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1.
Cureus ; 11(1): e3910, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915267

RESUMO

Background Despite advanced diagnosis and treatment, infective endocarditis (IE) is a potentially life-threatening condition. Although recent studies have provided evidence of changing trends in IE epidemiology, few studies examine patterns within urban minority populations. Here we present the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes of IE among an underserved African American population in Brooklyn, New York, compared to the general population. Methods This is a retrospective study which included 67 patients with IE diagnosed at The Brooklyn Hospital Center from 2009 to 2015. Patients were selected according to the modified Duke Criteria for definite IE. Various epidemiological parameters were examined via chi-square and Fisher's exact test using SPSS 24 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results The mean age of the 67 patients was 63 years and 46.3% of the patients were men. The majority of patients (70.1%) were African American while Hispanics and Caucasians were 17.9% and 7.5%, respectively. Healthcare-associated IE (58.2%, n=39) outnumbered community-acquired IE (41.8%, n=28). The sites of vegetation were the mitral valve (62.7%, n=42), tricuspid valve (22.4%, n=15), aortic valve (11.9%, n=8), and intravenous catheter (3%, n=2). In valves, 13.4% of the cases were found in prosthetic valves while the majority occurred in native valves. The most common pathogens of IE were the Staphylococcus (50.8%, n=34) species, followed by Streptococcus species (32.8%, n=22). Overall, the in-hospital mortality was 38.8% (n=26) with higher mortality observed for healthcare-associated IE than community-acquired IE (P = .049). Embolic complications were associated with significant mortality (P < .001). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the common causative pathogens for IE among African Americans trends towards Staphylococcus species followed by Streptococcus species, similar to the contemporary epidemiology of IE. Healthcare-associated IE outnumbered community-acquired IE and was associated with higher mortality. Embolic complications were significantly associated with high mortality. Therefore, efforts made to control healthcare-associated infections are expected to decrease the trend of IE.

2.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 12(2): 439-446, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186097

RESUMO

Ginseng is commonly used as a medicinal herb for memory and concentration and general well-being. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most challenging disorders and trending events in the United States which are related to body building and weight loss supplements. Currently, herbal and dietary supplementation is the second most common cause of DILI. Here, we report on a 45-year-old healthy Chinese woman who presented with dull intermittent left upper quadrant abdomen pain for a month. Upon thorough history taking, she had been taking ginseng tea and supplementation for her menopausal symptoms for almost 3 months. Physical examination was unremarkable except mild tenderness in left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Liver function test showed aspartate transaminase (AST) 717 U/L, alanine transaminase (ALT) 343 U/L, total bilirubin 5 mg/dL, direct bilirubin 3.3 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 182 U/L, with international normalized ratio (INR) 1.2. Prior liver enzymes (6 months earlier) showed AST 21 U/L, ALT 18 U/L, total bilirubin 0.8 mg/dL, direct bilirubin 0.3 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 34 U/L, with INR 0.7. Viral serology for acute hepatitis B, C, E, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and varicella zoster virus was negative. She was immune to hepatitis A. Her antinuclear antibody was positive. Her anti-Smith antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibody, HFE gene mutation, ceruloplasmin, alpha-1 antitrypsin serologies were within normal references. An abdomen sonogram showed fatty infiltration. Liver biopsy showed moderate to severe portal inflammation and marked lobular disarray. Portal and lobular inflammatory infiltrates consisted of a mixture of histiocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils with centrilobular necrosis and focal bridging necrosis, and necro-inflammation. After 6 weeks of follow-up, the patient improved physically, and the abdomen pain resolved. Ginseng has been widely used in the Chinese community as medicinal herb for a variety of conditions for decades. However, proper research has never been done regarding its pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety issues. In our case report, the idiosyncratic DILI resulted from ingestion of ginseng as herbal supplementation for premenopausal symptoms. Physicians should be aware of and suspect DILI in any patient with acute liver injury, and patients should be reminded that all medications and supplements have a potential to cause DILI.

3.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 12(2): 217-223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928186

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease presenting from mild localized inflammation to severe infected necrotic pancreatic tissue. In the literature, there are a few cases of hypothermia-induced AP. However, the association between hypothermia and AP is still a myth. Generally, mortality from acute pancreatitis is nearly 3-6%. Here, we present a 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female who presented with acute pancreatitis induced by transient hypothermia. A 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female was hypothermic at 81°F on arrival which was improved to 91.7°F with warming blanket and then around 97°F in 8 h. Laboratory tests including complete blood count, lipid panel, and comprehensive metabolic panels were within the normal limit. Serum alcohol level was 0.01, amylase 498, lipase 1,200, ammonia 26, serum carboxyhemoglobin level 2.4, and ß-HCG was negative. The entire sepsis workup was negative. During rewarming period, she had one episode of witnessed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. It was followed by transient hypotension. Fluid challenge was successful with 2 L of normal saline. Sonogram (abdomen) showed fatty liver and trace ascites. CAT scan (abdomen and pelvis) showed evidence of acute pancreatitis without necrosis, peripancreatic abscess, pancreatic mass, or radiopaque gallstones. The patient was managed medically and later discharged from the hospital on the 4th day as she tolerated a normal low-fat diet. In our patient, transient hypothermia from chronic alcohol abuse and her social circumstances might predispose to microcirculatory disturbance resulting in acute pancreatitis. Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation prevents complications.

4.
Cureus ; 10(4): e2509, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930887

RESUMO

Splenic infarction is an unusual cause for a patient to present with left upper abdomen pain. A 47-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with left upper abdomen pain. She reported that she stopped taking warfarin two days prior to presentation. A physical examination revealed fine crackles within the left lower lobe and significant tenderness within the left upper abdomen. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed mild cardiomegaly with a 2.3 cm calcified thrombus in the left ventricular apex. We noted infarction in the spleen and right kidney with bilateral renal scarring. The patient was initially started on a heparin drip and later bridged to warfarin on the third day. She was discharged after seven days with complete resolution of the abdominal pain. The decision to prescribe an anticoagulant should include a consideration of underlying causes, comorbidities, an assessment of risks and benefits, and chances of recurrence. In our patient, her new splenic infarct and renal infarction were most likely embolic in origin due to her left ventricular apical aneurysm with thrombus and nonadherence to her prescribed anticoagulation medication.

5.
Cureus ; 10(4): e2529, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942731

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare neoplasms of the digestive tract. The clinical behavior of GISTs varies greatly, has extended follow-up, and almost all of the tumors have malignant potential. The introduction of imatinib has led to extraordinary improvements in the treatment of individuals with GISTs (as well as those with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)). However, there have been notable postmarketing reports of adverse drug reactions of hepatotoxicity with the use of imatinib. By our search, among individuals taking imatinib for the treatment of GIST, only six cases of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have been reported. Here, we present an interesting case of an elderly woman who developed DILI after taking imatinib for the treatment of GIST. As the liver function tests (LFTs) initially did not improve, it was decided to proceed with an interventional radiology (IR)-guided liver biopsy, which showed a histologic pattern of acute hepatitis, consistent with DILI. Ultimately, discontinuation of the antineoplastic agent led to recovery in the patient's clinical condition along with normalization of her LFTs over the next several weeks. Thus, it is essential that physicians remain alert for and suspect DILI for any patient being treated with imatinib who presents with a sudden elevation of LFTs. The key to making the diagnosis is stopping the offending agent and closely monitoring the liver enzymes for improvement. When discontinuation of imatinib alone does not lead to improvement in LFTs and the patient's clinical status, a detailed history should be taken and initial diagnostic testing performed to exclude other etiologies. And, if they are negative, a liver biopsy should be considered.

6.
Cureus ; 10(1): e2080, 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560293

RESUMO

Despite advancements in diagnostic tools, physical signs such as xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, facial wrinkles, and gray hair are useful indicators of underlying diseases. The presence of bilateral diagonal earlobe creases (DELCs), also known as Frank's sign, correlates with a myriad of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The use of Frank's sign as a bedside predictor of underlying coronary artery disease is controversial among clinicians. We report a case of a patient with bilateral DELCs found to have significant coronary artery disease during diagnostic coronary angiography for recurrent chest pain.

7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20182018 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301800

RESUMO

Catamenial or cyclical anaphylaxis is a complex clinical syndrome with poorly reported incidence and prevalence in the literature review. The underlying mechanism is still a myth although a few proposed hypotheses are stated. Early recognition of these symptoms will bring optimal treatment and prevent unnecessary intubation and complications. Here, we present a 48-year-old woman without significant medical and family history with recurrent angioedema in the setting of catamenial anaphylaxis or cyclical anaphylaxis in the setting of progesterone hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade/fisiopatologia , Progesterona/fisiologia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Angioedema/etiologia , Angioedema/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 11(3): 616-624, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282381

RESUMO

A silent solid endocrine tumor of pancreas, intraductal adenocarcinoma of pancreas, is the fourth leading cancer-related death in the US. However, it is expected to become the third leading cause by 2030 owing to delayed diagnosis and slow progress in management. Chronic pancreatitis is at risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC is diagnostic with transabdominal sonogram, blood test such as carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), and imaging. PDAC has a dismal prognosis. The survival rate in 5 years is barely 6%, while late detection rate is 80-85% with unresectable stage upon diagnosis. Here, we present a 51-year-old asymptomatic female with intermittent constipation and abdominal pain for 1 month with obstructive jaundice with PDAC with liver metastasis.

9.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 11(3): 569-575, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29118685

RESUMO

Actinomycosis is a form of painful abscess in the gastrointestinal tract or in deep tissue caused by actinomyces species. They are one of the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract of humans but can opportunistically cause infection in immunosuppressive hosts through invasion of breached mucosa or necrotic tissue while mimicking malignancy, gastrointestinal tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Actinomyces israelii is, by far, the major and most common human pathogen throughout literatures. By virtue of rarity and diagnostic confusion with masquerading malignancies, only 10% of the cases have been diagnosed preoperatively, so as to be able to verge patients from undergoing unnecessary surgical intervention. Herein, we present a rare case of complicated diverticular abscess manifested by Actinomyces meyeri after postoperative tissue diagnosis.

10.
Cureus ; 9(9): e1691, 2017 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29158999

RESUMO

Gram-negative urease-producing bacilli, Providencia stuartii (P. stuartii), is reported in urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia in humans but they rarely present with a hepatic abscess. We present a rare case of a recurrent suprahepatic cyst due to P. stuartii in a 45-year-old female, intravenous ( IV) heroin abuser with chronic hepatitis B and C. A 45-year-old female with 10 days status post right suprahepatic abscess drainage presented with recurrent, right, upper quadrant abdominal pain for one day. The pain was 7/10, sharp, radiated to the right back, and was associated with nausea, non-bloody non-bilious vomiting, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. She was discharged after interventional radiology (IR) drainage of the abscess and completed 14 days of levofloxacin and metronidazole. On palpation, mild tender hepatomegaly was noticed. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis of 17.1 with left shift but liver enzymes within normal limits. Aspirated fluid cultures from the abscess showed P. stuartii. Blood and urine cultures were negative. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test was negative. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic (DNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed > 17 million IU/ml and hepatitis C virus (HCV) Ab reactive. A right, upper quadrant sonogram showed 4.1x0.9x2.7 cm fluid collection anterior to the right liver lobe. A computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed a dominant 5.2x5.5x3.9 cm hypodense lesion consistent with an abscess above the right liver. Initially, she was treated empirically with IV piperacillin-tazobactam and anticoagulation for a pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Clinical and laboratory improvement were achieved with intravenous antibiotics evidenced by the decreasing size of the abscess on repeat CT scan. The patient was discharged with continuing antibiotics after four weeks. Repeated CT scan showed complete resolving of the suprahepatic cyst. In conclusion, in our patient, long-term shelter residence, IV heroin use, and chronic hepatitis B and C might be precipitating factors for PLA. Managing a recurrent primary hepatic abscess caused by P. stuartii is similar to PLA from other bacterial causes: drainage and antibiotic therapy. However, in our case, she responded well to medical treatment without further surgical drainage.

13.
Cureus ; 9(11): e1851, 2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29372125

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is the eighth-most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The most common presenting symptom in advanced distal esophageal cancer is the sensation of sticking food, but it may sometimes present with bleeding and related complications, or asymptomatic leukocytosis. We present the case of a 77-year-old afebrile man with chronic alcoholism and a dilated thoracic esophagus with painful, progressive, and persistent dysphagia and leukocytosis of unknown origin. A 77-year-old man with a past medical history of hypertension and colonic cancer status post right hemicolectomy (surveillance negative) presented to the emergency department with painful, progressive, persistent, and worsening dysphagia for the past three weeks. It was associated with an unintentional weight loss of ten pounds in one month and nausea with non-bilious and non-bloody vomiting for several days. He denied fever, diarrhea, hoarseness of voice, change in bowel movement, hematemesis, hematochezia, melena, orthopnea, dyspnea at rest, palpitation, and abdominal pain. A chest x-ray (lateral view) showed debris in a dilated thoracic esophagus with fluid. An esophagogram showed a 10 x 3 cm obstructive mass with irregular mucosa within the proximal esophagus from the thoracic vertebra levels four to ten. A computed tomography scan of the chest with contrast showed long segment dilatation of the upper and mid-thoracic esophagus with generalized circumferential thickening of the distal esophagus. He was empirically on cefazolin and metronidazole but later switched to piperacillin, tazobactam, and fluconazole. Cardiac risk stratification was done for an esophagogastroduodenoscopy. However, the patient and the family opted for palliative care and agreed to a do-not-resuscitate/do-not-intubate status. In esophageal cancers, tumor-related leukocytosis and neutrophilia are common presentations. However, there is no standardized routine screening test for esophageal cancers. Thus, when asymptomatic afebrile elderly patients present with leukocytosis of unknown origin, clinicians should have suspicions of occult malignancy such as esophageal cancers, gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer.

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