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1.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114084, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041033

RESUMO

Northern China is a significant source of dust source in Central Asia. Thus, high-resolution analysis of dust storms and comparison of dust sources in different regions of northern China are important to clarify the formation mechanism of East Asian dust storms and predict or even prevent such storms. Here, we analyzed spatiotemporal trends in dust storms that occurred in three main dust source regions during 1960-2007: Taklimakan Desert (western region [WR]), Badain Jaran and Tengger Deserts (middle region [MR]), and Otindag Sandy Land (eastern region [ER]). We analyzed daily dust storm frequency (DSF) at the 10-day scale (first [FTDM], middle [MTDM], and last [LTDM] 10 days of a month), and investigated the association of dust storm occurrences with meteorological factors. The 10-day DSF was greatest in the FTDM (accounting for 77.14% of monthly occurrences) in the WR, MTDM (45.85%) in the MR, and LTDM (72.12%) in the ER, showing a clear trend of movement from the WR to the ER. Temporal analysis of DSF revealed trend changes over time at annual and 10-day scales, with mutation points at 1985 and 2000. We applied single-factor and multiple-factor analyses to explore the driving mechanisms of DSF at the 10-day scale. Among single factors, a low wind-speed threshold, high solar radiation, and high evaporation were correlated with a high DSF, effectively explaining the variations in DSF at the 10-day scale; however, temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation poorly explained variations in DSF. Similarly, multiple-factor analysis using a classification and regression tree revealed that maximum wind speed was a major influencing factor of dust storm occurrence at the 10-day scale, followed by relative humidity, evaporation, and solar radiation; temperature and precipitation had weak influences. These findings help clarify the mechanisms of dust storm occurrence in East Asia.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 697: 134126, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491630

RESUMO

Heavy metals in agricultural soil receive much attention because they are easily absorbed by crop into the ecosystem. Managing the discharge of heavy metals from the source is an effective way to prevent and control heavy metals pollution. Grouped principal component analysis (GPCA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor models were utilized in this study to conduct source apportionment, and the former was optimal because of the accuracy of predicting. Based on the source contribution by GPCA/APCS, heavy metals were evaluated by fuzzy synthetic evaluation model and health risk assessment model. The results of source apportionment showed that heavy metals in Zhangye agricultural soil were mainly affected by steel industry, traffic, agrochemicals, manures, mining activities, leather industry and metal processing industry source. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation showed that the pollution levels of Chromium (Cr) derived by leather industry and metal processing industry and Nickel (Ni) derived by steel industry and traffic source were higher. Health risk assessment revealed that the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of Cr derived by leather industry and metal processing industry and Lead (Pb) derived by steel industry and traffic source were higher.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Lógica Fuzzy , Análise Multivariada , Medição de Risco
3.
J Environ Manage ; 243: 137-143, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096168

RESUMO

With the rapid and extensive development of industry and agriculture, the soil environment inevitably becomes contaminated with heavy metals, thus creating adverse environmental conditions for flora and fauna. The traditional methods for combining field sampling with laboratory analysis of soil heavy metals are limited not only because they are time-consuming and expensive, but also because they are unable to obtain adequate information about the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals in soil over a large area. Three hundred and ninety-four soil samples (Gobi and farmland) were collected in an arid area in Jiuquan in Northwest China and analyzed for elements concentrations. Based on these measured concentrations, as well as rapid and environmentally friendly remote sensing (multi-spectral data), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS) were combined to predict concentrations and distributions of heavy metals in the soils of the study area. Furthermore, laboratory data were used to assess the accuracy of the prediction results. Obtained results suggest that the SMLR and PLS models were able to predict the metals contents in the study area. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, V and Zn could be predicted by two regression models, while those of Cu and Mn were predicted more accurately when they were attached to the SMLR model. The spatial distribution of heavy metals derived from the two models is consistent with measured values, indicating that it is reasonable to predict the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil of the study area using the multi-spectral data.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo
4.
Chemosphere ; 193: 189-197, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131977

RESUMO

Hexi Corridor is the most important base of commodity grain and producing area for cash crops. However, the rapid development of agriculture and industry has inevitably led to heavy metal contamination in the soils. Multivariate statistical analysis, GIS-based geostatistical methods and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modeling techniques were used to understand the levels of heavy metals and their source apportionment for agricultural soil in Hexi Corridor. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were lower than the secondary standard of soil environmental quality; however, the concentrations of eight metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) were higher than background values, and their corresponding enrichment factor values were significantly greater than 1. Different degrees of heavy metal pollution occurred in the agricultural soils; specifically, Ni had the most potential for impacting human health. The results from the multivariate statistical analysis and GIS-based geostatistical methods indicated both natural sources (Co and W) and anthropogenic sources (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn). To better identify pollution sources of heavy metals in the agricultural soils, the PMF model was applied. Further source apportionment revealed that enrichments of Pb and Zn were attributed to traffic sources; Cr and Ni were closely related to industrial activities, including mining, smelting, coal combustion, iron and steel production and metal processing; Zn and Cu originated from agricultural activities; and V, Ti and Mn were derived from oil- and coal-related activities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indústrias , Ferro/análise , Mineração , Análise Multivariada , Solo/química , Aço/análise
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