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1.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438500

RESUMO

Limitations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) potentially contributed to the inconsistent findings of greenspace exposure and childhood asthma. The aim of this study was to use a novel greenness exposure assessment method, capable of overcoming the limitation of NDVI to determine the extent to which it was associated with asthma prevalence in Chinese children. During 2009-2013, a cross-sectional study of 59,754 children aged 2-17 years was conducted in northeast China. Tencent street view images surrounding participants' schools were segmented by a deep learning model, and streetscape greenness was extracted. The green view index (GVI) was used to assign exposure and higher value indicates more green coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds of asthma per interquartile range (IQR) increase of GVI for trees and grass. Participants were further stratified to investigate whether particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) was a modifier. An IQR increase in GVI800m for trees was associated with lower adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.72-0.80) and current asthma (OR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.75-0.89). An IQR increase in GVI800m for grass was associated with higher adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.00-1.08) and current asthma (OR: 1.08; 95%CI: 1.02-1.14). After stratification by PM2.5 exposure level, the negative association between trees and asthma, and the positive association between grass and asthma were observed only in low PM2.5 exposure levels (≤median: 56.23 µg/m3). Our results suggest that types of vegetation may play a role in the association between greenness exposure and childhood asthma. Exposure to trees may reduce the odds of childhood asthma, whereas exposure to grass may increase the odds. Additionally, PM2.5 may modify the associations of trees and grass with childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Aprendizado Profundo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poaceae , Prevalência , Árvores
2.
Environ Res ; 202: 111641, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health effects of greenness perceived by residents at eye level has received increasing attention. However, the associations between eye-level greenness and respiratory health are unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between exposure to eye-level greenness and lung function in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 6740 school children in seven cities in northeast China were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and maximum mid expiratory flow rate (MMEF) were measured to evaluate lung function and to define lung impairment. Eye-level greenness was extracted from segmented Tencent Map street view images, and a corresponding green view index (GVI) was calculated. Higher GVIs mean more greenness coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to estimate the health effects on lung impairment per interquartile range (IQR) increase in GVI. Linear regressions were used to estimate the associations between GVI and lung function. The health effects of ambient air pollutants were also assessed, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1.0 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). RESULTS: An increase of GVI800m was associated with lung impairment in FEV1, FVC, PEF and MMEF, with ORs ranging from 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.79) to 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.93). The associations between an IQR increase of GVI800m and FEV1 (48.15 ml, 95% CI: 30.33-65.97 ml), FVC (50.57 ml, 95% CI: 30.65-70.48 ml), PEF (149.59 ml/s, 95% CI: 109.79-189.38 ml/s), and MMEF (61.18 ml/s, 95% CI: 31.07-91.29 ml/s) were significant, and PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were found to be mediators of this relationship. CONCLUSION: More eye-level greenness was associated with better lung function and reduced impairment. However, eye-level greenness associations with lung function became non-significant once lower particulate matter air pollution exposures were considered.

3.
Environ Res ; 200: 111399, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is known about whether long-term exposures to air borne particulate matters of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) impact human hematologic index for women preparing for pregnancy. No study assessed the effect of PM1, which is small enough to reach the blood circulation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether exposure to PM1 and PM2.5 is associated with blood cell count of woman preparing for pregnancy. METHOD: Based on the baseline data of a national birth cohort in China, we analysed the white blood cell (WBC), red blood cells (RBC) and thrombocyte counts of 1,203,565 women who are aged 18-45 years, being Han ethnicity, had no chronic disease and preparing for pregnancy. We matched their home addresses and examination date with daily concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 which were estimated by a machine learning method with remote sensing, meteorological and land use information. Generalized additive mixed model to examine the associations between exposure to one-year average exposure to PMs prior to the health examination and the blood cells counts, after adjustment for potential individual variables. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 PM1 increment was associated with -1.49% (95%CI: 1.56%, -1.42%) difference in WBC count; with 0.33% (95%CI: 0.30%, 0.36%) difference of RBC count; and with 1.08% (95%CI: 1.01%, 1.15%) difference of thrombocyte count. For PM2.5, the corresponding difference was -0.47% (95%CI: 0.54%, -0.39%) for WBC; was 0.06% (95%CI: 0.03%, 0.09%) for RBC; and was 1.10% (95%CI: 1.02%, 1.18%) for thrombocyte. Women working as workers, being overweight and with tobacco smoking exposure had higher associations between PMs and hematologic index than their counterparts (p < 0.05 for interaction test). CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PMs were associated with decrement in WBC, as well as increment in RBC and thrombocytes among Han Chinese women preparing for pregnancy. Measures such as using air purifiers and wearing a mask in polluted areas should be improved to prevent women from the impact of PMs.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110931, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014325

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between the exposure window (prenatal, early postnatal, and current period) of secondhand smoke (SHS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in children. Objective: To evaluate the associations of prenatal, early postnatal, or current SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 48 612 children aged 6 to 18 years from elementary and middle schools in Liaoning province, China, between April 2012 and January 2013 were eligible for participation. Data on SHS exposure and ADHD symptoms and subtypes for each child were collected via questionnaires administered to parents or guardians by school teachers. Data were analyzed from September 14 to December 2, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The ADHD symptoms and subtypes (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and combined) were measured based on a validated tool developed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Generalized linear mixed models were evaluated to estimate the association of SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes. Results: A total of 45 562 participants completed the questionnaires and were included in this study (22 905 girls [50.3%]; mean [SD] age, 11.0 [2.6] years; 2170 [4.8%] with ADHD symptoms). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children who were ever exposed (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36-1.66) or always exposed to SHS (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.55-3.25) from pregnancy to childhood had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.46 [95% CI, 1.31-1.62] to 2.94 [95% CI, 2.09-4.13]). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children with SHS exposure had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms when exposed in the prenatal period (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 2.07-2.51), early postnatal period (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.29-1.68), or current period (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children whose fathers smoked 10 or more cigarettes/d on both weekdays and weekends had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.48 [95% CI, 1.28-1.70] to 2.25 [95% CI, 1.29-3.93]). Conclusions and Relevance: Being exposed to SHS from pregnancy to childhood was associated with higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children, and the associations were somewhat stronger for SHS exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Our findings highlight the important public health implications of reducing SHS exposure, which may decrease the health and economic burdens of individuals with ADHD.

5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 95, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a serious public health concern. School-based interventions hold great promise to combat the rising trend of childhood obesity. This systematic review aimed to assess the overall effects of school-based obesity prevention interventions, and to investigate characteristics of intervention components that are potentially effective for preventing childhood obesity. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and Embase databases to identify randomized- or cluster randomized- controlled trials of school-based obesity interventions published between 1990 and 2019. We conducted meta-analyses and subgroup analyses to determine the overall effects of obesity prevention programs and effect differences by various characteristics of intervention components on body mass index (BMI) or BMI Z-score of children. RESULTS: This systematic review included a total of 50 trials (reported by 56 publications). Significant differences were found between groups on BMI (- 0.14 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: - 0.21, - 0.06)) and BMI Z-score (- 0.05 (- 0.10, - 0.01)) for single-component interventions; significant differences were also found between groups on BMI (- 0.32 (- 0.54, - 0.09) kg/m2) and BMI Z-score (- 0.07 (- 0.14, - 0.001)) for multi-component interventions. Subgroup analyses consistently demonstrated that effects of single-component (physical activity) interventions including curricular sessions (- 0.30 (- 0.51, - 0.10) kg/m2 in BMI) were stronger than those without curricular sessions (- 0.04 (- 0.17, 0.09) kg/m2 in BMI); effects of single-component (physical activity) interventions were also strengthened if physical activity sessions emphasized participants' enjoyment (- 0.19 (- 0.33, - 0.05) kg/m2 in BMI for those emphasizing participants' enjoyment; - 0.004 (- 0.10, 0.09) kg/m2 in BMI for those not emphasizing participants' enjoyment). The current body of evidence did not find specific characteristics of intervention components that were consistently associated with improved efficacy for multi-component interventions (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School-based interventions are generally effective in reducing excessive weight gain of children. Our findings contribute to increased understandings of potentially effective intervention characteristics for single-component (physical activity) interventions. The impact of combined components on effectiveness of multi-component interventions should be the topic of further research. More high-quality studies are also needed to confirm findings of this review.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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