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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040675, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as a prognostic predictor in patients with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) has been debated in the last decade. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether an elevated vancomycin MIC is associated with a worse prognosis for patients with MSSA bacteraemia. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to December 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials or observational studies were considered eligible if they provided clinical outcomes of patients with MSSA bacteraemia, stratified by vancomycin MIC. DATA SYNTHESIS: Primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included septic thrombophlebitis, persistent bacteraemia and complicated bacteraemia. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Subgroup analyses included the susceptibility testing method. RESULTS: Fifteen observational studies were included. Bacteraemia due to MSSA isolates with high vancomycin MICs was associated with higher mortality than isolates with low MICs (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.84; I2=40.3%). Additionally, significantly greater septic thrombophlebitis (OR 3.16; 95% CI 1.11 to 9.00; I2=58.6%) and a trend towards more persistent bacteraemia (OR 1.79; 95% CI 0.97 to 3.31; I2=0%) were observed in patients with high vancomycin MICs than in patients with low MICs. Differences in complicated bacteraemia were not significant. Similar findings were obtained in subgroup analyses using Etest. However, significant differences in outcomes were not observed between the high and low vancomycin MICs detected using broth microdilution. CONCLUSION: The available data suggest an association between elevated vancomycin MICs detected using Etest and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with MSSA bacteraemia. Future studies should validate these findings and explore the potential mechanisms. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018090547.

2.
Life Sci ; 266: 118895, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310042

RESUMO

Macrophages are immune cells with high heterogeneity and plasticity. M2 polarization is one extreme of the well-established phenotypes of macrophage polarization, and involves in diverse biological processes. The polarization process is initiated at the command of numerous components. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides with limited protein-coding capacity. Recent studies have revealed a newly found subset of lncRNAs engaged in the M2 polarization and their potent and multifunctional roles in developing diseases. By interfering with specific signaling pathways and altering the active mode, acting as the sponges of microRNAs or decoys of transcription factors, lncRNAs prompted macrophages to an M2 phenotype. Further, lncRNAs can bind to the genome to regulate the chromatin dynamics or work as a platform for protein complexes tether. Exosomal lncRNAs can also orchestrate the polarization in a paracrine way. To make it easier to interpret the roles of lncRNAs in the M2 polarization, we review the reported lncRNAs according to the underlying mechanisms. Moreover, we discuss the possibilities of targeting macrophages' M2 polarization using the oligonucleotides drugs or clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technologies to provoke wisdom on the therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Humanos
3.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 35(1): e8955, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990383

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Brain metastases are a common complication in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Anlotinib hydrochloride is a novel multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) exhibiting a superior overall response rate for brain metastases from NSCLC. The penetrability of anlotinib and three generations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) TKIs (osimertinib, afatinib and gefitinib) into brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was compared. METHODS: A sensitive quantification method for the four TKIs was developed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Anlotinib and the three EGFR TKIs were separated on an ACQUITY BEH C18 column after a direct protein precipitation, and then analyzed using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. The linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantification, specificity and stability were assessed. RESULTS: The four analytes could be efficiently quantified in a single run of 3.8 min. The validation parameters of all analytes satisfy the acceptance criteria of bioanalytical method guidelines. The calibration range was 0.2-200 ng mL-1 for anlotinib and gefitinib, 1-500 ng mL-1 for osimertinib and 1-200 ng mL-1 for afatinib. The penetration of anlotinib across HBMECs was comparable with that of afatinib and gefitinib but less than that of osimertinib. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive LC/MS/MS method to simultaneously measure anlotinib, osimertinib, afatinib and gefitinib in cell extracts was successfully validated and applied to determine their uptake inside HBMECs, which could pave the way for future research on the role of anlotinib in NSCLC brain metastases.

4.
Autophagy ; : 1-17, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315519

RESUMO

Liver dysfunction is an outstanding dose-limiting toxicity of gefitinib, an EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity, and provide potentially effective intervention strategy. We discovered that gefitinib could sequentially activate macroautophagy/autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocytes. The inhibition of autophagy alleviated gefitinib-induced apoptosis, whereas the suppression of apoptosis failed to lessen gefitinib-induced autophagy. Moreover, liver-specific Atg7 +/- heterozygous mice showed less severe liver injury than vehicle, suggesting that autophagy is involved in the gefitinib-promoted hepatotoxicity. Mechanistically, gefitinib selectively degrades the important anti-apoptosis factor COX6A1 (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1) in the autophagy-lysosome pathway. The gefitinib-induced COX6A1 reduction impairs mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (RCC IV) function, which in turn activates apoptosis, hence causing liver injury. Notably, this autophagy-promoted apoptosis is dependent on PLK1 (polo like kinase 1). Both AAV8-mediated Plk1 knockdown and PLK1 inhibitor BI-2536 could mitigate the gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo by abrogating the autophagic degradation of the COX6A1 protein. In addition, PLK1 inhibition could not compromise the anti-cancer activity of gefitinib. In conclusion, our findings reveal the gefitinib-hepatotoxicity pathway, wherein autophagy promotes apoptosis through COX6A1 degradation, and highlight pharmacological inhibition of PLK1 as an attractive therapeutic approach toward improving the safety of gefitinib-based cancer therapy. Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; AAV8: adeno-associated virus serotype 8; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; B2M: beta-2-microglobulin; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; CHX: cycloheximide; COX6A1: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1; c-PARP: cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; CQ: chloroquine; GOT1/AST: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1, soluble; GPT/ALT: glutamic pyruvic transaminase, soluble; HBSS: Hanks´ balanced salt solution; H&E: hematoxylin and eosin; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated proteins 1 light chain 3; PLK1: polo like kinase 1; RCC IV: respiratory chain complex IV; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TUBB8: tubulin beta 8 class VIII.

5.
Cancer Cell Int ; 20: 458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963499

RESUMO

Background: Radiotherapy is one of the main treatments for pancreatic cancer, but radiation resistance limits its clinical application. As a result, novel therapeutic agents to improve radiosensitivity are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Ibr-7 (a derivative of ibrutinib) on the radiosensitivity of human pancreatic cancer cells. Methods: The effect of Ibr-7 on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assays. Radiosensitivity was assessed by clonogenic formation assays. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analysed by flow cytometry. DNA damage was evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression levels of PARP, Cleaved caspase 3, p-EGFR and EGFR were determined by western blot. Results: Ibr-7 showed an anti-proliferative effect on PANC-1 and Capan2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ibr-7 (2 µmol/L) enhanced the effect of radiation on PANC-1 and Capan2 cells. Further findings showed that this combination enhanced G2/M phase arrest and increased cell apoptosis. Additional molecular mechanism studies revealed that the expression of p-EGFR was decreased by Ibr-7 alone or in combination with radiation. Overexpression of p-EGFR reversed the cell apoptosis induced by Ibr-7 combined with radiation. Moreover, the expression of γ-H2AX was significantly decreased in the Ibr-7 plus radiation group. Conclusions: Our study indicated the potential application of Ibr-7 as a highly effective radiosensitizer for the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells.

6.
Oncogene ; 39(39): 6203-6217, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826950

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common renal cancer and frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage. It is prone to develop unpredictable metastases even with proper treatment. Antiangiogenic therapy is the most effective medical treatment for metastatic ccRCC. Thus, exploration of novel approaches to inhibit angiogenesis and metastasis may potentially lead to a better therapeutic option for ccRCC. Among all the types of cancer, renal cancer samples exhibited the maximum upregulation of ApoC1 as referred to in the Oncomine database. The expression of ApoC1 was increased accompanied by ccRCC progression. A high level of ApoC1 was closely related to poor survival time in ccRCC patients. Furthermore, ApoC1 was over-expressed in the highly invasive ccRCC cells as compared to that in the low-invasive ccRCC cells. Besides, ApoC1 promoted metastasis of ccRCC cells via EMT pathway, whereas depletion of ApoC1 alleviated these effects. ApoC1 as a novel pro-metastatic factor facilitates the activation of STAT3 and enhances the metastasis of ccRCC cells. Meanwhile, ApoC1 in the exosomes were transferred from the ccRCC cells to the vascular endothelial cells and promoted metastasis of the ccRCC cells via activating STAT3. Finally, the metastatic potential of the ccRCC cells driven by ApoC1 was suppressed by DPP-4 inhibition. Our study not only identifies a novel ApoC1-STAT3 pathway in ccRCC metastasis but also provides direction for the exploration of novel strategies to predict and treat metastatic ccRCC in the future.

8.
Cancer Biol Med ; 17(2): 387-400, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587776

RESUMO

Objective: Mcl-1 overexpression confers acquired resistance to Bcl-2 inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but no direct Mcl-1 inhibitor is currently available for clinical use. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to target Mcl-1 and sensitize the anti-NSCLC activity of Bcl-2 inhibitors. Methods: Cell proliferation was measured using sulforhodamine B and colony formation assays, and apoptosis was detected with Annexin V-FITC staining. Gene expression was manipulated using siRNAs and plasmids. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure mRNA and protein levels. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence were used to analyze co-localization of dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) and Mcl-1. Results: Suppression of DYRK1A resulted in reduced Mcl-1 expression in NSCLC cells, whereas overexpression of DYRK1A significantly increased Mcl-1 expression. Suppression of DYRK1A did not alter Mcl-1 mRNA levels, but did result in an accelerated degradation of Mcl-1 protein in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, DYRK1A mediated proteasome-dependent degradation of Mcl-1 in NSCLC cells, and DYRK1A co-localized with Mcl-1 in NSCLC cells and was co-expressed with Mcl-1 in tumor samples from lung cancer patients, suggesting that Mcl-1 may be a novel DYRK1A substrate. We showed that combined therapy with harmine and Bcl-2 antagonists significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines as well as primary NSCLC cells. Conclusions: Mcl-1 is a novel DYRK1A substrate, and the role of DYRK1A in promoting Mcl-1 stability makes it an attractive target for decreasing Bcl-2 inhibitor resistance.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 128: 110133, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447207

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for pancreatic cancer. However, radio-resistance often resulted in poor prognostic. Ibrutinib is an orally small molecule drug in B cell malignancies. Here, we investigated for the first time the effect of ibrutinib on radio-sensitivity of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the potential mechanism involved in it. Human BXPC3 and Capan2 cell lines were treated with ibrutinib, and cell viability was conducted with CCK-8 assay. Cell clone formation was observed after treated with ibrutinib and (or) radiation by clone formation assay. The cell cycle and cell apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. Protein levels was analyzed by western blot. The results revealed that ibrutinib inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Ibrutinib enhanced the effect of radiation with a sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) of 1.34, 1.68 in BXPC3 and Capan2 cells respectively. Ibrutinib combined with radiation induced G2/M arrest and cell apoptosis. Further investigations revealed that ibrutinib decreased the phosphorylation of EGFR, then reversed the upregulation of p-AKT and downstream genes by radiation. In conclusion, these results suggested that ibrutinib might be an excellent radiosensitizer in pancreatic cancer.

10.
J Pharm Sci ; 109(5): 1811-1818, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027922

RESUMO

Entecavir (ETV) is a first-line antiviral drug against the hepatitis B virus. This study was designed to investigate whether ETV pharmacokinetics changes during pregnancy and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that ETV exposure in plasma was higher in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats, whereas the exposure after delivery was recovered to that in nonpregnant rats. Because 70% of orally dosed ETV is eliminated by kidney, the effects of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), 2 important hormones during pregnancy, on ETV-related renal transporters were investigated. Our results revealed that the activities of the ETV-related renal transporters hOAT1, hOAT3, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K were clearly inhibited by E2 and P4, resulting in reduced ETV accumulation in transporter-transfected cell models. However, the cumulative urinary excretion of ETV in pregnant rats exhibited no significant difference compared to nonpregnant rats, although the endogenous creatinine clearance in pregnant rats was 1.5-fold that of nonpregnant rats. In conclusion, ETV plasma exposure is increased during pregnancy, but ETV renal excretion displays no significant alteration. This may be because, during pregnancy, increased glomerular ETV filtration compensated for the decrease in renal tubular ETV secretion that occurs by E2- and P4-mediated inhibition of related transporters.

11.
Phytomedicine ; 68: 153189, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NSCLC is the major type of lung cancer and the survival rates of NSCLC patients remain low. AZD9291 is a third-generation EGFR-TKI and approved to treat NSCLC patients harboring EGFR T790M mutation and common targetable activating EGFR mutations, but it has a limited effect for wtEGFR NSCLC. PURPOSE: The current study investigated whether shikonin could enhance the antitumor effect of AZD9291 in wtEGFR NSCLC cells. METHODS: SRB and colony formation assay were used to detect the proliferation of NSCLC cells, propidium iodide staining was performed to detect the apoptosis, ROS was analyzed using DCFH-DA staining, and western blot was used to detect the expression of indicated proteins. RESULTS: We demonstrated that shikonin, a natural ROS inducer, could enhance the antitumor effect of AZD9291 in wtEGFR NSCLC cells. In addition, shikonin increased AZD9291-induced apoptosis accompanying with the generation of ROS and activation of ER stress. Furthermore, ROS inhibition by NAC or GSH reversed the apoptosis induced by shikonin plus AZD9291, and recovered the ER stress activated by combination treatment, indicating that ROS mediated ER stress played a vital role in this combination therapy. Moreover, shikonin increased the anticancer activity of AZD9291 in primary wtEGFR NSCLC cells through ROS-mediated ER stress. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that combining shikonin with AZD9291 is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating wtEGFR NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Naftoquinonas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(6): 835-842, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047260

RESUMO

Natural compound valepotriate exhibits inhibitory activity against a number of cancers, but the effect of valepotriate against pancreatic cancer is unclear, and the structure-activity relationship of valepotriate has not been characterized. In this study, we performed a structure-based similarity search and found 16 hit compounds. Among the 16 hits, (1S,6S,7R)-6-(acetyloxy)-1-[(3-methylbutanoyl)oxy]-4a,5,6,7a-tetrahydro-1H-spiro[cyclopenta[c]pyran-7,2'-oxiran]-4-ylmethyl 3-methylbutanoate (denoted as Amcp) exhibited superior anticancer activity against human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 and SW1990 cells. The anti-proliferation activity of Amcp was validated in human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 and SW1990 cells in vitro. Amcp more effectively induced apoptosis in BxPC-3 and SW1990 cells than gemcitabine. At a concentration of 15 µM, Amcp significantly suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane equilibrium through modulation of Noxa and Mcl-1 balance in both cell lines. Meanwhile, knockdown of Noxa substantially attenuated Amcp-induced reduction of cell viability and anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 level in BxPC-3 cells. In addition, Amcp showed synergistic anticancer effects when combined with gemcitabine in BxPC-3 cells. To conclude, this work not only suggests that Amcp possesses a dual-inhibitory activity towards PI3K/AKT pathway and Mcl-1, but also enlightens further development of bioactive valepotriate derivatives.

13.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 34(9): e8728, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960519

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tenofovir (TFV) is a first-line antiviral agent against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is recommended for the prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. To study the distribution of TFV in umbilical cord plasma and amniotic fluid of HBV-infected pregnant women, a rapid and sensitive method for TFV determination was developed and validated. METHODS: The quantification method was developed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The analytes were separated on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column under gradient elution with methanol and 0.01% ammonia solution in 10 mM ammonium acetate/water. This is the first reported method for the determination of TFV using alkaline rather than acidic mobile phases. Linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantification, specificity and stability were assessed. RESULTS: Detection of TFV was achieved within 4 min. The calibration curves for TFV quantification showed excellent linearity in the range of 1-500 ng/mL. The intra- and interbatch precision and accuracy ranged from -4.35% to 6.92%. This method was successfully applied to determination of samples from 50 HBV mono-infected women undergoing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate therapy. The mean concentrations of TFV in the umbilical cord and amniotic fluid samples were 29.2 (4.6-86) and 470.9 (156-902) ng/mL, respectively, which showed a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.5299, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A simple, rapid but sensitive bioanalytical method to determine TFV concentration in both umbilical cord plasma and amniotic fluid using LC/MS/MS was developed and applied to HBV-infected women during labor who were undergoing TDF therapy, which will help us understand the efficacy and safety of tenofovir during pregnancy.

14.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 30(2): 107-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532267

RESUMO

In standard nonclinical drug safety evaluation studies, limitations exist in predicting the clinical risk of a drug based only on data from healthy animals. To obtain more comprehensive toxicological information on norisoboldine (NOR), we conducted an exploratory study using C57BL/6 mice in addition to healthy mice as models of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis to evaluate the safety of NOR. The healthy mice and DSS colitis mice were exposed to 30 or 90 mg NOR/kg body weight or water for 15 days. Compared with the model control group, 90 mg/kg of NOR aggravated the symptoms and colonic lesions of the DSS colitis mice and even caused death in two animals. No significant adverse effects were observed in the healthy mice. These different toxic reactions to NOR in the healthy and DSS colitis mice indicate that NOR toxicity varies by status among animals and suggests that the DSS colitis mouse model may be more susceptible, accurate and comprehensive in evaluating the safety of NOR. In conclusion, 90 mg/kg of NOR may be safe for healthy mice but not for DSS colitis mice. The DSS colitis mouse model, with many features similar to those of human colitis patients, may be a novel choice to counteract the deficiencies of using healthy mice to evaluate the safety of anti-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drugs, and further research is required.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/toxicidade , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Colite/sangue , Colite/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 21: 235-245, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to re-assess the efficacy and safety of daptomycin compared with linezolid treatment for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteraemia and to explore whether high-dose daptomycin is beneficial. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and meeting abstracts were searched from inception to February 2019. Studies evaluating daptomycin and linezolid treatment for VRE bacteraemia were included. RESULTS: Twenty-two observational studies were identified. A non-significant higher mortality (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.99-1.63) and significantly lower risk of thrombocytopenia (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.61-0.99) were found with daptomycin compared with linezolid treatment. Clinical response (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.59-1.33), microbiological cure (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.53-1.28), recurrence of bacteraemia (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.70-1.32), and risk of creatine kinase elevation (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.46-1.47) were similar for the two agents. In the subgroup analysis of studies focusing on high-dose daptomycin treatment, similar mortality was observed (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.46-1.84). Moreover, patients receiving daptomycin tended to show a higher clinical response (OR 1.61; 95% CI 0.37-7.09) and microbiological cure (OR 2.09; 95% CI 0.43-10.1) and a lower risk of bacteraemia relapse (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.15-1.45), although the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with linezolid treatment, daptomycin treatment showed comparable clinical and microbiological outcomes but a lower incidence of thrombocytopenia. Because of the dose-dependent effect that was observed, high-dose daptomycin should be considered for patients with VRE bacteraemia.

16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(11): 7427-7437, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454149

RESUMO

DYRK1A is considered a potential cancer therapeutic target, but the role of DYRK1A in NSCLC oncogenesis and treatment requires further investigation. In our study, high DYRK1A expression was observed in tumour samples from patients with lung cancer compared with normal lung tissues, and the high levels of DYRK1A were related to a reduced survival time in patients with lung cancer. Meanwhile, the DYRK1A inhibitor harmine could suppress the proliferation of NSCLC cells compared to that of the control. As DYRK1A suppression might be effective in treating NSCLC, we next explored the possible specific molecular mechanisms that were involved. We showed that DYRK1A suppression by siRNA could suppress the levels of EGFR and Met in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, DYRK1A siRNA could inhibit the expression and nuclear translocation of STAT3. Meanwhile, harmine could also regulate the STAT3/EGFR/Met signalling pathway in human NSCLC cells. AZD9291 is effective to treat NSCLC patients with EGFR-sensitivity mutation and T790 M resistance mutation, but the clinical efficacy in patients with wild-type EGFR remains modest. We showed that DYRK1A repression could enhance the anti-cancer effect of AZD9291 by inducing apoptosis and suppressing cell proliferation in EGFR wild-type NSCLC cells. In addition, harmine could enhance the anti-NSCLC activity of AZD9291 by modulating STAT3 pathway. Finally, harmine could enhance the anti-cancer activity of AZD9291 in primary NSCLC cells. Collectively, targeting DYRK1A might be an attractive target for AZD9291 sensitization in EGFR wild-type NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Theranostics ; 9(12): 3515-3525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281494

RESUMO

Tumor imaging tools with high specificity and sensitivity are needed to aid the boundary recognition in solid tumor diagnosis and surgical resection. In this study, we developed a near infra-red (NIR) probe (P6) for in vitro/in vivo tumor imaging on the basis of the dual strategy of cancer cell targeting and stimulus-dependent activation. The selective imaging capacity towards cancer cells of P6 was thoroughly investigated, and the potential mechanisms of endocytosis were preliminary explored. Methods: GSH-activated biotin labelled NIR probe (P6) was designed, synthesized and characterized. The GSH responsive properties were systematically illustrated through UV-vis, fluorescent tests and LC-MS analysis. In vitro fluorescent imaging of probe P6 was collected in various living cancer cell lines (i.e. SW480, HGC-27, H460, BxPC-3, KHOS) and normal cell lines (i.e. BEAS-2B, HLF-1, THP1) under confocal laser scanning microscopy. Probe P6 was further applied to image primary human cancer cells which were freshly isolated from the peritoneal carcinoma and rectal cancer patients. Serial sections of human tumor tissues were collected and sent for H&E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining and P6 imaging. Live fluorescent and photoacoustic imaging were used to investigate the in vivo imaging of P6 in both tumor and normal tissues in HGC-27 and KHOS xenograft model. Results: Probe P6 could be recognized and transported into cancer cells by tumor specific biotin receptors and efficiently be triggered by GSH to release fluorophore 4. In fact, the cellular uptake of P6 could be partially blocked by the addition of free biotin. Furthermore, probe P6 could image various cancer cell lines, as well as primary cancer cells, exhibiting a ten-fold increase in fluorescence intensity over normal cells. In freshly dissected cancer tissues, P6 fluorescent imaging distinguished the cancerous area under confocal laser scanning microscopy, which was exact the same area as indicated by H&E staining. We also found that P6 exhibited superior selectivity against cancer tissues by local injection. Conclusion: In this study, we developed a dual-modal NIR probe P6 with enhanced cellular uptake into cancer cells and environmental stimulus triggered fluorescence. Our strategy provided a novel insight into the development of imaging tools that could be potentially used for fluorescent image-guided cancer boundary recognition and possibly cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Biotina/metabolismo , Carcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glutationa/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocitose , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Transplante Heterólogo
18.
Exp Ther Med ; 17(6): 4547-4553, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186678

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with some of the highest cancer-associated mortality rates. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors anti-HCC activities have been shown to promote Snail-induced metastasis. In the present study, it was shown that BAY 87-2243, a hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α inhibitor, could enhance the anti-HCC effects of HDAC inhibitors, including trichostatin A and vorinostat. In addition, BAY 87-2243 plus HDAC inhibitors exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity and induced significant cell death in Hep3B cells. Additionally, BAY 87-2243 combined with HDAC inhibitors-treated Hep3B cells formed fewer and smaller colonies as compared with either the control or single agent-treated cells. Furthermore, glycogen synthase kinase-3ß might be involved in the enhanced cell death induced by BAY 87-2243 plus HDAC inhibitors. The present data also indicated that BAY 87-2243 combined with HDAC inhibitors could suppress the migration of Hep3B cells, and BAY 87-2243 could reverse the HDAC inhibitor-induced Snail activation in Hep3B cells. In conclusion, BAY 87-2243 combined with HDAC inhibitors might be an attractive chemotherapy strategy for HCC therapy.

19.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(17): 3236-3249, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Entecavir (ETV), a first-line antiviral drug against hepatitis B virus (HBV), has the possibility to be used to prevent mother-to-child transmission. The aim of present study was to clarify the mechanism of ETV uptake into hepatocytes and evaluate the alteration of ETV's hepatic distribution during pregnancy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The roles of equilibrative nucleotide transporter (ENT) 1 and organic anion transporter (OAT) 2 in ETV accumulation and anti-HBV efficacy were studied in human ENT1 or OAT2 overexpressed cell models and HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively; meanwhile, the liver-to-plasma ETV concentration ratios in non-pregnant and pregnant mice were measured to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on ETV hepatic distribution. KEY RESULTS: ETV was shown to be a substrate of ENT1 and OAT2. An ENT1 inhibitor significantly decreased the efficacy of ETV in HepG2.2.15 cells, while overexpression of OAT2 increased susceptibility of HBV to ETV. The liver-to-plasma ETV concentration ratios in pregnant mice were sharply reduced; whereas, the absolute concentration of ETV in the liver did not obviously alter in pregnancy. Although oestradiol and progesterone showed a concentration-dependent inhibition on ETV accumulation both in hepatic cell lines and in primary human hepatocytes, a physiologically relevant concentration of oestradiol and progesterone did not affect antiviral activity of ETV. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: OAT2 and ENT1 are the main transporters involved in the hepatic uptake and anti-HBV efficacy of ETV. The concentration of ETV in the liver was not obviously altered during pregnancy, which indicates that dosage adjustment in pregnancy is not necessary.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/metabolismo , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Guanina/química , Guanina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Indometacina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Gravidez , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tioinosina/análogos & derivados , Tioinosina/farmacologia
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109089, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226632

RESUMO

Bruceine D (BD) is the quassinoids isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Brucea javanica's fruit, which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Here, we demonstrated that BD inhibited human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro that were attributed to the induction of cell apoptosis. Human NSCLC H460 and A549 cell lines were treated with BD, and cell viability was conducted with CCK-8 assay. Cell clone formation was observed by clone formation assay. Cell apoptosis was measured using DAPI staining and flow cytometry. Protein levels was analyzed by western blot. The results showed BD inhibited the cell viability of H460 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 0.5 and 0.6 µmol/L, respectively, at 48 h of treatment. Treatment with BD (0.125-1.0 µmol/L) dose-dependently promoted chromatin condensation, Annexin V-positive cell population and caspase-dependent apoptosis in H460 and A549 cells. Mechanistically, BD stimulated the phosphorylation of JNK. Furthermore, the anti-cancer effects of BD were alleviated effectively by a specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 in NSCLC cells. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that BD exerted anti-cancer activity against NSCLC cells through JNK activation, which suggests its potent usefulness for prevention and treatment of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Quassinas/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Brucea/química , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
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