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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for social behaviors, yet whether and how it encodes social memory remains unclear. METHODS: We combined whole-cell patch recording, morphological analysis, optogenetic/chemogenetic manipulation, and the TRAP (targeted recombination in active populations) transgenic mouse tool to study the social-associated neural populations in the mPFC. RESULTS: Fos-TRAPed prefrontal social-associated neurons are excitatory pyramidal neurons with relatively small soma sizes and thin-tufted apical dendrite. These cells exhibit intrinsic firing features of dopamine D1 receptor-like neurons, show persisting firing pattern after social investigation, and project dense axons to nucleus accumbens. In behaving TRAP mice, selective inhibition of prefrontal social-associated neurons does not affect social investigation but does impair subsequent social recognition, whereas optogenetic reactivation of their projections to the nucleus accumbens enables recall of a previously encountered but "forgotten" mouse. Moreover, chemogenetic activation of mPFC-to-nucleus accumbens projections ameliorates MK-801-induced social memory impairments. CONCLUSIONS: Our results characterize the electrophysiological and morphological features of social-associated neurons in the mPFC and indicate that these Fos-labeled, social-activated prefrontal neurons are necessary and sufficient for social memory.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146650

RESUMO

A new tetradentate chelating ligand appending a stilbene derivative, E-N',N'-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-4-styrylbenzohydrazide (HL) was synthesized, together with two ß-diketonates (4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenylbutane-1,3-dionate, tfd), with or without the trifluoroacetate anion present as a ligand for coordination with lanthanide(iii) ions to form [Ln(tfd)2(HL)(CF3CO2)] (LnC49H36F9N4O7, Ln = La (1), Nd (2), Eu (3), Gd (4)) and [Yb(tfd)2(L)] (YbC47H35F6N4O5 (5), L = deprotonated HL). All five complexes were structurally characterized, and five crystals were obtained and analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The quantum yield of trans-to-cis photoisomerization of the stilbene group in gadolinium complex 4 was enhanced about five-fold compared with that of HL itself. Other complexes showed slightly enhanced or depressed photoisomerization. The total luminescence quantum yield/sensitization efficiency of europium complex 3 in the solid state and acetonitrile solution were 22.1%/96.7% and 19.3%/97.9%, respectively. The transfer of ligand energy to the Eu3+ ion was highly efficient. This enhanced photoisomerization and luminescence of the stilbene group within complexes was found to be related to the energy level of lanthanide ions and whether a ligand-to-metal center or ligand-to-ligand charge transfer process was present. The interpretation of experimental results is rationally supported by time-dependent density-functional theory calculations. In complex 4, except for the intramolecular absorption transition of HL ligand itself (IL, πHL-π*HL), the presence of the ligand-to-ligand charge transfer transition from tfd to HL (LLCT, πtfd-π*HL) and the triplet state energy of HL being unable to transfer to the higher 6P7/2 excited energy level of the Gd3+ ion would facilitate HL photoisomerization. For complex 3, this was due to reversed ligand-to-ligand charge transfer transition from HL to tfd (LLCT, πHL-π*tfd) and its energy transfer to the metal center. Although the observed radiative lifetimes of NIR luminescent complexes 2 and 5 were around 10 µs, these systems contained only two diketone ligands, indicating that HL still had a certain promoting effect compared with tris(diketonate) lanthanide complexes. These results offer an important route for the design of new lanthanide-based molecular switching materials.

3.
Cell Rep ; 33(7): 108398, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207193

RESUMO

To understand how neural-immune-associated genes and pathways contribute to neurodegenerative disease pathophysiology, we performed a systematic functional genomic analysis in purified microglia and bulk tissue from mouse and human AD, FTD, and PSP. We uncover a complex temporal trajectory of microglial-immune pathways involving the type 1 interferon response associated with tau pathology in the early stages, followed by later signatures of partial immune suppression and, subsequently, the type 2 interferon response. We find that genetic risk for dementias shows disease-specific patterns of pathway enrichment. We identify drivers of two gene co-expression modules conserved from mouse to human, representing competing arms of microglial-immune activation (NAct) and suppression (NSupp) in neurodegeneration. We validate our findings by using chemogenetics, experimental perturbation data, and single-cell sequencing in post-mortem brains. Our results refine the understanding of stage- and disease-specific microglial responses, implicate microglial viral defense pathways in dementia pathophysiology, and highlight therapeutic windows.

4.
Biomed J ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study establishes norms for the Box and Block Test (BBT) in healthy Taiwanese adults between 15 and 75 years of age. METHODS: 621 right-handed healthy adults (296 males and 325 females) completed the study. All participants performed the BBT following the standard protocol. An age by gender by testing hand analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine differences for the variables of interest. RESULTS: On average, females performed better on the BBT than males by approximately 2 points (p < 0.001). Across all participants, dominant hand performance was 2.8 points higher than non-dominant hand performance (p < 0.001). Significant changes of BBT scores across life span were observed at the ages of 30, 45 and 60 years old. Average scores across all age groups are at least one standard deviation below the previously established American norms for each corresponding age group. CONCLUSION: When using the BBT test with adult Taiwanese clients, clinical practitioners should strongly consider using right-handed normative data from Taiwanese individuals as the norms for this population differ from the previously established norms from American adult participants.

5.
Biochem Genet ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135088

RESUMO

Chalcone Isomerase (CHI) catalyzes the biosynthesis of flavonoids and secondary metabolism in plants. Currently, there is no systematic analysis of CHIs gene family in Fagaceae which is available. In this study, twenty-two CHI proteins were identified in five species of the Fagaceae family. The CHI superfamily in Fagaceae can be classified into three subfamilies and five groups using phylogenetic analysis, analysis of physicochemical properties, and structural prediction. Results indicated that serine (Ser) and isoleucine (Ile) residues determine the substrate preferred by active Type I Fagaceae CHI, and the chalcone isomerase-like (CHIL) of Fagaceae had active site residues. Adaptive analysis of CHIs showed that CHIs are subject to selection pressure. The active CHI gene of Fagaceae was located in the cytoplasm, and it had the typical gene structure of CHI and contains four exons. All the twenty-two identified CHIs had the conserved domain motif 3, and the different groups had their own structural characteristics. In the process of fatty acid binding protein (FAP) evolution to CHIL and CHI, the physical and chemical properties of proteins also had significant differences in addition to changes in protein functions.

6.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135206

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The most common type of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). When NSCLC is detected, patients are typically already in a metastatic stage. Metastasized cancer is a major obstacle of effective treatment and understanding the mechanisms underlying metastasis is critical to treat cancer. Herein, we selected an invasive subpopulation from the human lung cancer cell line A549 using the transwell system and named it as A549-I5. Invasive and migratory activities of this cell line were analysed using wound healing, invasion, and migration assays. In addition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as Snail 1, Twist, Vimentin, N-cadherin and E-cadherin, were assessed through immunoblotting. In comparison to A549 cells, the invasive A549-I5 lung cancer cells had enhanced invasiveness, motility and EMT marker expression. Proteomic analysis identified 83 significantly differentially expressed proteins in A549-I5 cells. These identified proteins were classified according to their cellular functions and most were involved in cytoskeleton, redox regulation, protein degradation and protein folding. In summary, our results provide potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for the treatment of NSCLC metastasis. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: When NSCLC is detected, most patients are already in a metastatic stage. Herein, we selected an invasive subpopulation from a human lung cancer cell line which had increased EMT markers as well as high wound healing, invasion and migration abilities. Proteomic analysis identified numerous proteins associated with functions in cytoskeleton, redox regulation, protein degradation and protein folding that were differentially expressed in these cells. These results may provide potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for the treatment of NSCLC metastasis.

7.
Life Sci ; : 118732, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160996

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) elicits inflammatory response, which contributes to the pathology of cognitive impairment. Several studies demonstrate that the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) can be a key component to modulate the inflammatory responses. We have reported previously that acupuncture attenuated cognitive deficits induced by CCH. In present study, whether effect of acupuncture was related to α7nAChR mediated anti-inflammatory pathway in CCH rats was further explored. MAIN METHODS: Acupuncture was performed in CCH rats induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion. Neuronal injury, the activation of microglia, the release of inflammatory cytokines, the expression of α7nAChR, and the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways were detected. Cognitive function and central inflammation were evaluated after the intraperitoneal injection of an α7nAChR agonist PNU282987, or intracerebroventricular injection of an α7nAChR antagonist α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT). KEY FINDINGS: We found that there were neuronal damage and inflammation, accompanied with the decreased expressions of α7nAChR in the hippocampus under CCH condition. Acupuncture inhibited neuronal damage, activation of microglia, and inflammatory cytokines. The expressions of α7nAChR, together with its downstream JAK2/STAT3 pathways were up regulated by acupuncture. PNU282987 mimicked the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects as well as the cognitive improvements of acupuncture. Meanwhile, the benefit effects of acupuncture above were blocked by α-BGT. SIGNIFICANCE: It was demonstrated that acupuncture promoted cognitive function and afforded neuroprotective effects against inflammation via activation of α7nAChR and its downstream JAK2-STAT3 pathway in CCH rats. It provides a new insight for acupuncture as an anti-inflammatory intervention for cognitive impairment.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152224

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different amounts of wheat bran (WB) inclusion and postbiotics form by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and phytase co-fermented wheat bran (FWB) on the growth performance and health status of broilers. Methods: Study randomly allocated a total of 300 male broilers to a control and 4 treatment groups (5% WB, 5% FWB, 10% WB, and 10% FWB inclusion, respectively) with each pen having 20 broilers and 3 pens per treatment. Results: Wheat bran does not contain enzymes, but there are 152.8, 549.2, 289.5, and 147.1 U/g dry matter (DM) xylanase, protease, cellulase and ß-glucanase in FWB, respectively. Furthermore, FWB can decrease nitric oxide release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells by about two times. Results show that 10% FWB inclusion had significantly the highest weight gain (WG) at 1-21d; 5% FWB had the lowest feed conversion rate at 22-35d; 10% WB and 10% FWB inclusion have the highest villus height and Lactobacillus spp. number in caecum; and both 5% and 10% FWB can increase ash content in femurs. Compared to control group, all treatments increase mucin 2 (MUC2), and tight junction (TJ), such as occludin, claudin-1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and mRNA expression in ileum by at least 5 folds. In chPBMCs, NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX-1) mRNA expression decreases from 2 to 5 times, and Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic Subunit (GCLC) mRNA expression also increases in all treatment groups compared to control group. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), decreases in 5% and 10% FWB groups compared to control group. Conclusion: To summarize, both WB and FWB inclusion in broilers diets increase TJ mRNA expression and anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but up to 10% FWB groups have better WG in different stages of broiler development.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155115

RESUMO

Lake Bangong Co is a special lake in western Tibet, with characteristics of increased salinity from the eastern area to the western area. Due to its remote location and poor environmental conditions, there are few background data on the water environment of this lake. In this study, the water chemical composition of Lake Bangong Co was studied, and the concentration levels, distribution characteristics, and pollution sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), and metals (As, Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn) were investigated. The hydrochemical characteristics of the lake showed significant spatial differences. Conductivity, salinity, degree of mineralization, total hardness, Cl-, and SO42- generally increased from the eastern part to the western part. Most water quality parameters met the class III standards of the Chinese surface water standards; however, the Cl- and SO42- concentrations in the western part exceeded the surface water standard limits. ΣPAH and ΣPAE concentrations in lake water have no significant relationship with hydrochemical parameters. Among the 16 target PAHs, 4 PAH monomers with a (5 + 6)-ring were not detected in the lake water. The main sources of PAHs included emissions from biomass combustion, petroleum volatilization, and automobile exhaust. Six PAE monomers were detected at all sampling sites with relatively low concentrations, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the main pollutants. The main source of PAEs was domestic waste, which might be related to increasing human activities in this area recently. In general, the concentrations of metals in the water of Lake Bangong Co were lower than those in the regions affected by anthropogenic activities except As. The results of PCA showed that As, Cu, and Cr mainly originated from natural sources; Pb, Mn, and Cr came from both natural and anthropogenic sources; and Cd was highly likely from anthropogenic sources.

10.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179280

RESUMO

AIMS: Existing epidemiological studies have suggested that periodontal disease (PD) may be a risk indicator for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no formal systematic review and meta-analysis has been performed. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between PD and CRC risk in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science to search for related articles published from January 1, 1966 to July 16, 2020. Stata (Version 15) software was used to calculate the total risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the included studies through the random effects model to assess the association PD and CRC risk. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the narrative synthesis, and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed that PD significantly increased the risk of CRC by 44% (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.76; I2 , 55.2%). CONCLUSION: We found an association between PD and CRC. PD can be a potential risk indicator for the occurrence and development of CRC, further studies are needed to assess causality. Hence, effective periodontal treatment could be a valuable preventive measure for CRC.

11.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; : e12388, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174678

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-management of patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease (ESCKD). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional correlational study design. This study used purposive sampling to enroll a total of 130 patients with ESCKD. The research instruments included Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Care Knowledge Scale, Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Efficacy Instrument, Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Management Scale, and so on. This study used the statistical software SPSS 20.0 to perform statistical analyses, such as descriptive statistical analysis, independent samples t test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analysis, and multiple hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: The knowledge of patients with early kidney disease was moderate (55.10%), self-efficacy was moderate (54.44%), and self-management was moderate (61.11%). The disease knowledge and self-efficacy (r = .59, p < .01) were significantly positively correlated with self-management (r = .50, p < .01); the intervening effect of self-efficacy on self-management (z = 4.58, p < .001) reached statistically significant difference. Self-efficacy was the most significant predictor for self-management and explained 49% of the total variance. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that self-efficacy was a mediator and predictor for self-management. The research results may serve as reference for related administrative authorities or medical personnel to develop self-efficacy strategies with theoretical basis, as well as appropriate self-efficacy improvement schemes, to transform the methods for enhancing disease knowledge to improve the intervention with self-efficacy language or method and increase patients' disease self-management.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142702

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy, characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and multiple small subcapsular cystic follicles in the ovary during ultrasonography, and affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is frequently associated with insulin resistance (IR) accompanied by compensatory hyperinsulinemia and, therefore, presents an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The pathophysiology of PCOS is unclear, and many hypotheses have been proposed. Among these hypotheses, IR and hyperandrogenism may be the two key factors. The first line of treatment in PCOS includes lifestyle changes and body weight reduction. Achieving a 5-15% body weight reduction may improve IR and PCOS-associated hormonal abnormalities. For women who desire pregnancy, clomiphene citrate (CC) is the front-line treatment for ovulation induction. Twenty five percent of women may fail to ovulate spontaneously after three cycles of CC treatment, which is called CC-resistant PCOS. For CC-resistant PCOS women, there are many strategies to improve ovulation rate, including medical treatment and surgical approaches. Among the various surgical approaches, one particular surgical method, called laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), has been proposed as an alternative treatment. LOD results in an overall spontaneous ovulation rate of 30-90% and final pregnancy rates of 13-88%. These benefits are more significant for women with CC-resistant PCOS. Although the intra- and post-operative complications and sequelae are always important, we believe that a better understanding of the pathophysiological changes and/or molecular mechanisms after LOD may provide a rationale for this procedure. LOD, mediated mainly by thermal effects, produces a series of morphological and biochemical changes. These changes include the formation of artificial holes in the very thick cortical wall, loosening of the dense and hard cortical wall, destruction of ovarian follicles with a subsequently decreased amount of theca and/or granulosa cells, destruction of ovarian stromal tissue with the subsequent development of transient but purulent and acute inflammatory reactions to initiate the immune response, and the continuing leakage or drainage of "toxic" follicular fluid in these immature and growth-ceased pre-antral follicles. All these factors contribute to decreasing local and systemic androgen levels, the following apoptosis process with these pre-antral follicles to atresia; the re-starting of normal follicular recruitment, development, and maturation, and finally, the normalization of the "hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary" axis and subsequent spontaneous ovulation. The detailed local and systematic changes in PCOS women after LOD are comprehensively reviewed in the current article.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly spread throughout the country and the world since first broke out in Wuhan, China. The outbreak that started from January 22, 2020, in Fujian Province has been controlled as the number of indigenous cases has not increased since March. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Fujian Province, China. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicenter study, we collected and analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data of all cases confirmed by nucleic acid tests in five designated hospitals in Fujian Province between January 22 and February 27, 2020. All patients were followed up until discharge. COVID-19 severity was classified as mild, moderate, severe, or critical. RESULTS: Of 199 discharged patients with COVID-19, 105 patients were male, with a median age of 46.3 years, and 17 patients were severe, and 5 patients were critical on admission. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common comorbidities. The symptoms at illness onset were mainly fever (76.4%), cough (60.8%), and myalgia or fatigue (27.6%). A total of 96.5% of patients had abnormal imaging findings on chest computed tomography. Lymphopenia (37.2%) and hypoxemia (13.6%) were observed. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure occurred in 9 patients (4.5%) and 8 patients (4.0%) respectively. One patient died and the others were cured and discharged with the median hospital stay of 19 days. Old age was negatively correlated with lymphocyte count (r = - 0.296, p < 0.001) and oxygenation index (r = - 0.263, p = 0.001). Bivariate regression analysis revealed that old age (≥ 75 years), hypertension, diabetes, and lymphopenia were correlated with the severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in Fujian Province were mostly nonsevere cases with mild or moderate symptoms, and had a lower mortality than patients in Wuhan (4.3%-15%). Older age, hypertension, diabetes, and lymphopenia were risk factors for severity of COVID-19.

15.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180106

RESUMO

Importance: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been associated with improved survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but are also associated with adverse effects, especially fatigue and diarrhea. Discontinuation of TKIs is safe and is associated with the successful achievement of treatment-free remission (TFR) for some patients. Objective: To evaluate molecular recurrence (MRec) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after TKI discontinuation for US patients with CML. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Life After Stopping TKIs (LAST) study was a prospective single-group nonrandomized clinical trial that enrolled 172 patients from 14 US academic medical centers from December 18, 2014, to December 12, 2016, with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Participants were adults with chronic-phase CML whose disease was well controlled with imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, or bosutinib. Statistical analysis was performed from August 13, 2019, to March 23, 2020. Intervention: Discontinuation of TKIs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Molecular recurrence, defined as loss of major molecular response (BCR-ABL1 International Scale ratio >0.1%) by central laboratory testing, and PROs (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System computerized adaptive tests) were monitored. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was performed on samples with undetectable BCR-ABL1 by standard real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). Results: Of 172 patients, 89 were women (51.7%), and the median age was 60 years (range, 21-86 years). Of 171 patients evaluable for molecular analysis, 112 (65.5%) stayed in major molecular response, and 104 (60.8%) achieved TFR. Undetectable BCR-ABL1 by either ddPCR or RQ-PCR at the time of TKI discontinuation (hazard ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.99-6.50; P < .001) and at 3 months (hazard ratio, 5.86; 95% CI, 3.07-11.1; P < .001) was independently associated with MRec. Molecular recurrence for patients with detectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR was 50.0% (14 of 28), undetectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR but detectable by ddPCR was 64.3% (36 of 56), and undetectable BCR-ABL1 by both ddPCR and RQ-PCR was 10.3% (9 of 87) (P ≤ .001). Of the 112 patients in TFR at 12 months, 90 (80.4%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in fatigue, 39 (34.8%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in depression, 98 (87.5%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in diarrhea, 24 (21.4%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in sleep disturbance, and 5 (4.5%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in pain interference. Restarting a TKI resulted in worsening of PROs. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, TKI discontinuation was safe, and 60.8% of patients remained in TFR. Discontinuation of TKIs was associated with improvements in PROs. These findings should assist patients and physicians in their decision-making regarding discontinuation of TKIs. Detectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR or ddPCR at the time of TKI discontinuation was associated with higher risk of MRec; clinical application of this finding should be confirmed in other studies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02269267.

16.
Geobiology ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043601

RESUMO

Shallow-water hydrothermal plumes concomitantly host both photosynthetic and chemoautotrophic organisms in a single biotope. Yet, rate measurements to quantify the contributions of different autotrophic activity types are scarce. Herein, we measured the light and dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake rates in the plume water of the Kueishantao hydrothermal field using the 13 C-labeling approach. Seventy percent of the plume-water samples had chemoautotrophy as the dominant mode of carbon fixation, with the dark DIC uptake rates (up to 18.6 mg C/m3 /h) within the range of the primary production in productive inner-shelf waters. When considered alongside the geochemical and microbiological observations, the rate data reveal the distribution of different trophic activities in the hydrothermal plume. The autotrophic activity at the initial phase of plume dispersal is low. This is explained by the short response time the chemoautotrophs have to the stimulation from vent-fluid discharge, and the harmful effects of hydrothermal substances on phytoplankton. As plume dispersal and mixing continue, chemoautotrophic activities begin to rise and peak in waters that have low-to-moderate Si(OH)4 content. Toward the plume margin, chemoautotrophy declines to background levels, whereas photosynthesis by phytoplankton regains importance. Our results also provide preliminary indication to the loci of enhanced heterotrophy in the plume. Results of artificial mixing experiments suggest that previously formed plume water is the primary source of microbial inoculum for new plume water. This self-inoculation mechanism, in combination with the intense DIC uptake, helps to sustain a distinct planktonic autotrophic community in this rapidly flushed hydrothermal plume.

17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072067

RESUMO

Background: Limited treatment strategies are available for squamous-cell lung cancer (SQLC) patients. Few studies have addressed whether immune-related genes (IRGs) or the tumor immune microenvironment can predict the prognosis for SQLC patients. Our study aimed to construct a signature predict prognosis for SQLC patients based on IRGs. Methods: We constructed and validated a signature from SQLC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) using bioinformatics analysis. The underlying mechanisms of the signature were also explored with immune cells and mutation profiles. Results: A total of 464 eligible SQLC patients from TCGA dataset were enrolled and were randomly divided into the training cohort (n = 232) and the testing cohort (n = 232). Eight differentially expressed IRGs were identified and applied to construct the immune signature in the training cohort. The signature showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) between low-risk and high-risk cohorts (P < 0.001), with an area under the curve of 0.76. The predictive capability was verified with the testing and total cohorts. Multivariate analysis revealed that the 8-IRG signature served as an independent prognostic factor for OS in SQLC patients. Naive B cells, resting memory CD4 T cells, follicular helper T cells, and M2 macrophages were found to significantly associate with OS. There was no statistical difference in terms of tumor mutational burden between the high-risk and low-risk cohorts. Conclusion: Our study constructed and validated an 8-IRG signature prognostic model that predicts clinical outcomes for SQLC patients. However, this signature model needs further validation with a larger number of patients.

18.
Dementia (London) ; : 1471301220965550, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021844

RESUMO

Before Erikson proposed the life stages, Confucius concluded an autobiographic review of his entire life in about 500 BC. Confucius' life stages may be closer to the life experiences of Chinese older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the life review program on cognitive ability, life satisfaction, meaning of life, and ego integrity. The experiment was based on a single-group time-series design with a four-time test across 21 weeks. The evoking materials were horticultural activities held in seven weekly sessions. The innovative life review program was in accordance with a combination of Confucius' and Erikson's life stages. Nine participants completed all sessions. There was a significant positive effect of time on participants' cognitive ability and meaning of life after the program. A combination of Confucius' and Erikson's life stages can be more advantageous for Chinese older adults than only Erikson's life stage.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017637

RESUMO

The red blood cells (RBCs) of fish make up around 95% of the total peripheral blood cells, and the long-held paradigm is that RBCs are mainly responsible for transporting oxygen. Previous studies have showed that the RBCs can be involved in the immune response against bacterial infection; however, this mechanism remains enigmatic. Here, we explored the structure of grass carp RBCs (GcRBCs). The results showed that the GcRBCs released a pseudopodia-like structure when grown in a 24-well plate, and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result showed that GcRBCs contained some organelle-like structures. To further verify the organelle-like structures might be the mitochondria and lysosome which similar to other immune cells, a fluorescent labeling assay was used to verify it. To decipher the antibacterial immunity of GcRBCs, transcriptomic profiling of grass carp RBCs after the incubation with E. coli was analyzed. The results showed that there were 4099 differently expressed genes (DEGs) of GcRBCs upon E. coli incubation, including 2041 up-regulated and 2058 down-regulated genes. In addition, to validate our transcriptomic data, we checked the expression of several cytokines, such as CCL4, CCL20, IL4, IL12 and IFN-α, and the results showed that all the selected gens were significantly up-regulated after E. coli incubation. Furthermore, E. coli incubation induced hemoglobin oxidation and increased the heme in GcRBCs, which further activated the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), autophagy related genes 5 (ATG5), and ferritin. In contrast, E. coli incubation inhibited the expression of Ferroportin-1 (FPN1), which increased intracellular iron levels, induced Fenton reaction to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activated the ferroptosis signaling pathway in GcRBCs. Herein, we demonstrate that E. coli can induce teleost RBCs cell death through an iron-mediated ferroptosis pathway, which sheds new light on the interaction between bacteria and teleost RBCs.

20.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128486, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032221

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a commonly found heavy metal due to its historical applications. Recent studies have associated early-life Pb exposure with the onset of various neurodegenerative disease. The molecular mechanisms of Pb conferring long-term neurotoxicity, however, is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the persistency of alteration in epigenetic marks that arise from exposure to low dose of Pb using a combination of image-based and gene expression analysis. Using SH-SY5Y as a model cell line, we observed significant alterations in global 5-methycytosine (5 mC) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3) and histone 3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) levels in a dose-dependent manner immediately after Pb exposure. The changes are partially associated with alterations in epigenetic enzyme expression levels. Long term culturing (14 days) after cease of exposure revealed persistent changes in 5 mC, partial recovery in H3K9me3 and overcompensation in H3K27me3 levels. The observed alterations in H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 are reversed after neuronal differentiation, while reduction in 5 mC levels are amplified with significant changes in patterns as identified via texture clustering analysis. Moreover, correlation analysis demonstrates a strong positive correlation between trends of 5 mC alteration after differentiation and neuronal morphology. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to low dose of Pb prior to differentiation can result in persistent epigenome alterations that can potentially be responsible for the observed phenotypic changes. Our work reveals that Pb induced changes in epigenetic repressive marks can persist through neuron differentiation, which provides a plausible mechanism underlying long-term neurotoxicity associated with developmental Pb-exposure.

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