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1.
Ind Health ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789600

RESUMO

This study examined whether interventions through barrier-free home environment improvements could reduce family caregivers' care stress, improve their family functions, and increase their quality of life. This study recruited family caregivers of older people with disabilities from a long-term care management center in central Taiwan. These older people required improvements related to a barrier-free home environment. A pretest was conducted before and a post-test was conducted 2 months after the improvements. The content of the pretest and the post-test questionnaires included: demographic characteristics, Caregiver stress scale, Family functions scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) Questionnaire. This study recruited 72 family caregivers; the average age was 56.25 ± 12.99 years. The results indicated that interventions through barrier-free home environment improvements could significantly reduce the family caregivers' care stress, improve their family functions (e.g., reducing conflicts), and enhance their quality of life. Additionally, after intervention, the family cohesion of family caregivers caring for those with mild disability improved to a greater extent than did that of those caring for people with other disease severities. This study revealed that interventions involving barrier-free home environment improvements have positive effects on family caregivers.

2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 155: 112380, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216713

RESUMO

The intake of common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), is strongly correlated to the initiation of colon cancer. BaP is a well-known pro-carcinogen that is metabolically activated by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Studies indicate that polymethoxyflavones, including 5-demethylnobiletin (5-DMNB), exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. However, the effects of 5-DMNB on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and BaP-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. The combination of BaP and a promoting agent-dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-has been demonstrated to induce tumors in mouse models. Thus, this study aimed to determine the protective effect of 5-DMNB on carcinogen biotransformation and BaP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. Our results showed that 5-DMNB had a substantial inhibitory effect on CYP1B1 induced by BaP and upregulated the detoxification enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Furthermore, subsequent analyses confirmed that the dietary administration of 5-DMNB markedly ameliorated tumor formation in BaP/DSS-treated mice. Exposure to BaP/DSS also significantly elevated TNF-α levels, and the administration of 5-DMNB reversed this increase. Taken together, we determined that 5-DMNB attenuates BaP/DSS-induced colon cancer through the regulation of inflammation and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. These results indicate that 5-DMNB has significant potential as a novel chemopreventive agent for preventing carcinogen activation and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stress is a major health issue in adolescents owing to the important transitions experienced during this period. Aromatherapy is an effective method for the reduction of stress in adolescents. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to examine the effect of aromatherapy on the regulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) along with stress relief and to explore the effect of aromatherapy on adolescents with different levels of stress. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study comprised three types of treatments: control (no essential oil), pure essential oil therapy (sandalwood), and blended essential oil therapy (sandalwood-lavender). The heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated to evaluate the post-exercise recovery of the ANS to the baseline level in the recruited adolescents. To examine the efficiency of aromatherapy, Friedman test was used to assess the significance of difference in all parameters (i.e., mean heart rate, SDNN, normalized LF, normalized HF, and LF/HF) between baseline and after exercise among the three treatment conditions. RESULTS: The participants comprised 43 junior college students (8 males and 35 females) with a mean age of 18.21 ± 0.99. Significant differences in changes of two HRV parameters (normalized LF and LF/HF) were associated with both essential oil therapies compared to those in the control group (p<0.05), and one more HRV parameter (normalized HF) exhibited significant difference related to blended essential oil therapy compared to that of the control group. Besides, changes in two HRV parameters (mean heart rate and normalized HF) of both essential oil therapies in the low level stress subgroup showed significant differences compared to those of the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that aromatherapy could be used for ANS regulation with stress-relieving effects in adolescents. The participants with a low stress level appeared to respond better to the blended essential oil therapy, whereas those with medium to high levels of stress appeared to respond poorly to aromatherapy compared to the control.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia/métodos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Exercício Físico , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Estresse Fisiológico , Adolescente , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182478

RESUMO

Background: Studies on the solitude capacity of university students have been extremely limited and failed to clearly illustrate the correlation of solitude capacity with internal psychological variables and the favorability of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation of college students' solitude capacity with scores for self-esteem, self-efficacy, and interpersonal relationships. Method: A cross-sectional study was adopted for this study. Data were collected from a university in southern Taiwan using a structured questionnaire, the content of which included demographic data and scores from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), the Interpersonal Relationship Scale (IRS), and the Solitude Capacity Scale (SCS). Results: The final sample comprised 562 participants (mean age = 17.51 ± 1.27 years). Adjustment of the demographic variables yielded a significantly positive correlation in the total RSE and SCS (p < 0.01) scores and that in the total GSE and SCS (p < 0.01) scores. Moreover, the relationship with family (IRS subscale) and total SCS score (p < 0.05) exhibited a significant positive correlation. Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that solitude capacity is significantly correlated with self-esteem, self-efficacy, and the favorability of family relationships.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Estudantes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Interação Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Taiwan , Universidades
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599755

RESUMO

This study discusses the correlation between teenagers' real-life interpersonal interactions and teenagers' online interpersonal interactions with regards to emotion, sleep quality, and self-efficacy. This study adopted a cross-sectional design that included a survey using a structured questionnaire which included demographic data, the Chinese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), the Real Interpersonal Interaction Scale (RIIS), and the Internet Interpersonal Interaction Scale (IIIS). This study enlisted 917 teenage students (age = 17.16 ± 1.48 years). The study found that RIIS had significant negative correlations with DASS and PSQI scores and a significant positive correlation with GSE. Namely, the greater the degree of real-life interpersonal interaction, the lower the degree of negative emotion. Likewise, the more satisfactory sleep quality is, the higher self-efficacy is. In addition, IIIS scores demonstrate significantly positive correlations with DASS and PSQI scores. Therefore, the greater the degree of online interpersonal interaction, the greater the levels of negative emotion, and the poorer the sleep quality is. This study showed that online interpersonal interaction may not improve emotions, sleep quality, or self-efficacy among junior college students. However, real-life interpersonal interaction may improve those three parameters.


Assuntos
Emoções , Autoeficácia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Estudantes , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674365

RESUMO

Background: Teenagers described as enjoying their own company have been claimed to have a weird personality and experience loneliness and negative emotions and have often been labeled with negative attributes. However, previous studies have provided a limited understanding of teenagers' capacity for solitude. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the correlations between teenagers' capacity for solitude and both personality traits and physical and mental health. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional research design and collected data from a junior college located in Taiwan using a structured questionnaire, which consisted of demographic questions, a solitude capacity scale, a personality trait scale, and a physical and mental health scale. Results: A total of 562 participants were recruited (age = 17.56 ± 1.58 years). The total score of the solitude capacity scale was significantly correlated with four elements of the personality traits subscale: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness. The solitude capacity subscale (i.e., the solitude-coping subscale) showed significant correlations with two of the physical and mental health elements, i.e., anxiety and insomnia and severe depression. Conclusions: The results verified the correlations between capacity for solitude and personality traits and did not show a positive association with negative personality traits (i.e., neuroticism). Moreover, the solitude coping capacity correlated positively with anxiety levels and negatively with depression.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Personalidade , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220784, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depressive emotions can lead to subsequent unhealthy behaviors such as Internet addiction, especially in female adolescents; therefore, studies that examine the relationships among depression, health­related behaviors, and Internet addiction in female adolescents are warranted. PURPOSE: To examine (1) the relationship between depression and health-related behaviors and (2) the relationship between depression and Internet addiction. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was adopted using a structured questionnaire to measure depression, health-related behaviors, and Internet addiction in female adolescents. The data were collected from students of a junior college in southern Taiwan using convenience sampling to select the participants. The questionnaire was divided into four sections: demographics, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP), and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). RESULTS: The final sample comprised 503 female junior college students, with the participants mainly aged between 15 to 22 years (mean age = 17.30 years, SD = 1.34). Regarding the HPLP scores, the overall score, nutrition subscale score, and self-actualization subscale score were significantly and negatively associated with the CES-D depression score (p < 0.05-0.01). In other words, depression level was lower in students who exhibited more healthy behaviors, put more emphasis on dietary health, and had higher levels of self-admiration and confidence toward life. Regarding the IAT scores, the overall score and six domain scores were all positively associated (p < 0.01) to the CES-D depression score. In other words, the higher an individual's Internet addiction score was, the higher her depression level was. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed the relationship between depression, health-related behaviors, and Internet addiction. The cultivation of health-related behaviors may help in lowering depressive symptoms. Teenagers with depression have higher risks of developing Internet addiction, and such addiction is likely to affect their daily functioning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Depressão , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Internet , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 599, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249504

RESUMO

Background: Over 40% of Taiwanese College students experience sleep problems that not only impair their quality of life but also contribute to psychosomatic disorders. Of all the factors affecting the sleep quality, internet surfing is among one of the most prevalent. Female college students are more vulnerable to internet-associated sleep disorders than their male counterparts. Therefore, this study aims to investigate (1) the relationship between internet addiction and sleep quality, and (2) whether significant variations in sleep quality exist among students with different degrees of internet use. Methods: This structured questionnaire-based cross-sectional study enrolled students from a technical institute in southern Taiwan. The questionnaire collected information on the following three aspects: (1) demography, (2) sleep quality with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and (3) severity of internet addiction using a 20-item Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between PSQI and IAT scores among the participants. Logistic analysis was used to determine the significance of association between PSQI and IAT scores. Results: In total, 503 female students were recruited (mean age 17.05 ± 1.34). After controlling for age, body mass index, smoking and drinking habits, religion, and habitual use of smartphone before sleep, internet addiction was found to be significantly associated with subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction. Worse quality of sleep as reflected by PSQI was noted in students with moderate and severe degrees of internet addiction compared to those with mild or no internet addiction. Logistic regression analysis of the association between scores on IAT and sleep quality, demonstrated significant correlations between quality of sleep and total IAT scores (odds ratio = 1.05:1.03 ∼ 1.06, p < 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated significant negative association between the degree of internet addiction and sleep quality, providing reference for educational institutes to minimize adverse effects associated with internet use and improve students' sleep quality.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214769, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943270

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smartphone usage has become commonplace and impact on sleep quality among adolescents. Adolescent girls have a greater tendency toward sleep quality problems. However, relationship of sleep quality, smartphone dependence, and health-related behaviors in female junior college students has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study had the two goals: to investigate the relationship between female college students' sleep quality, smartphone dependence, and health-related behaviors, and to identify predictors of sleep quality. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional research approach to gather 409 subjects at a junior college in southern Taiwan, and used a structured questionnaire to collect data. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: basic demographic data, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, assessment of smartphone dependence, and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP). Logistic regression analysis was employed to check for any association between sleep quality and smartphone dependence or HPLP. RESULTS: Sleep quality was significantly associated with degree of smartphone dependence, total HPLP score, and scores on the four HPLP subscales of nutritional behavior, self-actualization, interpersonal support, and stress management behavior. The lower the subjects' degree of smartphone dependence was, the better their sleep quality was. Furthermore, the degree of smartphone dependence and total HPLP score were significant predictors of sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone dependence is associated with poor sleep quality among female college students. Improving health-related behaviors (nutritional behavior, self-actualization, interpersonal support, and stress management behavior) can also promote improvement in sleep quality.


Assuntos
Sono , Smartphone , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0130867, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was designed to assess the efficacy of the male sling and artificial urinary sphincter on treating post-prostatectomy incontinence by evaluating daily pad use, cure rate, frequency of improvement in incontinence, and quality of life. METHODS: Medline, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched (until March 31, 2014) for studies that investigated the effectiveness of artificial urinary sphincter or sling surgical treatments for prostate cancer. The primary outcome was daily pad use before and after surgery and secondary outcomes were quality of life before and after surgery, and frequency of cures (no need to use of a pad for at least 1 day) and improvements (decreased pad usage) in incontinence after surgery. RESULTS: We found that that both the sling and artificial urinary sphincter significantly decreased the number of pads used per day by about 3 (P-values <0.001) and increased the quality of life compared with before intervention (P-values < 0.001). In addition, the cure rate and was around 60%. Intervention resulted in improvement in incontinence by about 25% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that both sling and artificial urinary sphincter interventions are effective in reducing incontinence and improving the patient's quality of life.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Urinária/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
11.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 8: 207, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27630558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. METHODS: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. RESULTS: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. CONCLUSIONS: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits.

12.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 26(9): 1484-1495, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492886

RESUMO

Central catecholamines regulate fear memory across the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HPC). However, inadequate evidence exists to address the relationships among these fear circuit areas in terms of the fear symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). By examining the behavioral profile in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm together with tissue/efflux levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and their reuptake abilities across the fear circuit areas in rats that experienced single prolonged stress (SPS, a rodent model of PTSD), we demonstrated that SPS-impaired extinction retrieval was concomitant with the changes of central DA/NE in a dissociable manner. For tissue levels, diminished DA and increased NE were both observed in the mPFC and AMYG. DA efflux and synaptosomal DA transporter were consistently reduced in the AMYG/vHPC, whereas SPS reduced NE efflux in the infralimbic cortex and synaptosomal NE transporter in the mPFC. Furthermore, a lower expression of synaptosomal VMAT2 was observed in the mPFC, AMYG, and vHPC after SPS. Finally, negative correlations were observed between retrieval freezing and DA in the mPFC/AMYG; nevertheless, the phenomena became invalid after SPS. Our results suggest that central catecholamines are crucially involved in the retrieval of fear extinction in which DA and NE play distinctive roles across the fear circuit areas.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Reação de Congelamento Cataléptica/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo
13.
Oncotarget ; 7(34): 54200-54214, 2016 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494844

RESUMO

In humans, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a pivotal role in neurocognition, and its gene contains a functional polymorphism (Val66Met) that may explain individual differences in brain volume and memory-related activity.In this study, we enrolled 186 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients who underwent 3D T1 magnetic resonance imaging, and explored the gray matter (GM) structural covariance networks (SCN). The patients were divided into three groups according to their genotype: Met/Met (n = 45), Val/Met (n = 86) and Val/Val (n = 55). Seed-based analysis was performed focusing on four SCN networks. Neurobehavioral scores served as the major outcome factor.Only peak cluster volumes of default mode medial temporal lobe network showed significant genotype interactions, of which the interconnected peak clusters showed dose-dependent genotype effects. There were also significant correlations between the cognitive test scores and interconnected-cluster volumes, especially in the orbitofrontal cortex.These findings support the hypothesis that BDNF rs6265 polymorphisms modulate entorhinal cortex-interconnected clusters and the valine allele was associated with stronger structural covariance patterns that determined the cognitive outcomes.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Córtex Entorrinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 59: 147-54, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have epileptic foci originating from the medial temporal lobe, particularly the hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin growth factor mainly expressed in the hippocampus, though it is not known whether the circulating level of BDNF reflects cognitive performance or white matter structural changes in chronic TLE. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with TLE and 22 healthy controls were enrolled for standardized cognitive tests, diffusion tensor imaging, and serum BDNF measurement. The patients were further divided into a subgroup with unilateral TLE (n=23) and a subgroup with bilateral TLE (n=11) for clinical and neuroimaging comparisons. RESULTS: There were significantly lower BDNF levels in the patients with TLE compared with the controls, with significance contributed mainly from the subgroup with bilateral TLE, which also had more frequent seizures. The BDNF levels correlated with epilepsy duration (σ=-0.355; p=0.040) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left temporal lobe, left thalamus, and right hippocampus. Using a regression model, BDNF level predicted verbal memory score. Further, design fluency scores were predicted by serum BDNF level via the interactions with left temporal FA. CONCLUSIONS: Serum BDNF levels reflected longer epilepsy duration, impaired white matter integrity, and poor cognitive function in patients with chronic TLE.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/sangue , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(46): e2091, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26579820

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of patients with different types of dementia have resulted in the increasing medical care loads. It is not known whether explanatory factors for recurrent or prolong hospitalization were driven by the subtypes of dementia. We analyzed 203 dementia patients aged >65-year-old with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or Parkinsonism-related dementia (PRD). With a 4-year follow-up period, logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of dementia diagnosis, cerebrovascular risk factors, chronic systemic diseases, and the etiology for admission for recurrent (>4 times/4 years) or prolonged hospitalization stay (>14 days per hospitalization). There were 48 AD, 96 VaD, and 59 PRD patients that completed the 4-year study. The average length of hospital stay was significant, the shortest in AD and the longest in PRD (P = 0.01), whereas the frequency of hospitalization was not different among 3 dementia subtypes. Although delirium is the most common etiology for admission in the patients, diabetes mellitus (Odds ratio, OR = 2.79, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 11.21, P < 0.001), and fall-related hip fracture (OR = 4.762, P = 0.029) were significantly associated with prolong hospitalization. Patients with coronary artery disease (OR = 9.87, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 84.48, P < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR = 55.09, P < 0.001), and fall-related fracture (OR = 141.7, P < 0.001) predict recurrent hospitalization. Dementia subtypes did not influence directly on the hospitalization courses. The etiologies for admission carried higher clinical significance, compared with the coexisted systemic diseases.


Assuntos
Demência/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Demência Vascular/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Lasers Med Sci ; 30(7): 1959-65, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26231231

RESUMO

Intense pulsed light (IPL) technology has been popularly employed in clinical treatments for dermatological and cosmetic purposes in recent years; yet, the underlying mechanisms of its functions are not fully elucidated. On the other hand, aquaporin (AQP) 3, a member of a subgroup of the aquaporin family that transports both water and small solutes, such as glycerol, has been documented to play an important role in the skin homeostasis. We thus examined the possible involvement of AQP3 in the functional mechanisms of IPL irradiation. Rat dorsal skin areas were irradiated one to three times with IPL at doses of 15, 25, and 35 J/cm2. Skin specimens were collected 7 days after the final irradiation and analyzed for changes in histology, skin hydration, mRNA, and protein expressions of AQP3. IPL induced no significant variations in the mRNA expression levels. Twice or thrice irradiation at the dose of 25 or 35 J/cm2 significantly enhanced AQP3 protein expression. Immunofluorescence study revealed that AQP3 was mainly localized to keratinocyte membranes in the basal layer of epidermis, and the localization was unaltered by IPL. In addition, the pattern of IPL-induced changes in skin hydration was generally coincided with the expression profile of AQP3. These results suggest the possibility that one of the functional mechanisms of IPL might be related to the regulation of AQP3 protein expression.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Lasers , Animais , Aquaporina 3/genética , Terapia de Luz Pulsada Intensa , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(28): e1192, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26181568

RESUMO

Cerebrovascular risk factors and white matter (WM) damage lead to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer dementia (AD). This study investigated WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild to moderate AD and investigated specific fiber tract involvement with respect to predefined cerebrovascular risk factors and neurobehavioral data prediction cross-sectionally and after 18 months. To identify the primary pathoanatomic relationships of risk biomarkers to fiber tract integrity, we predefined 11 major association tracts and calculated tract specific fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Eighty-five patients with AD underwent neurobehavioral assessments including the minimental state examination (MMSE) and 12-item neuropsychiatric inventory twice with a 1.5-year interval to represent major outcome factors. In the cross-sectional data, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels correlated variably with WM FA values. After entering the biomarkers and WM FA into a regression model to predict neurobehavioral outcomes, only fiber tract FA or homocysteine level predicted the MMSE score, and fiber tract FA or age predicted the neuropsychiatric inventory total scores and subdomains of apathy, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. In the follow-up neurobehavioral data, the mean global FA value predicted the MMSE and aberrant motor behavior subdomain, while age predicted the anxiety and elation subdomains. Cerebrovascular risk biomarkers may modify WM microstructural organization, while the association with fiber integrity showed greater clinical significance to the prediction of neurobehavioral outcomes both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(19): e783, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25984663

RESUMO

While carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication often triggers multiple intraneuronal immune- or inflammatory-related cascades, it is not known whether the pathological processes within the affected regions evolve equally in the long term. To understand the neurodegenerative networks, we examined 49 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CO intoxication related to charcoal burning suicide at the chronic stage and compared them with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Reconstructions of degenerative networks were performed using T1 magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). Tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) quantification of 11 association fibers was performed while the clinical significance of the reconstructed structural or functional networks was determined by correlating them with the cognitive parameters. Compared with the controls, the patients had frontotemporal gray matter (GM) atrophy, diffuse white matter (WM) FA decrement, and axial diffusivity (AD) increment. The patients were further stratified into 3 groups based on the cognitive severities. The spatial extents within the frontal-insular-caudate GM as well as the prefrontal WM AD increment regions determined the cognitive severities among 3 groups. Meanwhile, the prefrontal WM FA values and PET signals also correlated significantly with the patient's Mini-Mental State Examination score. Frontal hypometabolic patterns in PET analysis, even after adjusted for GM volume, were highly coherent to the GM atrophic regions, suggesting structural basis of functional alterations. Among the calculated major association bundles, only the anterior thalamic radiation FA values correlated significantly with all chosen cognitive scores. Our findings suggest that fronto-insular-caudate areas represent target degenerative network in CO intoxication. The topography that occurred at a cognitive severity-specific level at the chronic phase suggested the clinical roles of frontal areas. Although changes in FA are also diffusely distributed, different regional changes in AD suggested unequal long-term compensatory capacities among WM bundles. As such, the affected WM regions showing irreversible changes may exert adverse impacts to the interconnected GM structures.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Suicídio , Adulto , Anisotropia , Carvão Vegetal , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taiwan , Substância Branca/patologia
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(16): e763, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25906109

RESUMO

Amyloid load, as measured by florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr), has high specificity in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD). As the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) represents densely amyloid-affected regions early in AD, we hypothesized that amyloid load within the key hubs of the default mode networks (DMN) may result in local or distant interconnected gray matter (GM) volume atrophy, thereby affecting cognitive performance. Thirty AD patients with a clinical dementia rating sum of box score ≤2 were enrolled and underwent cognitive evaluation, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging and florbetapir PET. Volumes of interest (VOIs) included the hippocampus, lateral temporal region, and key hubs of the DMN [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), PCC, posterior parietal, and precuneus]. The SUVr was calculated by florbetapir standard uptake value (SUV) within the T1-weighted image segmented GM VOIs divided by the cerebellar GM SUV. Our results suggested inverse correlations between ACC (ρ = -0.444, P = 0.016) and PCC SUVr (ρ = -0.443, P = 0.016) with PCC GM volume. In stepwise regression, the orientation scores were associated with PCC SUVr (ß = 2.584, P = 0.02) and posterior parietal volume (ß = -0.446, P = 0.04), whereas the word recall score was related to hippocampal volume (ß = -0.391, P = 0.04). After removing the patients with a hippocampal VOI below the lowest tertile and adjusting for age, an inverse correlation was found between hippocampal volume and SUVr in the ACC (partial σ = -0.639, P = 0.002), precuneus (partial σ = -0.692, P = 0.002), and lateral temporal SUVr (partial σ = -0.604, P = 0.005). Our results suggest that amyloid burden within the key DMN regions may contribute to local and distant GM atrophy, and that this may explain the cognitive scores.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Amiloide/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compostos de Anilina , Etilenoglicóis , Feminino , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 10(12): 11633-43, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22163547

RESUMO

Current methods for diagnosing early stage osteoarthritis (OA) based on the magnetic resonance imaging and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods are specific, but require specialized laboratory facilities and highly trained personal to obtain a definitive result. In this work, a user friendly and non-invasive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor method has been developed to detect Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) for early stage OA diagnosis. This QCM immunosensor was fabricated to immobilize COMP antibodies utilizing the self-assembled monolayer technique. The surface properties of the immunosensor were characterized by its FTIR and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The feasibility study was based on urine samples obtained from 41 volunteers. Experiments were carried out in a flow system and the reproducibility of the electrodes was evaluated by the impedance measured by EIS. Its potential dynamically monitored the immunoreaction processes and could increase the efficiency and sensitivity of COMP detection in laboratory-cultured preparations and clinical samples. The frequency responses of the QCM immunosensor changed from 6 kHz when testing 50 ng/mL COMP concentration. The linear regression equation of frequency shift and COMP concentration was determined as: y=0.0872 x+1.2138 (R2=0.9957). The COMP in urine was also determined by both QCM and EIS for comparison. A highly sensitive, user friendly and cost effective analytical method for the early stage OA diagnosis has thus been successfully developed.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo , Animais , Anticorpos Imobilizados , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/urina , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Matrilinas , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/urina , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo/instrumentação , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo/métodos , Urinálise/instrumentação , Urinálise/métodos
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