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1.
Biomed Microdevices ; 21(4): 96, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712916

RESUMO

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) can benefit from operating in miniaturized devices as they enable quantitative, low-cost measurements with reduced analysis time and reagents consumption. However, most of the existing devices that offer ITC capabilities either do not yet allow proper control of reaction conditions or are limited by issues such as evaporation or surface adsorption caused inaccurate solution concentration information and unintended changes in biomolecular properties because of aggregation. In this paper, we present a microdevice that combines 3D-printed microfluidic structures with a polymer-based MEMS thermoelectric sensor to enable quantitative ITC measurements of biomolecular interactions. Benefitting from the geometric flexibility of 3D-printing, the microfluidic design features calorimetric chambers in a differential cantilever configuration that improves the thermal insulation and reduces the thermal mass of the implementing device. Also, 3D-printing microfluidic structures use non-permeable materials to avoid potential adsorption. Finally, the robustness of the polymeric MEMS sensor chip allows the device to be assembled reversibly and leak-free, and hence reusable. We demonstrate the utility of the device by quantitative ITC characterization of a biomolecular binding system, ribonuclease A (RNase A) bind with cytidine 2'-monophosphate (2'CMP) down to a practically useful sample concentration of 0.2 mM. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding system, including the stoichiometry, equilibrium binding constant, and enthalpy change are obtained and found to agree with values previously reported in the literature.

3.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104418, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704262

RESUMO

A new isoiphionane sesquiterpene, named (3S, 5S, 7S, 10R)-3, 11-dihydroxyisoiphion-4-one (1), two new phloroglucinol glycosides, named eucalglobuside A (2) and eucalglobuside B (3), along with 15 known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis and in comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by ECD calculation. All isolates were evaluated their inhibitory activities against the mushroom tyrosinase. As a result, three sesquiterpenoids, 1, 5ß, 11-dihydroxy-iphionan-4-one (5), and (-)-globulol (8), exhibited the most potent activities with IC50 values of 14.17 µM, 10.08 µM and 9.79 µM, respectively.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(44): 17937-17948, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589820

RESUMO

Ni-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling reactions have emerged as appealing methods to construct organic molecules without the use of stoichiometric organometallic reagents. The mechanisms are complex: plausible pathways, such as "radical chain" and "sequential reduction" mechanisms, are dependent on the sequence of the activation of electrophiles. A combination of kinetic, spectroscopic, and organometallic studies reveals that a Ni-catalyzed, reductive 1,2-dicarbofunctionalization of alkenes proceeds through a "sequential reduction" pathway. The reduction of Ni by Zn is the turnover-limiting step, consistent with Ni(II) intermediates as the catalyst resting-state. Zn is only sufficient to reduce (phen)Ni(II) to a Ni(I) species. As a result, commonly proposed Ni(0) intermediates are absent under these conditions. (Phen)Ni(I)-Br selectively activates aryl bromides via two-electron oxidation addition, whereas alkyl bromides are activated by (phen)Ni(I)-Ar through single-electron activation to afford radicals. These findings could provide insight into achieving selectivity between different electrophiles.

5.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 135: 52-66, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362020

RESUMO

(±)-Sodium5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (brand name: brozopine, BZP, 1a), derived from L-3-n-butylphthalide (L-NBP), has been reported to protect the brain from stoke and has been approved by CFDA in Phase I-II clinical trials. However, it remains to be investigated whether 1a may exhibit any cardioprotective effect on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the current study, C57BL/6 and ICR mice were pretreated with 1a, and myocardium I/R were then performed. We found that 1a not only significantly reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac contractile function after acute MI/R in both species, but also protected hearts from chronic MI-related cardiac injury. Mechanically, we found that 1a physically binds to 12/15-LOX-2 using molecular docking. The shRNA-mediated 12/15-LOX-2 knockdown almost completely blocked the protective effect of 1a. Our findings, for the first time, strongly indicate that 1a may serve as a potent and promising cardioprotective agent in treatment of I/R related injury, at least partially through targeting 12/15-LOX-2.

6.
Nanoscale ; 11(26): 12573-12581, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219127

RESUMO

Quantifying interactions between biomolecules subject to various environmental conditions is essential for applications such as drug discovery and precision medicine. This paper presents an investigation of the kinetics of environmentally dependent biomolecular binding using an electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) nanosensor. In this approach, biomolecular binding occurring on and in the vicinity of a graphene surface induces a change in carrier concentration, whose resulting conductance change is measured. This allows a systematic study of the kinetic properties of the binding system. We apply this approach to the specific binding of human immunoglobulin E (IgE), an antibody involved in parasite immunity, with an aptamer at different ionic strengths (Na+ and Mg2+) and temperatures. Experimental results demonstrate increased-rate binding kinetics at higher salt-ion concentrations and temperatures. In particular, the divalent cation Mg2+ yields more pronounced changes in the conformational structure of the aptamer than the monovalent cation Na+. In addition, the dissociation of the aptamer-protein complex at room temperature is found to be characterized by large unfavorable changes in the activation enthalpy and entropy.

7.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(5): 637-640, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of lean management on cost control of single disease in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI) in stroke center. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The patients with ACI who underwent intravenous thrombolysis in the stroke center of Taizhou Central Hospital in Zhejiang Province were enrolled. Thirty patients adopted traditional management procedures from July 2016 to September 2017 were enrolled in the control group, and 32 patients received lean management from October 2017 to December 2018 were enrolled in the lean group. The patients in the control group were treated with traditional intravenous thrombolysis, and the patients were sent to the neurology ward for intravenous thrombolysis. The patients in the lean group applied lean management value stream to optimize process management, the lean management team of the stroke center was established, and the green channel for stroke treatment was established to eliminate the waiting time as far as possible. The location of thrombolysis was changed from neurology ward to the neurological intensive care unit (NICU) in emergency department. The patients in the two groups were compared in terms of intravenous thrombolytic door-to-needle time (DNT), admission time to the neurologist's visit time (T1), CT examination time to neurology ward or NICU admission time (T2), neurology ward/NICU visit time to medication time (T3), and the proportion of patients with DNT controlled within 40 minutes, recovery of neurological impairment 7 days after thrombolysis [national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) score], activity of daily living assessment (Barthel index), length of hospital stay, cost of hospital stay and patient satisfaction. At the same time, the main process quality and the implementation rate of easily missed indexes of cerebral infarction single disease were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, DNT, T1 and T2 in the lean group were significantly shortened [DNT (minutes): 39.56±11.12 vs. 63.03±19.63, T1 (minutes): 16.23±6.79 vs. 33.48±12.63, T2 (minutes): 13.45±3.84 vs. 17.47±5.56, all P < 0.01], T3 was slightly shortened (minutes: 9.88±1.95 vs. 10.95±2.69, P > 0.05), and the proportion of DNT control within 40 minutes was significantly increased [75.0% (24/32) vs. 16.7% (5/30), P < 0.01], the 7-day NIHSS score was decreased significantly (8.66±4.12 vs. 13.00±5.63, P < 0.01), 7-day Barthel index was increased significantly (71.6±16.7 vs. 54.7±17.1, P < 0.01), the length of hospital stay was significantly shortened (days: 9.69±4.06 vs. 12.47±3.83, P < 0.01), the hospital costs were significantly reduced (Yuan: 16 338±5 481 vs. 19 470±5 495, P < 0.05), the satisfaction of patients was improved significantly [(91.38±2.69)% vs. (86.53±2.78)%, P < 0.01]. In terms of the implementation rate of quality indicators such as pre-application evaluation of thrombolytic drugs, evaluation of dysphagia, and evaluation of vascular function, health education of ACI, rehabilitation evaluation and implementation within 24 hours, etc., the lean group was significantly improved as compared with the control group [(87.5% (28/32) vs. 53.3% (16/30), 96.9% (31/32) vs. 73.3% (22/30), 78.1% (25/32) vs. 43.3% (13/30), 100.0% (32/32) vs. 76.7% (23/30), 75.0% (24/32) vs. 33.3% (10/30), all P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: Lean thinking can realize the standardization of stroke center process, effectively utilize medical resources, improve medical quality and reduce the cost of cerebral infarction single disease.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/economia , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Infarto Cerebral/terapia , Controle de Custos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) or MR images may cause the severity of early acute pancreatitis (AP) to be underestimated. As an innovative image analysis method, radiomics may have potential clinical value in early prediction of AP severity. PURPOSE: To develop a contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI-based radiomics model for the early prediction of AP severity. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: A total of 259 early AP patients were divided into two cohorts, a training cohort (99 nonsevere, 81 severe), and a validation cohort (43 nonsevere, 36 severe). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T, T1 -weighted CE-MRI. ASSESSMENT: Radiomics features were extracted from the portal venous-phase images. The "Boruta" algorithm was used for feature selection and a support vector machine model was established with optimal features. The MR severity index (MRSI), the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, and the bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis (BISAP) were calculated to predict the severity of AP. STATISTICAL TESTS: Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact tests, Boruta algorithm, receiver operating characteristic analysis, DeLong test. RESULTS: Eleven potential features were chosen to develop the radiomics model. In the training cohort, the area under the curve (AUC) of the radiomics model, APACHE II, BISAP, and MRSI were 0.917, 0.750, 0.744, and 0.749, and the P value of AUC comparisons between the radiomics model and scoring systems were all less than 0.001. In the validation cohort, the AUC of the radiomics model, APACHE II, BISAP, and MRSI were 0.848, 0.725, 0.708, and 0.719, respectively, and the P value of AUC comparisons were 0.96 (radiomics vs. APACHE II), 0.40 (radiomics vs. BISAP), and 0.46 (radiomics vs. MRSI). DATA CONCLUSION: The radiomics model had good performance in the early prediction of AP severity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019.

9.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 182: 148-151, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment should be considered for patients with medically refractory epilepsy, and neuronavigation may benefit and reduce the technical difficulties during surgery. In this study, we aimed to report our single-hospital experience of incorporating neuronavigation for treating patients with medically refractory epilepsy using 4 types of surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed as medically refractory epilepsy and received neuronavigation-assisted surgery were included in this retrospective analysis. The type of surgery was decided by the surgery committee after careful evaluation and discussion, including temporo-parietal-occipital (TPO) disconnection, anterior subtotal callosal section, functional hemispherectomy and resection of the epileptogenic zone(s). Postoperative seizure outcome at the last visit was evaluated using Engel classification. RESULTS: A total of 173 patients with medically refractory epilepsy who were treated surgically under the assistance of neuronavigation were included. The majority type of surgery was resection of epileptic zone, n = 104 (60.12%). An excellent seizure outcome, Engel Class I was found in 50.86% of the patients, followed by 23.12% patients with a good outcome of Engel Class II. CONCLUSION: Overall more than half of the patients could have excellent seizure outcome of Engel Class I, the postoperative complications were manageable. These results indicated that the applicability of neuronavigation, and the use of neuronavigation provides good efficacy and safety for all kinds of surgical procedures for patients with medically refractory epilepsy.

10.
FEBS J ; 286(19): 3874-3891, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144441

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic bacterium known to cause serious human infections, especially in immune-compromised patients. This is due to its unique ability to transform from a drug-tolerant planktonic to a more dangerous and treatment-resistant sessile life form, called biofilm. Recently, two derivatives of the frog skin antimicrobial peptide esculentin-1a, i.e. Esc(1-21) and its D-amino acids containing diastereomer Esc(1-21)-1c, were characterized for their powerful anti-Pseudomonal activity against both forms. Prevention of biofilm formation already in its early stages could be even more advantageous for counteracting infections induced by this bacterium. In this work, we studied how the diastereomer Esc(1-21)-1c can inhibit Pseudomonas biofilm formation in comparison to the parent peptide and two clinically-used conventional antibiotics, i.e. colistin and aztreonam, when applied at dosages below the minimal growth inhibitory concentration. Biofilm prevention was correlated to the peptides' ability to inhibit Pseudomonas motility and to reduce the production of virulent metabolites, for example, pyoverdine and rhamnolipids. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying these activities was evaluated by studying the peptides' effect on the expression of key genes involved in the virulence and motility of bacteria, as well as by monitoring the peptides' binding to the bacterial signaling nucleotide ppGpp. Our results demonstrate that the presence of only two D-amino acids in Esc(1-21)-1c is sufficient to downregulate ppGpp-mediated expression of biofilm-associated genes, presumably as a result of higher peptide stability and therefore prolonged interaction with the nucleotide. Overall, these studies should assist efficient design and optimization of new anti-infective agents with multiple pharmacologically beneficial properties.

12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 134: 16-23, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952012

RESUMO

Saliva has been reported to contain various cytokine biomarkers which are associated with some severe diseases such as cancers. Non-invasive saliva diagnosis using wearable or portable devices may pave a new avenue for monitoring conditions of the high risk population. Here, a graphene-based fully integrated portable nanosensing system, the entire size of which is smaller than a smart-phone and can be handheld, is presented for on-line detection of cytokine biomarkers in saliva. This miniaturized system employs an aptameric graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) using a buried-gate geometry with HfO2 as the dielectric layer and on-line signal processing circuits to realize the transduction and processing of signals which reflect cytokine concentrations. The signal can be wirelessly transmitted to a smart-phone or cloud sever through the Wi-Fi connection for visualizing the trend of the cytokine concentration change. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is used as a representative to examine the sensing capability of the system. Experimental results demonstrate that the nanosensing system responds to the change of IL-6 concentration within 400s in saliva with a detection limit down to 12 pM. Therefore, this portable system offers the practicality to be potentially used for non-invasive saliva diagnosis of diseases at early stage.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Grafite/química , Interleucina-6/análise , Saliva/química , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Biomarcadores/análise , Citocinas/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Háfnio/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Óxidos/química , Smartphone/instrumentação , Transistores Eletrônicos
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 172: 36-47, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939352

RESUMO

A series of novel 2,4-disubstituted quinazolines were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-tumor activity against five human cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, PC-3, HGC-27 and MGC-803) using MTT assay. Among them, compound 9n showed the most potent cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells. Compound 9n also significantly inhibited the colony formation and migration of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, compound 9n induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and cell apoptosis, as well as increased accumulation of intracellular ROS. Furthermore, compound 9n exerted anti-tumor effects in vitro via decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increasing the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and p53. Mechanistically, compound 9n markedly decreased p-EGFR and p-PI3K expression, which revealed that compound 9n targeted breast cancer cells via interfering with EGFR-PI3K signaling pathway. Molecular docking suggested that compound 9n could indeed bind into the active pocket of EGFR. All the findings suggest that compound 9n might be a valuable lead compound for anti-tumor agents targeting breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Receptores ErbB/deficiência , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/deficiência , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Quinazolinas/síntese química , Quinazolinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(16): 4115-4120, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968915

RESUMO

The first application of a RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3-OAc catalytic system on the selective intermolecular mono C-H silylation of 2-aryl N-heterocycles using HSiEt3 as the silylating reagent has been described. This protocol features good functional group tolerance and high regioselectivity, and has potential for gram scale-up, which provides a convenient and practical pathway for the synthesis of versatile organosilane compounds. This catalytic system can also be applied to the silylation of challenging sp3 C-H bonds.

15.
Org Lett ; 21(4): 1134-1138, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707034

RESUMO

An efficient ruthenium(II)-catalyzed intermolecular selective ortho C-H silylation of 2-aryloxazoles has been described for the first time, which provides a convenient and practical pathway for the synthesis of versatile organosilane compounds with good functional group tolerance and regioselectivity. This catalytic system could be also applied to the dehalogenation of Cl or Br group.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(10): 3198-3202, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681765

RESUMO

A nickel-catalyzed asymmetric diarylation reaction of vinylarenes enables the preparation of chiral α,α,ß-triarylated ethane scaffolds, which exist in a number of biologically active molecules. The use of reducing conditions with aryl bromides as coupling partners obviates the need for stoichiometric organometallic reagents and tolerates a broad range of functional groups. The application of an N-oxyl radical as a ligand to a nickel catalyst represents a novel approach to facilitate nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 129: 93-99, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685707

RESUMO

Label-free electronic biosensors as the non-electrochemical analytical tools without requirement of sophisticated instrumentation have become attractive, although their application in competitive affinity sensing of uncharged small molecules is still hindered by a difficulty in the development of competing analogues. To break through this bottleneck, we report a novel analogue made by epitope-modified metal nanoparticles to enable the electronic signaling of small-molecule analyte recognition via competitive affinity. While the electronic signaling capability of metal nanoparticle analogues is demonstrated by a graphene field-effect transistor bioassay of small-molecule glucose as a proof-of-principle, interestingly, we discover a new electronic signaling mechanism in the metal nanoparticle affinity, different to the intuitive charge accumulation expectation. On the basis of Kelvin-probe force microscopic potential characterization and theoretical discussion, we fundamentally elucidated the signaling mechanism as a seldom used electrostatic shielding-effect, that is, in the analogue-receptor affinity, metal nanoparticles with the charge density lower than receptor biomolecules can reduce the collective electrical potential via charge dispersion. Further consider the convenient epitope-modifiability of metal nanoparticles, the easy-to-develop analogues for diverse target analyte might potentially be predictable in the future. And the application of label-free electronic biosensors for the competitive affinity bioassay of range-extended small molecules may thus be promoted based on the electrostatic shielding-effect.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Glucose/análise , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Transistores Eletrônicos , Glicemia/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Eletricidade Estática
18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 126: 59-67, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391910

RESUMO

Graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) sensors are an attractive analytical tool for the detection of water pollutants. Unfortunately, this application has been hindered by the sensitivity of such sensors to nonspecific disturbances caused by variations of environmental conditions. Incorporation of differential designs is a logical choice to address this issue, but this has been difficult for GFET sensors due to the impact of fabrication processes and material properties. This paper presents a differential GFET affinity sensor for the selective detection of water pollutants in the presence of nonspecific disturbances. This differential design allows for minimization of the effects of variations of environmental conditions on the measurement accuracy. In addition, to mitigate the impact of the fabrication process and material property variations, we introduce a compensation scheme for the individual sensing units of the sensor, so that such variations are accounted for in the compensation-based differential sensing method. We test the use of this differential sensor for the selective detection of the water pollutant 17ß-estradiol in buffer and tap water. Consistent detection results can be obtained with and without interferences of pH variations, and in tap water where unknown interferences are present. These results demonstrate that the differential graphene affinity sensor is capable of effectively mitigating the effects of nonspecific interferences to enable selective water pollutant detection for water quality monitoring.

19.
Nanoscale ; 10(46): 21681-21688, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431030

RESUMO

We present an approach for the label-free detection of cytokine biomarkers using an aptamer-functionalized, graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) nanosensor on a flexible, SiO2-coated substrate of the polymer polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). The nanosensor conforms to the underlying nonplanar surface and performs GFET-based rapid transduction of the aptamer-biomarker binding, thereby potentially allowing the detection of cytokine biomarkers that are sampled reliably from human bodily fluids (e.g., sweat) in wearable sensing applications. In characterizing the suitability of the nanosensor for wearable applications, we investigate the effects of substrate bending on the equilibrium dissociation constant between the aptamer and the biomarker as well as the graphene transconductance. The utility of the nanosensor is demonstrated by the detection of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), an inflammatory cytokine biomarker. Experimental results show that the flexible nanosensor can specifically respond to changes in the TNF-α concentration within 5 minutes with a limit of detection as low as 26 pM in a repeatable manner.

20.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 9(4)2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424091

RESUMO

The application of microfluidic technology to manipulate cells or biological particles is becoming one of the rapidly growing areas, and various microarray trapping devices have recently been designed for high throughput single-cell analysis and manipulation. In this paper, we design a double-slit microfluidic chip for hydrodynamic cell trapping at the single-cell level, which maintains a high capture ability. The geometric effects on flow behaviour are investigated in detail for optimizing chip architecture, including the flow velocity, the fluid pressure, and the equivalent stress of cells. Based on the geometrical parameters optimized, the double-slit chip enhances the capture of HeLa cells and the drug experiment verifies the feasibility of the drug delivery.

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