-world evidence of encouraging pCR with neoadjuvant tislelizumab and chemotherapy for a patient with Pancoast tumor.

18.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metastasis is the primary cause of lung cancer-related death. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of lung cancer metastases are still elusive. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing for 40 primary tumors (PTs) and 61 metastases from 47 patients with lung cancer, of which 40 patients had paired PTs and metastases. The PT-metastasis genomic divergence, metastatic drivers, timing of metastatic dissemination, and evolutionary origins were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools and mathematical models. RESULTS: There were various degrees of genomic heterogeneity when comparing the paired primary and metastatic lesions or comparing metastases of different sites. Multiple metastasis-selected/enriched genetic alterations were found, such as MYC amplification, NKX2-1 amplification, RICTOR amplification, arm 20p gain, and arm 11p loss, and these results were were also featured in a meta-analysis cross-validated using an independent cohort from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center database. To elucidate the metastatic seeding time, we applied a metastatic model and found 61.1% of the tumors were late dissemination, in which the metastatic seeding happened approximately 2.74 years before clinical detection. One exception was lymph node metastases whose dissemination time was relatively early. By analyzing the evolutionary origins, we reported that nonlymph node metastases were mainly seeded by the PT (87.5%) rather than the earlier colonized lymph node metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results shed light on the molecular features that potentially drive lung cancer metastases. The distinct temporospatial pattern of disease progression revealed that lung cancer was susceptible to either late dissemination or indolent early lymph node metastases, leaving a potential time window to minimize metastases by early cancer detection.

19.
Muscle Nerve ; 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745138

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: The study aims to investigate the short-term efficacy of low-dose rituximab and its effect on immunological biomarker levels in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK-MG). METHODS: Twelve MuSK-MG patients were enrolled in this prospective, open-label, self-controlled pilot study. Clinical severity was evaluated at baseline and 6 mo after a single rituximab treatment (600 mg). B lymphocyte subtypes, MuSK antibody titers, together with levels of immunoglobulins, serum B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), soluble CD40L, and four exosomal microRNAs were evaluated. A correlation matrix to reveal pairwise relationships among above variables was also generated. RESULTS: The single rituximab treatment significantly lowered the clinical severity scores and reduced daily dosage of prednisone (P = .032) at 6 mo. MuSK antibody titers decreased (P = .035) without significant changes in immunoglobulin levels. Serum BAFF level increased (P = .010), which negatively correlated with the percentages of B cells in lymphocytes as well as clinical severity. Additionally, serum exosomal miR-151a-3p showed a reduction of 28.1% (P = .031). DISCUSSION: We confirmed the clinical efficacy of low-dose rituximab in MuSK-MG, accompanied by a decrease in MuSK antibody titers and an increase in serum BAFF. Serum BAFF levels negatively correlated with B-cell counts as well as clinical severity.

20.
EMBO J ; 40(8): e106283, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665835

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes several key components of respiratory chain complexes that produce cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. mtDNA is vulnerable to damage under various physiological stresses, especially oxidative stress. mtDNA damage leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, and dysfunctional mitochondria can be removed by mitophagy, an essential process in cellular homeostasis. However, how damaged mtDNA is selectively cleared from the cell, and how damaged mtDNA triggers mitophagy, remain mostly unknown. Here, we identified a novel mitophagy receptor, ATAD3B, which is specifically expressed in primates. ATAD3B contains a LIR motif that binds to LC3 and promotes oxidative stress-induced mitophagy in a PINK1-independent manner, thus promoting the clearance of damaged mtDNA induced by oxidative stress. Under normal conditions, ATAD3B hetero-oligomerizes with ATAD3A, thus promoting the targeting of the C-terminal region of ATAD3B to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Oxidative stress-induced mtDNA damage or mtDNA depletion reduces ATAD3B-ATAD3A hetero-oligomerization and leads to exposure of the ATAD3B C-terminus at the mitochondrial outer membrane and subsequent recruitment of LC3 for initiating mitophagy. Furthermore, ATAD3B is little expressed in m.3243A > G mutated cells and MELAS patient fibroblasts showing endogenous oxidative stress, and ATAD3B re-expression promotes the clearance of m.3243A > G mutated mtDNA. Our findings uncover a new pathway to selectively remove damaged mtDNA and reveal that increasing ATAD3B activity is a potential therapeutic approach for mitochondrial diseases.

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