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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 76, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice ratooning has traditionally been an important component of the rice cropping system in China. However, compared with the rice of the first harvest, few studies on factors effecting ratoon rice yield have been conducted. Because ratoon rice is a one-season rice cultivated using axillary buds that germinate on rice stakes and generate panicles after the first crop's harvest, its production is mainly affected by the growth of axillary buds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the sprouting mechanism of axillary buds to improve the ratoon rice yield. RESULTS: First, we observed the differentiation and growth dynamics of axillary buds at different nodes of Shanyou 63, and found that they differentiated from bottom to top before the heading of the mother stem, and that they developed very slowly. After heading they differentiated from top to bottom, and the ones on the top, especially the top 2nd node, developed much faster than those at the other nodes. The average length and dry weight of the axillary buds were significantly greater than those at other nodes by the yellow ripe stage, and they differentiated into pistils and stamens by 6 d after the yellow ripe stage. The morphology of vegetative organs from regenerated tillers of Shanyou 63 also suggested the superior growth of the upper buds, which was regulated by hormones, in ratoon rice. Furthermore, a comprehensive proteome map of the rice axillary buds at the top 2nd node before and after the yellow ripe stage was established, and some proteins involved in steroid biosynthesis were significantly increased. Of these, four took part in brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. Thus, BR signaling may play a role in the germination of axillary buds of ratoon rice. CONCLUSIONS: The data provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying BR signaling, and may allow researchers to explore further the biological functions of endogenous BRs in the germination of axillary buds of ratoon rice.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136840, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032986

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental estrogens and progestins has contributed to adverse effects on the reproduction of many aquatic wildlife species. However, few reports have paid attention to fish species with specialized reproductive strategies, such as male-pregnancy seahorses. In this study, the potential effects on the behavior, gonad and brood pouch development, and transcriptomic profiles of lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE2, 5 ng/L, 50 ng/L, 10 ng/L, 100 ng/L) or progesterone (P4) for 60 days were examined. Both EE2 and P4 significantly inhibited male brood pouch development by disrupting the extracellular matrix and basement membrane pathways. In addition, both EE2 and P4 impaired the expression of genes associated with spermatogenesis in the testis, and even caused male feminization. We suggest that seahorses be regarded as a sensitive indicator for evaluating the potential effects of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) pollution on aquatic biotic communities.

3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 429-437, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988017

RESUMO

Oxyeleotris marmoratus iridovirus (OMIV) and Oxyeleotris marmoratus rhabdovirus (OMRV) are the two major causative agents of disease leading to massive mortality and severe economic losses in marbled sleepy goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus) industry. It's urgent to develop an effective vaccine against these fatal diseases. In this study, we developed bivalent inactivated vaccine against OMIV and OMRV and evaluated its protective effect in Oxyeleotris marmoratus. The intraperitoneally vaccinated fish were protected against challenge with OMIV and OMRV with both relative percent survival (RPS) of 100%. In addition, deep RNA sequencing was used to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of the spleen tissues at progressive time points post-vaccination with bivalent inactivated vaccine and challenge with OMIV and OMRV infection. Results showed that adaptive immune response was induced in Oxyeleotris marmoratus injected with bivalent inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, robust adaptive immune responses were also detected in vaccinated fish at 7 d and 2 d post-challenge with OMIV and OMRV. Taken together, these results indicated that bivalent inactivated vaccine activated adaptive immune responses in Oxyeleotris marmoratus, and provided protection against OMIV and OMRV lethal challenge.

4.
Soft Matter ; 16(6): 1653-1667, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965137

RESUMO

The stability of ion-conductive membranes, such as perfluorosulfonic-acid (PFSA) membranes, as a solid-electrolyte separator in energy devices is strongly linked to their mechanical properties, the characterization of which presents challenges, especially in the presence of ionic interactions. Ionomer membranes' elastic properties are affected by cations; however, their influence on deformation at small and large strains is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we report the stress-strain response and fracture behavior of Nafion membranes exchanged with various cations examined in three deformation regimes. In the small-strain regime, the Young's modulus is strongly dependent on cation size, due to the reduced mobility and local stiffening of polymer chains. The Young's modulus, yield limit and strain-hardening modulus all increase with monovalent cation size in the order H+ < Li+ < Na+ < K+ < Cs+, but with varying dependence. In the failure regime, however, the break strain and fracture energy of the membrane decrease in the presence of larger cations, which promote deformation instability while decreasing plastic dissipation energy during crack propagation, thereby leading to more brittle fracture. These results not only demonstrate the trade-off between strength and fracture toughness, but also reveal how it is altered by the ionic interactions, which also dictate the inverse relationship between stretchability and stiffness. Moreover, the measured stress-strain data are reproduced by the constitutive relations to extract parameters that are correlated to the fracture energy through craze instability. Such relationships provide insight into how parameters extracted from tensile testing can be used to assess membrane stability and the role of ionic interactions.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 136497, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945526

RESUMO

Direct discharge of untreated industrial waste water in water bodies and then irrigation from these sources has increased trace metals contamination in paddy fields of southern China. Among trace metals, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are classified as most harmful contaminants in farmland to many organisms including plants, animals and humans. Rice is a staple food which is consumed by half population of the world; due to longer growth period it can easily absorb and accumulate the trace metals from soil. The objective of study was to check the efficacy of Se and Si NPs (nanoparticles) alone or in combination on metals accumulation and Se-fortified rice (Oryzasativa L.) production as their efficiency remained untested. Alone as well as combined application of Se- and Si-NPs (5, 10 and 20 mg L-1) was achieved along with CK. All the treatments significantly reduced the Cd and Pb contents in brown rice, except CK, Se3, Si1 and Se1Si3. Combined application of Se and Si (Se3Si2) was more effective in reducing the Cd and Pb contents by 62 and 52%, respectively. In addition, foliar application of both NPs improved the rice growth and quality by increasing the grain yield, rice biomass, and Se contents in brown rice. Highest concentration of Se (1.35 mg kg-1) in brown rice was observed with combined application of Se- and Si-Nps (Se3Si2). Selenium speciation revealed the presence of organic species (74%) in brown rice. The combinations of different doses of Se- and Si-Nps are the main determining factor for total concentration of metals in grains. These results demonstrate that foliage supplementation of Se and Si-Nps alleviate the Cd and Pb toxicity by reducing the metals' concentration in brown rice. Additionally foliage supplementation improved the nutritional quality by reducing the phytic acid contents in rice grains.

6.
Neuroscience ; 425: 169-180, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794821

RESUMO

The causal connections among small-scale regions based on resting-state fMRI data have been extensively studied and a lot of achievements have been demonstrated. However, the causal connection among large-scale regions was seldom discussed. In this paper, we applied global Granger causality analysis to construct the causal connections in the whole-brain network among 103 healthy subjects (33 M/66F, ages 20-23) based on a resting-state fMRI dataset. We further explored four large-scale cognitive networks which have been widely known: central executive network (CEN), default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN) and salience network (SN). These four cognitive networks are particularly important for understanding higher cognitive functions and dysfunction. Based on the above research, Out-In degree were introduced to identify the driving and driven hubs. Studying the driving and driven hub of brain network is of great significance for assessing the functional mechanism of the brain network. There were 817 directed edges identified as significant among the 8010 possible causal connections; seven driving hubs and ten driven hubs were identified in the whole-brain network. In CEN, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DlPFC) and superior parietal cortex (SPC) were the driven and driving hubs, respectively; in DMN, they were posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); in DAN, they were frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS); and in SN, they were frontoinsular cortex (FIC) and medial frontal cortex (MFC). These findings may provide insights into our understanding of human brain function mechanisms and the diagnosis of brain diseases.

7.
Genes Genomics ; 42(2): 155-164, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolution of male pregnancy is the most distinctive characteristic of syngnathids, and they were recognized as flagship species for marine conservation. Genus Halicampus is an important branch of syngnathid fishes that has not received the attention it deserves. OBJECTIVE: To sequence the mitochondrial genome of Halicampus grayi, and investage the genetic structure of its populations. METHODS: Degenerate primers were designed to amplify the entire mitochondrial genome of H. grayi. The phylogenetic relationship between H. grayi and other syngnathids were conducted using maximum-likelihood method. Population genetic structure of three geographic population of H. grayi were determined using median-joining haplotype network based on COI and Cytb sequences. RESULTS: The complete mitochondrial genome of Halicampus grayi was assembled into a 17,059 bp circular sequence, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 D-loop region. The overall base composition of H. grayi is 29.93% A, 29.31% T, 16.23% G and 24.54% C, with a slight A + T rich feature (59.24%). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that H. grayi has a close relationship with Trachyrhamphus serratus. Population genetic analysis revealed a relatively high genetic diversity across different geographic populations of H. grayi, and the results of median-joining haplotype network indicated a lack of structure in populations of H. grayi. CONCLUSION: The mitogenome of H. grayi will provided important information about the origin and evolution issues of syngnathid fishes, and the high-level genetic diversity detected in their populations will provide insight into the gene flow pattern of marine fishes.

8.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(2): 251-258, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250189

RESUMO

RtcB, a highly conserved RNA ligase, is found in all three domains of life, and demonstrated to be an essential tRNA splicing component in archaea and metazoans. However, the biological functions of RtcB in bacteria, where there is no splicing, remains to be clarified. We first performed bioinformatics analysis which revealed highly conserved structures and presumably conserved functions of RtcB in bacteria. However, its orthologs only occur in ∼ 0.5% of bacterial species across diverse phyla with significant signals of frequent horizontal transfer, highlighting its non-essential role in bacteria. Next, by constructing an rtcB-knockout strain, we find that the removal of antibiotic stress induces a significant impact on rtcB expression in wild-type strain, and furthermore the depletion of RtcB (ARtcB strain) delays the recovery process. Our transcriptomic analysis, comprising the 3'-end labeling of RNAs, highlights a significant increase in unmapped reads and cleaved rRNAs in the Δ RtcB strain, particularly during recovery. Our observations suggest that the conserved RNA ligase RtcB, repairs damaged rRNAs following stress, which potentially saves energy and accelerates recovery of its host. We propose that acquisition of RtcB by diverse bacterial taxa provides a competitive advantage under stressful conditions.

9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 432-439, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883470

RESUMO

As a high mortality disease, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) can cause massive economic damage on mandarin fish farming industry in China, which seriously hindered the development of mandarin fish farming industry. In this research, SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes) as a candidate for DNA vaccine carrier was vaccinated by immersion (1, 2, 5, 10, 20 mg/L) in juvenile mandarin fish. In muscle, spleen and kidney tissues, the results showed that transcription and expression of MCP gene can be detected in pcDNA-MCP and SWCNTs-pcDNA-MCP groups after bath immunization. The immune response (immune-related genes expression, serum antibody production, enzyme activities and C3 content) was significantly enhanced in fish which vaccinated with SWCNTs-pcDNA-MCP in comparison with those vaccinated with pcDNA-MCP alone. After 14 d challenge, the RPS (relative percentage survival) can be enhanced which using SWCNTs as a carrier in SWCNTs-pcDNA-MCP (82.4%) group at 20 mg/L (the highest vaccine dose) than the naked pcDNA-MCP (54.2%) group. This study reveals that functionalized SWCNTs could be a promising immersion DNA vaccine carrier in aquaculture.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136121, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865074

RESUMO

Immobilization is among the most-suitable strategies to remediate cadmium (Cd) contaminated sites. Organic additives (OAs) have emerged as highly efficient and environment-friendly immobilizers to eradicate Cd contamination in a wide range of environments. This review article is intended to critically illustrate the role of different OAs in Cd immobilization and to highlight the key findings in this context. Owing to the unique structural features (high surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), presence of many functional groups), OAs have shown strong capability to remediate Cd polluted soils by adsorption, electrostatic interaction, complexation and precipitation. Research data is compiled about the efficiency of different OAs (bio-waste, biochar, activated carbon, composts, manure, and plant residues) applied alone or in combination with other amendments in stabilization and renovation of contaminated sites. In addition to their role in remediation, OAs are widely advocated for being classical sources of essential plant nutrients and as agents to improve the soil health and quality which has also been focused in this review. OAs may contain considerable amounts of metals and therefore it becomes essential to assess their final contribution. Elimination of Cd contamination is essential to attenuate the contaminant effect and to produce the safe food. Therefore, deployment of environment-friendly remediation strategies (alone or in combination with other suitable technologies) should be adopted especially at early stages of contamination.

11.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(11): 7166-7185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mechanism by which CCNB1 regulates the cell cycle progression and its prognostic function in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are necessary to be further elucidated. METHODS: Data retrieved from gene expression omnibus (GEO) and cancer genome atlas (TCGA) combined with clinical data were used. Survival analysis was conducted in public datasets. Proteomics and co-immunoprecipation assays were designed to unravel proteins with interaction with CCNB1. Short hairpin RNA and small interfering RNA as well as overexpressing genes of interest were used. RESULTS: CCNB1 was not implicated in apoptosis, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. After either knockdown or overexpression of CCNB1, the occurrence of cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, fewer cloning formation and diminished dimension of xenograft tumors were observed. CCNB1 expression level was clinically associated with several clinicopathological parameters including gender, smoking, T stage and N stage. Survival analysis showed that the higher level of CCNB1, the more dismal outcome in overall survival as well as in disease-free survival. Mechanistically, we confirmed that the role of CCNB1 on cell cycle and cloning formation was dependent on UBA52, which was able to promote degradation of CCNB1; nevertheless, this consequence relied on APC11. Knockdown of APC11 led to cell cycle arrest in G2/M and less cloning formation even in the presence of overexpressed UBA52. Following upregulation of APC11, the protein of CCNB1 degraded with resultant cell cycle progression and more cloning formation. CONCLUSION: Degradation of CCNB1 by APC11 via UBA52 ubiquitylation was critical in cell cycle progression and proliferation of NSCLC cell lines.

12.
Opt Express ; 27(23): 33027-33039, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878377

RESUMO

An atomic magnetometer operated with elliptically polarized light is investigated theoretically and experimentally. To explore the potential of this magnetometric configuration, the analytical form of the outgoing signal is derived. Parameters that significantly influence the performance are optimized, which lead to a sensitivity of 300 fT/Hz at 45 ∘C with a 2×2×2 cm uncoated Rb vapor cell. It is remarkable that a sensitivity of 690 fT/Hz is achieved at room temperature of 24 ∘C, which is improved by an order of magnitude compared with the conventional Mx magnetometer under its own optimized condition. The elliptically polarized approach offers attractive features for developing compact, low-power magnetometers, which are available without heating the uncoated vapor cell.

13.
Opt Express ; 27(21): 29534-29546, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684213

RESUMO

In a pulse pump Rb atomic magnetometer, the magnetic field is associated with the Larmor frequency of the free induction decay (FID) signal. The reconstruction of the magnetic field from the collected signal, thereby, is crucial for magnetocardiography. In this study, we propose a backward singular value decomposition (BSVD) method for fast reconstruction of a magnetocardiographic signal. Experiments on the simulated and real data were performed to estimate its potential advantages over previous approaches, such as the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, the zero-crossing means (ZM) method, etc. The results show the high accuracy of the BSVD method compared with other methods. More importantly, the BSVD method requires less sampled data than other methods while ensuring the accuracy. With the help of it, the recording time can be greatly reduced from the initial 3.6m s to the present 0.6m s. Thus, the time resolution of the magnetocardiograph could reach 2m s which is equivalent to that of conventional electrocardiogragh. This will bring the atomic magnetocardiography more practicable in clinic application.

14.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 6892-6906, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698594

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological degenerative disease, which is mainly char-acterized by the memory loss. As electroencephalogram (EEG) device is relatively cheap, portable and non-invasive, it has been widely used in AD-related studies. We proposed a method to detect the differences between healthy subjects and AD patients, which combines classical sample entropy (Sam-pEn) and surrogate data method. EEGs from 14 AD patients and 20 healthy subjects were analyzed. The results based on the original data showed that the SampEn of AD patients was significantly de-creased (p < 0.01) at electrodes c3, f3, o2 and p4, which confirmed that AD could cause complexity loss. However, using original data could be subject to human judgement, so we generated a series of surrogate data. We found that, there were significant difference of SampEn between the original time series and their surrogate data at c3 and o2 electrodes and the differences between healthy subjects and AD patients can be verified. Our method is capable of distinguishing AD patients from healthy subjects, which is consistent with the concept of physiologic complexity, and providing insights for understanding of AD.

15.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 107, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707587

RESUMO

Few studies have systematically evaluated the technical aspects of forearm bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. We found that BMD remained stable regardless of the reference point; however, the ROI identified was not always consistent. Our study highlights the importance of using the same reference point for serial measurements of forearm BMD. BACKGROUND: Forearm fractures are clinically important outcomes from the perspective of morbidity, health care costs, and interruption of work. BMD of the forearm, as derived by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), is a better predictor of fracture at the forearm compared with BMD measured at other sites. However, very few studies have evaluated the technical aspects of selecting the ROI for forearm BMD measurement. This study aimed to compare the BMD values measured at the 1/3 radius site using three different reference points: the ulnar styloid process, the radial endplate, and the bifurcation of the ulna and radius. METHODOLOGY: Healthy Chinese patients participating in the control group of an ongoing study at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital were recruited for this study. For each patient, a DXA scan (GE Lunar Prodigy) of the forearm was performed and BMD values were separately calculated using each of the three reference points to identify the ROI. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the correlation between the BMD measures derived from each reference point. The F test and independent t test were applied for more robust analysis of the differences in the variances and means. RESULTS: Sixty-eight healthy Chinese volunteers agreed to participate in this study. The root mean square standard deviation (RMS-SD) percentages of BMD values measured at the 1/3 radius site were 2.19%, 2.23%, and 2.20% when using the ulnar styloid process, radial endplate, and the bifurcation of the ulna and radius as the reference points, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients for all pairwise comparisons among these three groups were greater than 0.99. F tests and independent t tests showed p values ranging from 0.92 to 0.99. However, we observed that among 10% of patients, choosing an ROI at the ulnar styloid process led to an inability to accurately determine the BMD at the ultra-distal radius. CONCLUSIONS: Given equal ability to determine BMD at the 1/3 radius accurately, the radial endplate or the bifurcation of the ulna and radius should be preferentially selected as the reference point for routine forearm BMD measurements in order to avoid situations in which the ultra-distal radius BMD cannot be determined.

16.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103822, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669501

RESUMO

The virus inactivation test is a critical skill in inactivated vaccine production. Active viruses produced viral mRNA in susceptible cells or the host can be used to infer whether a DNA virus is replicating by RT-PCR. But it is generally difficult to avoid genomic DNA contamination in the samples. However, the use of primers spanning an intron is an effective alternative for virus inactivation test. Therein, a nested RT-PCR was developed to detect active ISKNV in the inactivated vaccine. At first, the transcriptome analysis of CPB cell infected with ISKNV revealed several gaps in some viral transcripts compared to ISKNV genome. One intron in ORF003L with 80 bp (designated IN-3) was confirmed by PCR and sequencing analysis. Then, two primer sets (primer A and primer B) spanning the IN-3 intron were designed to detect ISKNV transcription. The nested RT-PCR conditions were optimized with 0.4 µM primer A and 0.2 µM primer B, and 68 °C and 55 °C for annealing temperature, respectively. The sensitivity results indicated that the nested RT-PCR could detect one copy of live ISKNV propagating in CPB cells for seven days. The nested RT-PCR method was more sensitive and accurate than the method of blind passages in cells and fish challenge experiments. Together, above results indicate that this assay is a time-saving, labor-extensive and cost-effective for inactivation test of ISKNV in killed vaccine production.

18.
Langmuir ; 35(40): 12898-12907, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513424

RESUMO

The vacancy-enhanced contact friction of graphene is mainly attributed to the vacancy-enhanced out-of-plane deformation flexibility of the graphene and the climbing of the tip out of the vacancy trap (which actually acts as a step edge). However, this mechanism does not apply for explaining the enhanced friction caused by small-sized vacancies that are unable to accommodate the tip, such as single vacancy and double vacancies, which also commonly exist in the graphene. In the present study, by performing a set of classic molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrated that the double-vacancy defect in graphene substantially enhanced the contact friction when the tip slides over it and the pinning effect of the reconstructed lattice of the double-vacancy defect with atoms at the bottom of the tip dominated such an influence. The underlying mechanism of such an atomic pinning effect and the influence of the normal load, sliding direction, and the sliding velocity were unveiled by analyzing the obtained friction evolution and the atomic configuration and interaction between the tip and the graphene. We believe that the findings presented in this study complete the state-of-art understanding of the nanoscale friction behaviors of vacancy-defected graphene, which is essential for the implementation of their potential control.

19.
Metabolites ; 9(9)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487859

RESUMO

Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) has caused serious economic losses in the cultured mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) industry in China. Host metabolism alteration induced by disease infection may be the core problem of pathogenesis. However, to date, little is known about the disease-induced fish metabolism changes. In this study, we first reported ISKNV, the fish virus, induced metabolism alteration. The metabolomics profiles of Chinese perch brain cells (CPB) post-ISKNV infection at progressive time points were analyzed using the UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS technique. A total of 98 differential metabolites were identified. In the samples harvested at 24 hours post-infection (hpi; the early stage of ISKNV infection), 49 differential metabolites were identified comparing with control cells, including 31 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated metabolites. And in the samples harvested at 72 hpi (the late stage of ISKNV infection), 49 differential metabolites were identified comparing with control cells, including 27 up-regulated and 22 down-regulated metabolites. These differential metabolites were involved in many pathways related with viral pathogenesis. Further analysis on the major differential metabolites related to glucose metabolism and amino acid metabolism revealed that both glucose metabolism and glutamine metabolism were altered and a metabolic shift was determined from glucose to glutamine during ISKNV infection cycle. In ISKNV-infected cells, CPB cells prefer to utilize glucose for ISKNV replication at the early stage of infection, while they prefer to utilize glutamine to synthetize lipid for ISKNV maturation at the late stage of infection. These findings may improve the understanding of the interaction between ISKNV and host, as well as provide a new insight for elucidating the ISKNV pathogenic mechanism.

20.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480692

RESUMO

Glucose is a main carbon and energy source for virus proliferation and is usually involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. In this study, we investigated the roles of glucose-related metabolic pathways during the replication of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), which has caused serious economic losses in the cultured Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) industry. We found that ISKNV infection enhanced the metabolic pathways of the PPP and the TCA cycle at the early stage of the ISKNV infection cycle and enhanced the glycolysis pathway at the late stage of the ISKNV infection cycle though the comprehensive analysis of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The advanced results proved that ISKNV replication induced upregulation of aerobic glycolysis at the late stage of ISKNV infection cycle and aerobic glycolysis were required for ISKNV multiplication. In addition, the PPP, providing nucleotide biosynthesis, was also required for ISKNV multiplication. However, the TCA cycle involving glucose was not important and necessary for ISKNV multiplication. The results reported here provide new insights into viral pathogenesis mechanism of metabolic shift, as well as antiviral treatment strategies.

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