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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(29): 26243-26249, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283173

RESUMO

Atomically thin membranes of two-dimensional (2-D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have distinct emission properties, which can be utilized for realizing ultrathin optoelectronic integrated systems in the future. Growing a large-area and strain-reduced monolayer 2-D material on a three-dimensional (3-D) substrate with microstructures or nanostructures is a crucial technique because the electronic band structure of TMDC atomic layers is strongly affected by the number of stacked layers and strain. In this study, a large-area and strain-reduced MoS2 monolayer was fabricated on a 3-D substrate through a two-step growth procedure. The material characteristics and optical properties of monolayer TMDCs fabricated on the nonplanar substrate were examined. The growth of monolayer MoS2 on a cone-shaped sapphire substrate effectively reduced the tensile strain induced by the substrate by decreasing the thermal expansion mismatch between the 2-D material and the substrate. Monolayer MoS2 grown on the nonplanar substrate exhibited uniform strain reduction and luminescence intensity. The fabrication of monolayer MoS2 on a nonplanar substrate increased the light extraction efficiency. In the future, large-area and strain-reduced 2-D TMDC materials grown on a nonplanar substrate can be employed as novel light-emitting devices for applications in lighting, communication, and displays for the development of ultrathin optoelectronic integrated systems.

2.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(5): 529-538, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157395

RESUMO

Vocal expression is essential for conveying the emotion during social interaction. Although vocal emotion has been explored in previous studies, little is known about how perception of different vocal emotional expressions modulates the functional brain network topology. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional brain networks under different attributes of vocal emotion by graph-theoretical network analysis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were performed on 36 healthy participants. We utilized the Power-264 functional brain atlas to calculate the interregional functional connectivity (FC) from fMRI data under resting state and vocal stimuli at different arousal and valence levels. The orthogonal minimal spanning trees method was used for topological filtering. The paired-sample t-test with Bonferroni correction across all regions and arousal-valence levels were used for statistical comparisons. Our results show that brain network exhibits significantly altered network attributes at FC, nodal and global levels, especially under high-arousal or negative-valence vocal emotional stimuli. The alterations within/between well-known large-scale functional networks were also investigated. Through the present study, we have gained more insights into how comprehending emotional speech modulates brain networks. These findings may shed light on how the human brain processes emotional speech and how it distinguishes different emotional conditions.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244690

RESUMO

The treatment of heroin addiction is a complex process involving changes in addictive behavior and brain functioning. The goal of this study was to explore the brain default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and decision-making performance based on the Cambridge gambling task in heroin-dependent individuals undergoing methadone treatment (MT, n = 11) and medication-free faith-based therapeutic community program (TC, n = 11). The DMN involved the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left inferior parietal lobe (IPLL), right inferior parietal lobe (IPLR), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) subregions for all participants in both the MT and TC groups. Compared with MT, TC had an increased functional connectivity in IPLL-IPLR and IPLR-PCC and decreased functional connectivity in mPFC-IPLL and IPLL-PCC. Both groups exhibited no significant difference in the regional rs-fMRI metric [i.e., amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)]. In the analysis of the neural correlates for decision-making performance, risk adjustment was positively associated with ALFF in IPLL for all participants considering the group effects. The involvement of IPL in decision-making performance and treatment response among heroin-dependent patients warrants further investigation.

4.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 50(5): 1593-1603, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although diffusion gradient directions and b-values have been optimized for diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), little is known about the effect of signal averaging on DKI reliability. PURPOSE: To evaluate how signal averaging influences the reliability of DKI indices using two gradient encoding schemes with three spatial resolutions. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. ANIMAL MODEL: Fifteen naïve Sprague-Dawley rats. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: DKI was performed at 7T using two schemes (30 directions with three b-values [30d-3b] and six directions with 15 b-values [6d-15b]), three resolutions, and eight repetitions. ASSESSMENT: DKI reliability was assessed using voxelwise relative error (σ) and test-retest error of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and mean kurtosis (MK) within gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). The number of excitations (NEX) was optimized by considering DKI reliability. The influence of the partial volume effect (PVE) was also assessed. STATISTICAL TEST: One-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The 30d-3b scheme, compared with the 6d-15b scheme, exhibited apparently smaller σFA and σMK (eg, at NEX 1, in GM, for three resolutions, σFA : 19.9-38.2% vs. 34.2-61.4%, σMK : 6.9-11.4% vs. 14.1-15.4%) and similar σMD (all differences between two schemes <1.6%). The optimal NEX was determined as 2 for enabling a reliable measurement of DKI-derived indices. The PVE at the lowest resolution apparently increased σFA for both schemes (19.9% for 30d-3b and 34.2% for 6d-15b) and σMK for the 6d-15b scheme (14.7%) in GM, and exerted lower effects on MK values for the 30d-3b scheme (P > 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: A higher number of diffusion directions would benefit FA and MK estimation. A higher spatial resolution helps to reduce PVE. By using the 30d-3b scheme, MK is considered a robust index to reflect microstructural changes in GM and WM. We propose a systematic approach to determine the optimal DKI protocols for appropriate preclinical settings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:1593-1603.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101680, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710870

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD), an irreversible neurodegenerative disease, is the most common type of dementia in elderly people. This present study incorporated multiple structural and functional connectivity metrics into a graph theoretical analysis framework and investigated alterations in brain network topology in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. By using this multiparametric analysis, we expected different connectivity metrics may reflect additional or complementary information regarding the topological changes in brain networks in MCI or AD. In our study, a total of 73 subjects participated in this study and underwent the magnetic resonance imaging scans. For the structural network, we compared commonly used connectivity metrics, including fractional anisotropy and normalized streamline count, with multiple diffusivity-based metrics. We compared Pearson correlation and covariance by investigating their sensitivities to functional network topology. Significant disruption of structural network topology in MCI and AD was found predominantly in regions within the limbic system, prefrontal and occipital regions, in addition to widespread alterations of local efficiency. At a global scale, our results showed that the disruption of the structural network was consistent across different edge definitions and global network metrics from the MCI to AD stages. Significant changes in connectivity and tract-specific diffusivity were also found in several limbic connections. Our findings suggest that tract-specific metrics (e.g., fractional anisotropy and diffusivity) provide more sensitive and interpretable measurements than does metrics based on streamline count. Besides, the use of inversed radial diffusivity provided additional information for understanding alterations in network topology caused by AD progression and its possible origins. Use of this proposed multiparametric network analysis framework may facilitate early MCI diagnosis and AD prevention.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Conectoma/métodos , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Rede Nervosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(29): 24733-24738, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969003

RESUMO

We demonstrated the top-gate transistors composed of monolayer MoS2 grown on three-layer alloys Mo xW1- xS2 prepared by sequential sulfurization of predeposited transition metal films. The elemental mapping of the alloy indicates a uniform distribution of both cations Mo and W in the grown samples. Surprisingly, we find that the drain current of transistors could be enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude as the composition of Mo increases, whereas the gate-controlled current modulation turns bipolar and ultimately vanishes. These features might originate from the formation of in-gap defect states, with modest activation energy for transport and moderate hopping probability for current conduction, or a reduced electronic band gap of the conducting channel because of strain.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(17): 15058-15064, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652480

RESUMO

Single-crystal antimonene flakes are observed on sapphire substrates after the postgrowth annealing procedure of amorphous antimony (Sb) droplets prepared by using molecular beam epitaxy at room temperature. The large wetting angles of the antimonene flakes to the sapphire substrate suggest that an alternate substrate should be adopted to obtain a continuous antimonene film. By using a bilayer MoS2/sapphire sample as the new substrate, a continuous and single-crystal antimonene film is obtained at a low growth temperature of 200 °C. The results are consistent with the theoretical prediction of the lower interface energy between antimonene and MoS2. The different interface energies of antimonene between sapphire and MoS2 surfaces lead to the selective growth of antimonene only atop MoS2 surfaces on a prepatterned MoS2/sapphire substrate. With similar sheet resistance to graphene, it is possible to use antimonene as the contact metal of 2D material devices. Compared with Au/Ti electrodes, a specific contact resistance reduction up to 3 orders of magnitude is observed by using the multilayer antimonene as the contact metal to MoS2. The lower contact resistance, the lower growth temperature, and the preferential growth to other 2D materials have made antimonene a promising candidate as the contact metal for 2D material devices.

8.
J Vis Exp ; (129)2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286451

RESUMO

We have demonstrated that through the sulfurization of transition metal films such as molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W), large-area and uniform transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) MoS2 and WS2 can be prepared on sapphire substrates. By controlling the metal film thicknesses, good layer number controllability, down to a single layer of TMDs, can be obtained using this growth technique. Based on the results obtained from the Mo film sulfurized under the sulfur deficient condition, there are two mechanisms of (a) planar MoS2 growth and (b) Mo oxide segregation observed during the sulfurization procedure. When the background sulfur is sufficient, planar TMD growth is the dominant growth mechanism, which will result in a uniform MoS2 film after the sulfurization procedure. If the background sulfur is deficient, Mo oxide segregation will be the dominant growth mechanism at the initial stage of the sulfurization procedure. In this case, the sample with Mo oxide clusters covered with few-layer MoS2 will be obtained. After sequential Mo deposition/sulfurization and W deposition/sulfurization procedures, vertical WS2/MoS2 hetero-structures are established using this growth technique. Raman peaks corresponding to WS2 and MoS2, respectively, and the identical layer number of the hetero-structure with the summation of individual 2D materials have confirmed the successful establishment of the vertical 2D crystal hetero-structure. After transferring the WS2/MoS2 film onto a SiO2/Si substrate with pre-patterned source/drain electrodes, a bottom-gate transistor is fabricated. Compared with the transistor with only MoS2 channels, the higher drain currents of the device with the WS2/MoS2 hetero-structure have exhibited that with the introduction of 2D crystal hetero-structures, superior device performance can be obtained. The results have revealed the potential of this growth technique for the practical application of 2D crystals.


Assuntos
Enxofre/química , Elementos de Transição/química , Cristalização
9.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42146, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176836

RESUMO

A growth model is proposed for the large-area and uniform MoS2 film grown by using sulfurization of pre-deposited Mo films on sapphire substrates. During the sulfurization procedure, the competition between the two mechanisms of the Mo oxide segregation to form small clusters and the sulfurization reaction to form planar MoS2 film is determined by the amount of background sulfur. Small Mo oxide clusters are observed under the sulfur deficient condition, while large-area and complete MoS2 films are obtained under the sulfur sufficient condition. Precise layer number controllability is also achieved by controlling the pre-deposited Mo film thicknesses. The drain currents in positive dependence on the layer numbers of the MoS2 transistors with 1-, 3- and 5- layer MoS2 have demonstrated small variation in material characteristics between each MoS2 layer prepared by using this growth technique. By sequential transition metal deposition and sulfurization procedures, a WS2/MoS2/WS2 double hetero-structure is demonstrated. Large-area growth, layer number controllability and the possibility of hetero-structure establishment by using sequential metal deposition and following sulfurization procedures have revealed the potential of this growth technique for practical applications.

10.
Nano Lett ; 16(11): 7093-7097, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27763763

RESUMO

A nine-layer WS2/MoS2 heterostructure is established on a sapphire substrate after sequential growth of large-area and uniform five- and four-layer MoS2 and WS2 films by using sulfurization of predeposited 1.0 nm molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W), respectively. By using the results obtained from the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and the absorption spectrum measurements of the standalone MoS2 and WS2 samples, a type-II band alignment is predicated for the WS2/MoS2 heterostructure. Increasing drain currents and enhanced field-effect mobility value of the transistor fabricated on the heterostructure suggested that a channel with higher electron concentration compared with the standalone MoS2 transistor channel is obtained with electron injection from WS2 to MoS2 under thermal equilibrium. Selective 2D crystal growth with (I) blank sapphire substrate, (II) standalone MoS2, (III) WS2/MoS2 heterostructure, and (IV) standalone WS2 was demonstrated on a single sapphire substrate. The results have revealed the potential of this growth technique for practical applications.

11.
Opt Express ; 23(24): 31150-62, 2015 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698744

RESUMO

The combination of ZnO, InN, and GaN epitaxial layers is explored to provide long wavelength photodetection capability in the GaN based materials. Growth temperature optimization was performed to obtain the best quality of InN epitaxial layer in the MOCVD system. The temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) can provide the information about thermal quenching in the InN PL transitions and at least two non-radiative processes can be observed. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy are applied to confirm the inclusion of indium and the formation of InN layer. The band alignment of such system shows a typical double heterojunction, which is preferred in optoelectronic device operation. The photodetector manufactured by this ZnO/GaN/InN layer can exhibit extended long-wavelength quantum efficiency, as high as 3.55%, and very strong photocurrent response under solar simulator illumination.

12.
Opt Lett ; 40(16): 3747-9, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274650

RESUMO

In this Letter, we report the enhanced radiative recombination output from an AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor with InAs quantum dots embedded in the base region to form a quantum-dot light-emitting transistor (QDLET) grown by molecular beam epitaxy systems. For the device with a 100 µm×100 µm emitter area, we demonstrate the dual output characteristics with an electrical output and an optical output when the device is operating in the common-emitter configuration. The quantum-dot light-emitting transistor exhibits a base recombination radiation in the near-infrared spectral range with a dominant peak at λ of 1100 nm.

13.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 685495, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25045741

RESUMO

This study combines cluster analysis and LRFM (length, recency, frequency, and monetary) model in a pediatric dental clinic in Taiwan to analyze patients' values. A two-stage approach by self-organizing maps and K-means method is applied to segment 1,462 patients into twelve clusters. The average values of L, R, and F excluding monetary covered by national health insurance program are computed for each cluster. In addition, customer value matrix is used to analyze customer values of twelve clusters in terms of frequency and monetary. Customer relationship matrix considering length and recency is also applied to classify different types of customers from these twelve clusters. The results show that three clusters can be classified into loyal patients with L, R, and F values greater than the respective average L, R, and F values, while three clusters can be viewed as lost patients without any variable above the average values of L, R, and F. When different types of patients are identified, marketing strategies can be designed to meet different patients' needs.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Clínicas Odontológicas , Modelos Teóricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Taiwan
14.
Opt Express ; 22 Suppl 2: A359-64, 2014 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24922245

RESUMO

A type II GaSb quantum ring solar cell is fabricated and measured under the concentrated sunlight. The external quantum efficiency confirms the extended absorption from the quantum rings at long wavelength coinciding with the photoluminescence results. The short-circuit current of the quantum ring devices is 5.1% to 9.9% more than the GaAs reference's under various concentrations. While the quantum ring solar cell does not exceed its GaAs counterpart in efficiency under one-sun, the recovery of the open-circuit voltages at higher concentration helps to reverse the situation. A slightly higher efficiency (10.31% vs. 10.29%) is reported for the quantum ring device against the GaAs one.

15.
Opt Express ; 22(5): A359-64, 2014 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24800292

RESUMO

A type II GaSb quantum ring solar cell is fabricated and measured under the concentrated sunlight. The external quantum efficiency confirms the extended absorption from the quantum rings at long wavelength coinciding with the photoluminescence results. The short-circuit current of the quantum ring devices is 5.1% to 9.9% more than the GaAs reference's under various concentrations. While the quantum ring solar cell does not exceed its GaAs counterpart in efficiency under one-sun, the recovery of the open-circuit voltages at higher concentration helps to reverse the situation. A slightly higher efficiency (10.31% vs. 10.29%) is reported for the quantum ring device against the GaAs one.

16.
Res Dev Disabil ; 33(6): 1832-40, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22699256

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual disabilities. When they are not yet capable of obtaining a job in the open market, they must receive job training and daily care in sheltered employment institutions. If the sheltered employment institutions cannot operate properly, they will greatly affect intellectual disabilities. From the study of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions are one kind of food service business that has been found to request and improve service quality and execution of CSR. These are two main factors which can enhance brand value and create a good reputation for sheltered employment institutions. The questionnaire results indicate that perceived service quality has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction and the reliability dimension is the most important factor for customers to assess service quality. Meanwhile, correlation analysis shows that customer satisfaction regarding service quality influences post-purchase intentions, indicating that friendly and helpful employees can please customers and enhance their satisfaction level and also induce positive post-purchase intentions of consumers. Regarding the CSR of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions, the analysis reveals a statistical significance: the greater customer satisfaction of CSR, the higher the post-purchase intention. In addition, in the work, paired-sample t test analysis reveals there is a significant difference (p<.05) in service quality and CSR in terms of "perceived" and "expected" responses. In summary, since those with intellectual disabilities usually are enthusiastic at work and do their best to provide good service and execute CSR well, the value of sheltered employment institutions establishments should be recognized by all should receive continued support and there should be a willingness to hire these intellectually disabled citizens.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Intenção , Cultura Organizacional , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Restaurantes , Oficinas de Trabalho Protegido , Responsabilidade Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Res Dev Disabil ; 32(1): 25-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20869201

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values ranging from 11 to 15), while the control group did not participate in the exercise. A dependent samples t-test indicated significant differences in both groups between pre- and post-training. Through ANCOVA analysis, there was a significant difference (p<.05) in the flexibility and aerobic capacity for the experimental group and a significant improvement on their physical fitness (p<.05).


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Esportes , Estudantes
18.
Nanotechnology ; 21(29): 295304, 2010 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20601753

RESUMO

Atomically-flat surfaces are obtained after thin GaAsSb buffer layer growth on GaAs substrates with regular-distributed nano-holes formed after oxide desorption of the local atomic-force-microscopy anode oxidation. Different from the samples with GaAsSb buffer layers, increasing surface root-mean-square roughness is observed for the GaAs-buffered samples with increasing GaAs buffer layer thickness. The phenomenon is attributed to the enhanced adatom migration resulting from the incorporation of Sb atoms. By using the substrates with nano-holes after buffer layer growth, site-controlled self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) are observed with the deposition of a below-critical-thickness InAs coverage of 1.3 monolayer (ML).

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