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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606647

RESUMO

Due to the complexity of myocardial infarction (MI) waveform, most traditional automatic diagnosis models rarely detect it, while those able to detect MI often require high computing and storage capacity, rendering them unsuitable for portable devices. Therefore, in order for convenient real-time MI detection, it is essential to design lightweight models suitable for resource-limited portable devices. This paper proposes a novel multi-channel lightweight model (ML-Net), that provides a new solution for portable detection devices with limited resources. In ML-Net, each electrocardiogram (ECG) lead is assigned an independent channel, ensuring data independence and preserve the ECG characteristics of different angles represented by different leads. Moreover, convolution kernels of heterogeneous sizes are utilized to achieve accurate classification with only a small amount of lead data. Extensive experiments over actual ECG data from the PTB diagnostic database are conducted to evaluate ML-Net. The results show that ML-Net outperforms comparable schemes in diagnosing MI, and it requires lower computational cost and less memory, so that portable devices can be more widely used in the field of Internet of Medical Things(IoMT).

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535174

RESUMO

CD4+ T cells are considered to be vital in chronic liver diseases, but their exact roles in hepatic capillarization, the typical characteristic of liver fibrosis, are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the roles of typical subtype of CD4+ T cells, named T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells in liver fibrosis. Taking advantage of well established fibrotic rat model, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to explore the interactions between liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Th1/2 cells; meanwhile we evaluated the degree of hepatic capillarization when inhibiting these interactions with inhibitory antibodies. Our results showed that prohibiting interactions between Th2 cells and LSECs caused the restoration of fenestrae, increased cytokine level of Th1 cells and reduction of hepatic capillarization; inhibiting the interaction between Th1 cells and LSECs produced the opposite effects. Moreover, increased Rho and myosin light chain phosphorylation were observed when Th1 cells were inhibited with the corresponding inhibitory antibody; Th2 cell inhibition yielded the opposite results. This study indicated that Th1/2 cells steer the capillarization process in different directions and this effect is probably mediated by the Rho-Rho kinase (ROCK)-myosin signaling pathway.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535183

RESUMO

It is important to identify novel biomarkers to improve hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we reported the role of karyopherin α4 (KPNA4) in HCC patients through public data mining and examined the results using clinical samples in our center. Our results revealed that KPNA4 expression level was positively correlated with the infiltration of CD8+ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, KPNA4 expression was significantly associated with T cell exhaustion. KPNA4 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in cancerous tissue than in normal tissue. Besides, the increased expression of KPNA4 indicated poor overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses showed KPNA4 could be viewed as an independent risk factor for HCC patients. Moreover, our experimental results were consistent with those obtained from bioinformatic results. These findings revealed KPNA4 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

4.
Oral Oncol ; 114: 105146, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The evaluation of neck lymph node metastasis is critical for predicting survival after head and neck cancer treatment. However, traditional pathological N staging does not completely correlate with survival; the total number of lymph nodes resected during surgery affects staging, and a minimal number of nodes must be resected to achieve a superior outcome. Thus, the prognostic abilities of various lymph node staging systems for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-positive lymph nodes were compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for 639 patients with OSCC-positive nodes who were treated and monitored at the Changhua Christian Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The different N staging systems were compared to evaluate their disease-free survival (DFS) predictability. RESULTS: The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were as follows: 0.551 for the traditional American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) N staging, 0.60 for lymph node density (LND), 0.596 for log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS), and 0.597 for the number of metastatic lymph nodes (nmLN). The LND, LODDS, and nmLN systems could predict DFS better than AJCC N staging. Multivariable analysis for DFS revealed that extranodal spread, level IV or V positive nodes, and tumor invasion deeper than 13 mm were independent prognostic factors in these four models. LND and LODDS predicted DFS better than pathological N staging. CONCLUSION: LND and LODDS staging predicted DFS better than AJCC N staging for OSCC-positive nodes. In the future, the prognostic ability of AJCC staging may be strengthened by LND or LODDS staging.

5.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(4): 869-879, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487474

RESUMO

This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in identifying lymphazdenopathy. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles through September 2020. A total of 16 articles, which included 1787 participants, were analyzed. The summary sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR and diagnostic odds ratio of CEUS for diagnosing lymphadenopathy were 0.88 (0.86-0.90), 0.90 (0.88-0.92), 6.04 (3.67-9.95), 0.15 (0.10-0.21) and 47.38 (23.45-95.66), respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9405. After omitting outliers identified in a bivariate box plot and forest plot, heterogeneity was decreased, and the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.87 (0.84-0.90) and 0.87 (0.84-0.90), respectively. Furthermore, the SROC AUC was 0.9327. In conclusion, CEUS has the potential to be a valuable tool for characterizing lymphadenopathy and could provide clinical decision support.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract are a frequent complication of influenza and contribute to the widespread use of antibiotics. Influenza vaccination may help reduce both appropriate and inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics. Electronic health records provide a rich source of information for assessing secondary effects of influenza vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to estimate effects of influenza vaccine on antibiotic (amoxicillin) prescription in the elderly based on data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The introduction of UK policy to recommend the influenza vaccine to older adults in 2000 led to a substantial increase in uptake, creating a natural experiment. Of 259,753 eligible patients that were unvaccinated in 1999 and aged≥65y by January 2000, 88,519 patients received influenza vaccination in 2000. These were propensity score matched 1:1 to unvaccinated patients. Time-to-amoxicillin was analysed using the Prior Event Rate Ratio (PERR) Pairwise method to address bias from time-invariant measured and unmeasured confounders. A simulation study and negative control outcome were used to help strengthen the validity of results. RESULTS: Compared to unvaccinated patients, those from the vaccinated group were more likely to be prescribed amoxicillin in the year prior to vaccination: hazard ratio (HR) 1.90 (95% confidence interval 1.83, 1.98). Following vaccination, the vaccinated group were again more likely to be prescribed amoxicillin, HR 1.64 (1.58,1.71). After adjusting for prior differences between the two groups using PERR Pairwise, overall vaccine effectiveness was 0.86 (0.81, 0.92). Additional analyses suggested that provided data meet the PERR assumptions, these estimates were robust. CONCLUSIONS: Once differences between groups were taken into account, influenza vaccine had a beneficial effect, lowering the frequency of amoxicillin prescribing in the vaccinated group. Ensuring successful implementation of national programmes of vaccinating older adults against influenza may help contribute to reducing antibiotic resistance.

7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 54, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PIA has been proven to be a predictor for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo occipitospinal fusion. However, its predictive effect for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo OCF is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the pharyngeal inlet angle (PIA) for the occurrence of postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo occipitocervical fusion (OCF). METHODS: Between 2010 and 2018, 98 patients who had undergone OCF were enrolled and reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of postoperative dysphagia. Radiographic parameters, including the atlas-dens interval (ADI), O-C2 angle (O-C2a), occipital and external acoustic meatus to axis angle (O-EAa), C2 tilting angle (C2Ta), C2-7 angle (C2-7a), PIA and narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (nPAS), were measured and compared. Simple linear regression and multiple regression analysis were used to evaluate the radiographic predictors for dysphagia. In addition, we used PIA = 90° as a threshold to analyze its effect on predicting dysphagia. RESULTS: Of the 98 patients, 26 exhibited postoperative dysphagia. Preoperatively, PIA in the dysphagia group was significantly higher than that in the nondysphagia group. We detected that O-C2a, O-EAa, PIA and nPAS all decreased sharply in the dysphagia group but increased slightly in the nondysphagia group. The changes were all significant. Through regression analyses, we found that PIA had a similar predictive effect as O-EAa for postoperative dysphagia and changes in nPAS. Additionally, patients with an increasing PIA exhibited no dysphagia, and the sensitivity of PIA <90° in predicting dysphagia reached 88.5%. CONCLUSIONS: PIA could be used as a predictor for postoperative dysphagia in patients undergoing OCF. Adjusting a PIA level higher than the preoperative PIA level could avoid dysphagia. For those who inevitably had decreasing PIA, preserving intraoperative PIA over 90° would help avert postoperative dysphagia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial has been registered in the Medical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital, Sichuan University. The registration number is 762 and the date of registration is Sep. 9 th, 2019.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433627

RESUMO

Some studies have indicated that a specific "social semantic network" represents the social meanings of words. However, studies of the comprehension of complex materials, such as sentences and narratives, have indicated that the same network supports the online accumulation of connected semantic information. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that this network does not simply represent the social meanings of words but also accumulates connected social meanings from texts. We defined the social semantic network by conducting a meta-analysis of previous studies on social semantic processing and then examined the effects of social semantic accumulation using an fMRI experiment. Two important findings were obtained. First, the social semantic network showed a stronger social semantic effect in sentence and narrative reading than in word list reading, indicating the amplitude of social semantic activation can be accumulated in the network. Second, the activation of the social semantic network in sentence and narrative reading can be better explained by the holistic social-semantic-richness rating scores of the stimuli than by those of the constitutive words, indicating the social semantic contents can be integrated in the network. These two findings convergently indicate that the social semantic network supports the accumulation of connected social meanings.

9.
Brain Lang ; 213: 104893, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360162

RESUMO

Although there are considerable individual differences in eye movements during text reading, their neural correlates remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the first-pass fixation duration (FPFD) in natural reading and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the brain. We defined the brain regions associated with early visual processing, word identification, attention shifts, and oculomotor control as seed regions. The results showed that individual FPFDs were positively correlated with individual RSFCs between the early visual network, visual word form area, and eye movement control/dorsal attention network. Our findings provide new evidence on the neural correlates of eye movements in text reading and indicate that individual differences in fixation time may shape the RSFC differences in the brain through the time-on-task effect and the mechanism of Hebbian learning.

10.
Eur J Cell Biol ; 100(1): 151144, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370650

RESUMO

In response to mitochondrial damage, mitochondria activate mitochondrial dynamics to maintain normal functions, and an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics triggers multiple programmed cell death processes. Recent studies have shown that phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) is associated with mitochondrial damage. PGAM5 activates mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy to promote a cellular compensatory response when mitochondria are mildly damaged, whereas severe damage to mitochondria leads to PGAM5 inducing excessive mitochondria fission, disruption to mitochondrial movement, and amplification of apoptosis, necroptosis and mitophagic death signals, which eventually evoke cell death. PGAM5 functions mainly through protein-protein interactions and specific Ser/Thr/His protein phosphatase activity. PGAM5 is also regulated by mitochondrial proteases. Detection of PGAM5 and its interacting protein partners should enable a more accurate evaluation of mitochondrial damage and a more precise method for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

11.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 1747021820981862, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283640

RESUMO

The effect of the babyface schema includes three typical responses, namely, the preference response, viewing motivation, and attention bias towards infant faces. It has been theorized that these responses are primarily influenced by infants' facial structures. However, recent studies have revealed the moderating role of facial expression, suggesting that the strongest effect of the babyface schema may be related to the neutral facial expression; this hypothesis remains to be tested. In this study, the moderating role of facial expression was assessed in three successive experiments (total N = 402). We used a series of images of the same face with multiple expression-standardized images of infants and adults to control for facial structure. The results indicated that the effect sizes of the babyface schema (i.e., response differences between infants and adults) were different for multiple expressions of the same face. Specifically, the effect sizes of neutral faces were significantly greater than those of happy and sad faces according to the preference response (experiment 1, N = 90), viewing motivation (experiment 2, N = 214), and attentional bias (experiment 3, N = 98). These results empirically confirm that neutral infant facial expressions elicit the strongest effect of the babyface schema under the condition of using adult faces as a comparison baseline and matching multiple expressions of the same face.

12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4830418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294122

RESUMO

Drug resistance remains a barrier in the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer. Proteasomal and antioxidant activities play important roles in tumor drug resistance, and increasing evidence suggests the existence of an interaction between antioxidant and proteasomal activities. However, the mechanism of the synergistic effects of proteasomal activity and antioxidation on tumor drug resistance is not completely clear. In this study, we compared two ovarian cancer cells, A2780 and SKOV3 cells. Among them, SKOV3 cell is a human clear cell carcinoma cell line that is resistant to platinum. We found that compared with the findings in A2780 cells, SKOV3 cells were less sensitive to both proteasomal inhibitor and cisplatin. Proteasomal inhibition enhanced the sensitivity of A2780 cells, but not SKOV3 cells, to cisplatin. Notably, the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant pathway was identified as a resistance mechanism in proteasome inhibitor-resistant cells, but this was not the only factor identified in our research. In SKOV3 cells, PGC1α regulated the antioxidant activity of Nrf2 by increasing the phosphorylation of GSK3ß, and in turn, Nrf2 regulated the transcriptional activity of PGC1α. Thus, Nrf2 and PGC1α synergistically participate in the regulation of proteasomal activity. Furthermore, the Nrf2/PGC1α pathway participated in the regulation of mitochondrial function and homeostasis, further regulating proteasomal activity in SKOV3 cells. Therefore, exploring the roles of PGC1α and Nrf2 in the regulation of proteasomal activity by antioxidant and mitochondrial functions may provide new avenues for reversing drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348821

RESUMO

Studies have compared the differences and similarities between backward walking and forward walking, and demonstrated the potential of backward walking for gait rehabilitation. However, current evidence supporting the benefits of backward walking over forward walking remains inconclusive. Considering the proven association between gait and the cerebral cortex, we used electroencephalograms (EEG) to differentiate the effects of backward walking and forward walking on cortical activities, by comparing the sensorimotor rhythm (8-12 Hz, also called mu rhythm) of EEG signals. A systematic signal procedure was used to eliminate the motion artifacts induced by walking to safeguard EEG signal fidelity. Statistical test results of our experimental data demonstrated that walking motions significantly suppressed mu rhythm. Moreover, backward walking exhibited significantly larger upper mu rhythm (10-12 Hz) suppression effects than forward walking did. This finding implies that backward walking induces more sensorimotor cortex activity than forward walking does, and provides a basis to support the potential benefits of backward walking over forward walking. By monitoring the upper mu rhythm throughout the rehabilitation process, medical experts can adaptively adjust the intensity and duration of each walking training session to improve the efficacy of a walking ability recovery program.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: DACH1 is a transcriptional repressor and tumor suppressor gene frequently mutated in melanoma, bladder, and prostate cancer. Loss of DACH1 expression is associated with poor prognostic features and reduced overall survival in uterine cancer. In this study, we utilized the Oncology Research Information Exchange Network (ORIEN) Avatar database to determine the frequency of DACH1 mutations in patients with endometrial cancer in our Kentucky population. METHODS: We obtained clinical and genomic data for 65 patients with endometrial cancer from the Markey Cancer Center (MCC). We examined the clinical attributes of the cancers by DACH1 status by comparing whole-exome sequencing (WES), RNA Sequencing (RNASeq), microsatellite instability (MSI), and tumor mutational burden (TMB). RESULTS: Kentucky women with endometrial cancer had an increased frequency of DACH1 mutations (12/65 patients, 18.5%) compared to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) endometrial cancer population (25/586 patients, 3.8%) with p-value = 1.04E-05. DACH1 mutations were associated with increased tumor mutation count in both TCGA (median 65 vs. 8972, p-value = 7.35E-09) and our Kentucky population (490 vs. 2160, p-value = 6.0E-04). DACH1 mutated patients have a higher tumor mutation burden compared to DACH1 wild-type (24 vs. 6.02, p-value = 4.29E-05). DACH1 mutations showed significant gene co-occurrence patterns with POLE, MLH1, and PMS2. DACH1 mutations were not associated with an increase in microsatellite instability at MCC (MSI-H) (p-value = 0.1342). CONCLUSIONS: DACH1 mutations are prevalent in Kentucky patients with endometrial cancer. These mutations are associated with high tumor mutational burden and co-occur with genome destabilizing gene mutations. These findings suggest DACH1 may be a candidate biomarker for future trials with immunotherapy, particularly in endometrial cancers.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227329

RESUMO

The solubility and swelling power, pasting, structure, and digestibility properties of proso millet starch (PMS) with different concentration of proanthocyanidins (PA) were investigated. The results showed that with PA content increasing, the solubility and swelling power of starch increased, the PA accelerated the water absorption and expansion of starch. The results of pasting properties showed that PA increased the peak viscosity of starch, but decreased the setback and pasting temperature. A significant decrease in enthalpy value was measured by differential scanning calorimetry, the enthalpy value decreased from 14.98 J/g to 10.24 J/g at 20% PA concentration. The relative crystallinity of starch, as well as the ratio at 1049/1022 cm-1, decreased due to the increasing PA concentration, indicating the ordered degree of starch reduced, while the hydrogen bonding in the system was enhanced by PA. The addition of PA decreased the RDS content of uncooked and cooked starch, the RS content increased. When the PA concentration was 20%, the RS content was 1.05 and 1.92 times for native starch, respectively, which significantly reduced the starch digestibility.

16.
Exp Cell Res ; : 112369, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220258

RESUMO

Mitochondria play an important role in effective cell energy production and cell survival under stress conditions, such as treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. Mitochondrial biogenesis is increased in ovarian cancer tissues, which is accompanied by alteration of mitochondrial energy metabolism, structure, and dynamics. These factors are involved in tumorigenesis and apoptosis resistance, highlighting the role of mitochondria in resisting cisplatin toxicity. Cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells are dependent on mitochondrial OXPHOS for energy supply, and intracellular PGC1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis levels are increased in this cell line, indicating the important role of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cisplatin resistance. As PGC1α is a key molecule for integrating and coordinating nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA transcriptional machinery, an investigation into the regulatory mechanism PGC1α in mitochondrial energy metabolism via transcription may provide new clues for solving chemotherapy resistance. In the present study, it was demonstrated that inhibiting the expression of PGC1α decreased nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor expression, leading to increased lactic acid production and decreased cellular oxygen consumption and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, mitochondrial stress-induced ROS production, as a feedback signal from mitochondria to the cell nucleus, increased PGC1α expression in SKOV3/DDP cells, which was involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation regulation. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that PGC1α-mediated nuclear and mitochondrial transcription feedback regulates energy metabolism and is involved in ovarian cancer cells escaping apoptosis during cisplatin treatment.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180806

RESUMO

Guided by parental investment theory and social role theory, this study aimed to understand current contradictory results regarding sex differences in response to infant faces by considering the effect of gender role orientation. We recruited 300 adults in China and asked them to complete an Interest in Infants questionnaire and a Bem Sex Role Inventory and then administered a behavioral assessment that used unfamiliar infant faces with varying expressions (laughing, neutral, and crying) as stimuli to gauge three components of motivation towards infants (i.e., liking, representational responding, and evoked responding). The results demonstrated that sex differences emerged only in self-reported interest in infants, but no difference was found between the sexes in terms of their hedonic reactions to infant faces. Furthermore, femininity was found to correlate with preferences for infants in both verbal and visual tests, but significant interactive effects of feminine traits and sex were found only in the behavioral test. The findings indicated that men's responses to infants were influenced more by their feminine traits than were women's responses, potentially explaining the greater extent to which paternal (vs. maternal) investment is facultative.

18.
Semin Neurol ; 40(6): 606-616, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155186

RESUMO

Seizures are common in the pediatric population; however, most children do not go on to develop epilepsy later in life. Selecting appropriate diagnostic modalities to determine an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment as well as with counseling families regarding the etiology and prognosis of seizures, is essential. This article will review updated definitions of seizures, including provoked versus unprovoked, as well as the International League Against Epilepsy operational definition of epilepsy. A variety of specific acute symptomatic seizures requiring special consideration are discussed, along with neonatal seizures and seizure mimics, which are common in pediatric populations.

20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1632: 461610, 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080533

RESUMO

Due to the heterogeneous and isomeric nature of glycans, the development of an advanced separation of distinct glycan isomers is essential for glycan research and application. In this study, we utilized porous graphite carbon (PGC) chromatography for the separation of isomeric oligosaccharides without reduction or chemical derivatization at 190 °C in a custom-built heating oven. Furthermore, the fine structures of glycan isomers could be identified by using ultrahigh temperature PGC liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHT-PGC-LCMS). A nonreduced hydrolyzed dextran was applied to verify the performance of UHT-PGC. When the temperature of the PGC column was increased from 25 to 190 °C, the liquid chromatography separation power of the nonreduced dextran ladder significantly increased. The advantage of the UHT-PGC column was its high peak capacity with gradient elution in 10 min at 190 °C, 6700 psi, and a 250 µL/min flow rate for native glycan analysis. Four synthetic Lewis antigen isomers were used to elucidate the separation effectiveness in UHT-PGC. Moreover, mass spectrometry-based sequencing to generate specific diagnostic ions from the four synthetic Lewis antigens was used to predict isomeric glycans based on the relative intensity ratio (RIR) of diagnostic ions. The intensities of the diagnostic ions of synthetic isomers were used to identify each isomer of the fucosylated glycan. The results clearly showed that terminal Lewis A and X residues were in the 3- and 6-arms of N-glycan, respectively.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fucose/química , Fucose/isolamento & purificação , Grafite/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Temperatura , Dextranos/química , Glicosilação , Hidrólise , Íons , Isomerismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Porosidade , Fatores de Tempo
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