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1.
Food Chem ; : 131649, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848093

RESUMO

The delicate aroma of Bao-chung tea comes from oxidation, followed by fixation in the pan-firing step. Traditionally, the timing of pan-firing has been based on odor perception by tea masters and lacks relevant scientific research. Pan-firing at three different green-note intensities and three stirring sequences was used to explore the relationship between the compositions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) before pan-firing and in the finished tea. Pan-firing decreased green leaf volatiles and increased the ratio of terpenoid volatiles. The characteristic VOCs of the finished tea were highly related to VOCs before pan-firing (R2 = 0.97). Principal component analysis revealed that the traditional judgment of the pan-firing step is based on nonanal, ß-linalool, and cis- and trans-linalool oxides. The timing of pan-firing is crucial for VOCs, and VOC composition before pan-firing can be used to predict desired tea aroma.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752402

RESUMO

Multimodal sensing can provide a comprehensive and accurate diagnosis of biological information. This paper presents a fully integrated wireless multimodal sensing chip with voltammetric electrochemical sensing at a scanning rate range of 0.08400 V/s, temperature monitoring, and bi-phasic electrical stimulation for wound healing progress monitoring. The time-based readout circuitry can achieve a 120X scalable resolution through dynamic threshold voltage adjustment. A low-noise analog waveform generator is designed using current reducer techniques to eliminate the large passive components. The chip is fabricated via a 0.18 m CMOS process. The design achieves R2 linearity of 0.995 over a wide current detection range (2 pA12 A) while consuming 49 W at 1.2 V supply. The temperature sensing circuit achieves a 43 mK resolution from 20 to 80 degrees. The current stimulator provides an output current ranging from 8 A to 1 mA in an impedance range of up to 3 k. A wakeup receiver with data correlators is used to control the operation modes. The sensing data are wirelessly transmitted to the external readers. The proposed sensing IC is verified for measuring critical biomarkers, including C-reactive protein, uric acid, and temperature.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769160

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-associated death worldwide. miR-31 is an oncogenic miRNA in OSCC. NUMB is an adaptor protein capable of suppressing malignant transformation. Disruption of the miR-31-NUMB regulatory axis has been demonstrated in malignancies. Mitochondrial dysfunction and adaptation to glycolytic respiration are frequent events in malignancies. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) function to facilitate lactate flux in highly glycolytic cells. Upregulation of MCT1 and MCT4 has been shown to be a prognostic factor of OSCC. Here, we reported that miR-31-NUMB can modulate glycolysis in OSCC. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing strategy, we identified increases in oncogenic phenotypes, MCT1 and MCT4 expression, lactate production, and glycolytic respiration in NUMB-deleted OSCC subclones. Transfection of the Numb1 or Numb4 isoform reversed the oncogenic induction elicited by NUMB deletion. This study also showed, for the first time, that NUMB4 binds MCT1 and MCT4 and that this binding increases their ubiquitination, which may decrease their abundance in cell lysates. The disruptions in oncogenicity and metabolism associated with miR-31 deletion and NUMB deletion were partially rescued by MCT1/MCT4 expression or knockdown. This study demonstrated that NUMB is a novel binding partner of MCT1 and MCT4 and that the miR-31-NUMB-MCT1/MCT4 regulatory cascade is present in oral carcinoma.

4.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 26(1): 47, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775969

RESUMO

Owing to an increase in the aging population, osteoporosis has become a severe public health concern, with a high prevalence among the elderly and postmenopausal adults. Osteoporosis-related fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly and postmenopausal adults, posing a considerable socioeconomic burden. However, existing treatments can only slow down the process of osteoporosis, reduce the risk of fractures, and repair fractures locally. Therefore, emerging methods for treating osteoporosis, such as mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, exosome-driving drug delivery systems, biomimetic materials, and 3D printing technology, have received increasing research attention, with significant progress. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stem cells that can differentiate into different types of functional cells. Exosomes play a key role in regulating cell microenvironments through paracrine mechanisms. Bionic materials and 3D printed scaffolds are beneficial for the reconstruction and repair of osteoporotic bones and osteoporosis-related fractures. Stem cells, exosomes, and biomimetic materials represent emerging technologies for osteoporosis treatment. This review summarizes the latest developments in these three aspects.

5.
Autophagy ; : 1-19, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720029

RESUMO

Lacking a self-contained metabolism network, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms for rewiring the metabolic system of their host to hijack the host's metabolic resources for replication. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a paramyxovirus, as an oncolytic virus currently being developed for cancer treatment. However, how NDV alters cellular metabolism is still far from fully understood. In this study, we show that NDV infection reprograms cell metabolism by increasing glucose utilization in the glycolytic pathway. Mechanistically, NDV induces mitochondrial damage, elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) and ETC dysfunction. Infection of cells depletes nucleotide triphosphate levels, resulting in elevated AMP:ATP ratios, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, and MTOR crosstalk mediated autophagy. In a time-dependent manner, NDV shifts the balance of mitochondrial dynamics from fusion to fission. Subsequently, PINK1-PRKN-dependent mitophagy was activated, forming a ubiquitin chain with MFN2 (mitofusin 2), and molecular receptor SQSTM1/p62 recognized damaged mitochondria. We also found that NDV infection induces NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT3 loss via mitophagy to engender HIF1A stabilization, leading to the switch from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis. Overall, these studies support a model that NDV modulates host cell metabolism through PINK1-PRKN-dependent mitophagy for degrading SIRT3.Abbreviations: AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone; ECAR: extracellular acidification rate; hpi: hours post infection LC-MS: liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; mito-QC: mCherry-GFP-FIS1[mt101-152]; MFN2: mitofusin 2; MMP: mitochondrial membrane potential; mROS: mitochondrial reactive oxygen species; MOI: multiplicity of infection; 2-NBDG: 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-2-deoxyglucose; NDV: newcastle disease virus; OCR: oxygen consumption rate; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SIRT3: sirtuin 3; TCA: tricarboxylic acid; TCID50: tissue culture infective doses.

6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 731990, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733209

RESUMO

Intrapreneurship has drawn research attention over the past decades considering its crucial role in innovation, organizational performance, and employee career planning. Intrapreneurial research based on various concepts also emerges. In spite of the increasing concern in the field, contributions in the field are fragmented. Particularly, intrapreneurship research is still lacking an integrated framework based on which, enablers and important facilitating mechanisms can be identified to enhance intrapreneurship. To close the above research gap, the study develops a holistic intrapreneurial framework. Specifically, the study first examines intrapreneurship in relation to other prominent concepts (i.e., innovation, entrepreneurship, and sustainability). This study then identifies enablers of intrapreneurship at both individual and organizational level. Notably, extant research largely examines intrapreneurship either at the organizational or individual level, and concentrates in corporate entrepreneurship or individual intrapreneurial employees. Research providing a holistic perspective on enablers for intrapreneurship is rare. The study further integrates these intrapreneurial enablers with facilitating mechanisms and proposes a framework of intrapreneurship. The framework makes it possible to clearly identify pivotal antecedents to intrapreneurship based on various theoretical lenses and analytical levels applied. Finally, the study addresses a list of managerial and technological challenges arising from the above framework and suggests future research agenda.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 738144, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737955

RESUMO

Many studies reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) target autophagy-related genes to affect carcinogenesis, however, autophagy-deficiency-related miRNA dysfunction in cancer development remains poorly explored. During autophagic progression, we identified miR-449a as the most up-regulated miRNA. MiR-449a expression was low in the tumor parts of CRC patient specimens and inversely correlated with tumor stage and metastasis with the AUC (area under the curve) of 0.899 and 0.736 as well as poor overall survival rate, indicating that miR-449a has the potential to be a prognostic biomarker. In the same group of CRC specimens, low autophagic activity (low Beclin 1 expression and high p62 accumulation) was detected, which was significantly associated with miR-449a expression. Mechanistic studies disclosed that autophagy upregulates miR-449a expression through degradation of the coactivator p300 protein which acetylates the transcription factor Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1). Unacetylated FoxO1 translocated to the nucleus and bound to the miR-449a promoter to drive gene expression. Either activation of autophagy by the inducer or overexpression of exogenous miR-449a decreases the expression of target gene LEF-1 and cyclin D1, which lead to decreased proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells. Autophagy-miR-449a-tartet genes mediated suppression of tumor formation was further confirmed in the xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, this study reveals a novel mechanism wherein autophagy utilizes miR-449a-LEF1-cyclin D1 axis to suppress CRC tumorigenesis. Our findings open a new avenue toward prognosis and treatment of CRC patients by manipulating autophagy-miR-449a axis.

8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(11): e25844, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Short-course preventive therapy with 1-month course of daily administration of isoniazid (300-mg) plus rifapentine (600-mg) (1HP) and 3-month course of weekly administration of isoniazid (900-mg) plus rifapentine (900-mg) (3HP) has higher completion rates than 9-month course of daily isoniazid (9H) for individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We aimed to evaluate the effect, safety and tolerability of 1HP in people living with HIV (PLWH) and LTBI who received coformulated bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (BIC/FTC/TAF). METHODS: PLWH testing positive by interferon-gamma release assay and having received BIC/FTC/TAF for >2 weeks with plasma HIV RNA load (PVL) <200 copies/ml were enrolled. BIC trough plasma concentrations and cytokine profiles were determined before the first dose (day 1/baseline), 24 h after the 14th (day 15) and 28th (day 29) doses of 1HP. PVL were determined on days 15 and 29 of 1HP and every 3 months subsequently after discontinuation of 1HP. RESULTS: From November 2019 to December 2020, 48 PLWH with LTBI were enrolled. One participant (2.1%) discontinued 1HP on day 15 due to fever and generalized rashes with PVL of 72 copies/ml, which was <50 copies/ml in three subsequent determinations while on BIC/FTC/TAF over the 12 months of follow-up. The percentages of BIC trough plasma concentrations above the protein-adjusted 95% effective concentration (paEC95 = 162 ng/ml) were 56.3% and 37.0% on days 15 and 29, respectively. The percentage of PVL <200 copies/ml was 91.7% on day 15, 97.8% on day 29 and 100% at both months 3 and 6. After a median observation of 52 weeks (interquartile range, 51-55), all participants continued BIC/FTC/TAF with a median PVL of 20 copies/ml (range 20-331). Except for the participant who discontinued 1HP because of allergic reactions, none of the participants had relevant symptoms or increases of the cytokine levels assessed between baseline and days 15 and 29 of 1HP. CONCLUSIONS: BIC/FTC/TAF in combination with 1HP was well tolerated with a high completion rate. BIC trough plasma concentrations were significantly decreased with concurrent use of 1HP among PLWH with LTBI. While transient viral blips were observed during 1HP without causing subsequent treatment failure, such combination should be applied with caution.

9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833378

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and a history of exposure to noxious stimuli. Cigarette smoking is the most important causal factor for developing COPD. Cadmium, a minor metallic element, is one of the main inorganic components in tobacco smoke. Inhaled cadmium was associated with a decline in lung function, gas exchange impairment, and the development of obstructive lung disease. Patients with COPD who had oxygen desaturation during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) had a significantly worse prognosis than non-desaturation in COPD patients. Nonetheless, few studies have addressed the influence of blood cadmium levels on exercise-induced oxygen desaturation in COPD patients. Our objective was to assess the potential impact of blood cadmium levels on oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT among COPD patients. Materials and Methods: we performed a retrospective analysis of patients with COPD who were examined for blood cadmium levels in a tertiary care referral center in Taiwan, between March 2020 and May 2021. The 6-min walk test was performed. Normal control subjects who had no evidence of COPD were also enrolled. Results: a total of 73 COPD patients were analyzed and stratified into the high-blood cadmium group (13 patients) and low-blood cadmium group (60 patients). A total of 50 normal control subjects without a diagnosis of COPD were enrolled. The high-blood cadmium group had a significantly higher extent of desaturation than the low-blood cadmium group. The frequency of desaturation during 6MWT revealed a stepwise-increasing trend with an increase in blood cadmium levels. A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that blood cadmium levels were independently associated with desaturation during the 6MWT (odds ratio 12.849 [95% CI 1.168-141.329]; p = 0.037). Conclusions: our findings indicate that blood cadmium levels, within the normal range, were significantly associated with desaturation during 6MWT in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Oxigênio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Teste de Caminhada
11.
Biomed J ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) demonstrate satisfactory outcomes. However, 8%-28% of patients with PTC show tumor recurrence, which may affect prognosis. Therefore, identifying factors associated with tumor recurrence in patients with PTC may be helpful to refine therapeutic strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To identify factors associated with PTC recurrence, we retrospectively reviewed demographic features (sex and age), operation method, image character, serum thyroglobulin (Tg), accumulated radioactive iodine (I-131) therapeutic dose, I-131 uptake, and metastases at diagnosis in 829 patients with PTC. Patients were grouped into early (stage I and II; n = 698) and advanced (stage III and IV; n = 131) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages. Recurrence rate, mortality rate, risk factors of recurrence, recurrent free survival and overall survival curve were compared between two groups. RESULTS: Patients in the early stage demonstrated a lower recurrence rate (7.2%) than did those in the advanced stage (28.2%, p < 0.05). The mortality rate of patients with recurrence in the advanced stage was higher than that of those in the early stage (51.4% vs. 12.0%). The major impact factors on tumor recurrence in early TNM stage were distant metastasis and lymph node metastasis, while in advanced TNM stage were distant metastasis, male gender, total thyroidectomy with limited lymph node dissection, and a high serum Tg level. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to monitor tumor recurrence might be refined according to the TNM stages of PTC patients.

12.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 2034-2040, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bronchiectasis severity index (BSI) and FACED score are currently used in predicting outcomes of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). Distance-saturation product (DSP), the product of distance walked, and lowest oxygen saturation during the 6-min walk test showed strong predictive power of mortality in non-CF bronchiectasis patients. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of these scores and DSP in predicting mortality. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Our retrospective study included NCFB patients from January 2004 to December 2017. We recorded the basic data, pulmonary function, radiologic studies, sputum culture results, acute exacerbations (AE), emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalization, and mortality. RESULTS: A total 130 NCFB patients were analysed. The mean BSI score, FACED score, and DSP were 8.8 ± 4.9, 3.4 ± 1.7, and 413.1 ± 101.5 m%, respectively. BSI and FACED scores had comparable predictive power for AE (p=.011; p=.010, respectively). The BSI score demonstrated a significant correlation with ED visits (p=.0003). There were 12 deaths. Patients were stratified using a DSP cut-off value of 345 m% according to the best area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) value in mortality. DSP was not correlated with AE and ED visits. BSI, FACED scores, and DSP demonstrated statistically significant correlations with hospitalization (p<.0001; p<.0001; p=.0007, respectively). The AUC for overall mortality was similar for BSI, FACED score, and DSP (0.80 versus 0.85, p=.491; 0.85 versus 0.83, p=.831). CONCLUSION: DSP had comparable predictive power for mortality as the well-validated BSI and FACED scores and is relatively easy to use in clinical practice.KEY MESSAGEDistance-saturation product (DSP) comprised with the product of distance walked, and lowest oxygen saturation during the 6-min walk test, which is common used in clinical practice.DSP demonstrated strong and comparable predictive power of mortality as the well-validated BSI and FACED scores in non-CF bronchiectasis patients.

13.
Folia Neuropathol ; 59(3): 298-316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628796

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global health issue which causes millions of deaths and disabilities every year. The survivors of TBI may suffer from sensorimotor dysfunction, memory and cognitive disturbances, hearing and vision deficits, and various psychological problems. The primary insult may damage neurons, cerebral vessels and the blood-brain barrier, causing reactive astrogliosis and immune response with further damaging consequences. TBI lacks effective therapy. The currently available clinical treatment options include hyperbaric oxygenation, brain stimulation and rehabilitation. In recent years, the research on stem cell treatment of TBI has received extensive attention. Various types of stem cells, such as four types of mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells have been tried to treat TBI in clinical trials and preclinical models. This article reviews the research of autologous and non-autologous multipotent stem and progenitor cells for the treatment of TBI in both clinical and preclinical settings.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 740732, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604085

RESUMO

Objective: To build and assess a pre-treatment dual-energy CT-based clinical-radiomics nomogram for the individualized prediction of clinical response to systemic chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Methods: A total of 69 pathologically confirmed AGC patients who underwent dual-energy CT before systemic chemotherapy were enrolled from two centers in this retrospective study. Treatment response was determined with follow-up CT according to the RECIST standard. Quantitative radiomics metrics of the primary lesion were extracted from three sets of monochromatic images (40, 70, and 100 keV) at venous phase. Univariate analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) were used to select the most relevant radiomics features. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to establish a clinical model, three monochromatic radiomics models, and a combined multi-energy model. ROC analysis and DeLong test were used to evaluate and compare the predictive performance among models. A clinical-radiomics nomogram was developed; moreover, its discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness were assessed. Result: Among the included patients, 24 responded to the systemic chemotherapy. Clinical stage and the iodine concentration (IC) of the tumor were significant clinical predictors of chemotherapy response (all p < 0.05). The multi-energy radiomics model showed a higher predictive capability (AUC = 0.914) than two monochromatic radiomics models and the clinical model (AUC: 40 keV = 0.747, 70 keV = 0.793, clinical = 0.775); however, the predictive accuracy of the 100-keV model (AUC: 0.881) was not statistically different (p = 0.221). The clinical-radiomics nomogram integrating the multi-energy radiomics signature with IC value and clinical stage showed good calibration and discrimination with an AUC of 0.934. Decision curve analysis proved the clinical usefulness of the nomogram and multi-energy radiomics model. Conclusion: The pre-treatment DECT-based clinical-radiomics nomogram showed good performance in predicting clinical response to systemic chemotherapy in AGC, which may contribute to clinical decision-making and improving patient survival.

15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 743892, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604240

RESUMO

Mitochondria are double-membraned organelles that exhibit fluidity. They are the main site of cellular aerobic respiration, providing energy for cell proliferation, migration, and survival; hence, they are called "powerhouses." Mitochondria play an important role in biological processes such as cell death, cell senescence, autophagy, lipid synthesis, calcium homeostasis, and iron balance. Fission and fusion are active processes that require many specialized proteins, including mechanical enzymes that physically alter mitochondrial membranes, and interface proteins that regulate the interaction of these mechanical proteins with organelles. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion, fission, and physiopathology, emphasizing the biological significance of mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondria-related genes and proteins in animal cells are discussed, as well as research trends in mitochondrial dynamics, providing a theoretical reference for future mitochondrial research.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13200-13216, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709825

RESUMO

Nontarget data acquisition for target analysis (nDATA) workflows using liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass (LC-HRAM) spectrometry, spectral screening software, and a compound database have generated interest because of their potential for screening of pesticides in foods. However, these procedures and particularly the instrument processing software need to be thoroughly evaluated before implementation in routine analysis. In this work, 25 laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate an nDATA workflow on high moisture produce (apple, banana, broccoli, carrot, grape, lettuce, orange, potato, strawberry, and tomato). Samples were extracted in each laboratory by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS), and data were acquired by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a high-resolution quadrupole Orbitrap (QOrbitrap) or quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer operating in full-scan mass spectrometry (MS) data-independent tandem mass spectrometry (LC-FS MS/DIA MS/MS) acquisition mode. The nDATA workflow was evaluated using a restricted compound database with 51 pesticides and vendor processing software. Pesticide identifications were determined by retention time (tR, ±0.5 min relative to the reference retention times used in the compound database) and mass errors (δM) of the precursor (RTP, δM ≤ ±5 ppm) and product ions (RTPI, δM ≤ ±10 ppm). The elution profiles of all 51 pesticides were within ±0.5 min among 24 of the participating laboratories. Successful screening was determined by false positive and false negative rates of <5% in unfortified (pesticide-free) and fortified (10 and 100 µg/kg) produce matrices. Pesticide responses were dependent on the pesticide, matrix, and instrument. The false negative rates were 0.7 and 0.1% at 10 and 100 µg/kg, respectively, and the false positive rate was 1.1% from results of the participating LC-HRAM platforms. Further evaluation was achieved by providing produce samples spiked with pesticides at concentrations blinded to the laboratories. Twenty-two of the 25 laboratories were successful in identifying all fortified pesticides (0-7 pesticides ranging from 5 to 50 µg/kg) for each produce sample (99.7% detection rate). These studies provide convincing evidence that the nDATA comprehensive approach broadens the screening capabilities of pesticide analyses and provide a platform with the potential to be easily extended to a larger number of other chemical residues and contaminants in foods.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras , Fluxo de Trabalho
17.
Anim Nutr ; 7(4): 967-972, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703914

RESUMO

Gossypol, a phenolic compound found in the cotton plant, is widely distributed in cottonseed by-products. Although ruminant animals are believed to be more tolerant of gossypol toxicity than monogastric animals due to rumen microbial fermentation, the actual mechanisms of detoxification remain unclear. In contrast, the metabolic detoxification of gossypol by Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae has achieved great advances. The present review discusses the clinical signs of gossypol in ruminant animals, as well as summarizing advances in the study of gossypol detoxification in the rumen. It also examines the regulatory roles of several key enzymes in gossypol detoxification and transformation known in H. armigera. With the rapid development of modern molecular biotechnology and -omics technology strategies, evidence increasingly indicates that research into the biological degradation of gossypol in H. armigera larvae and some microbes, in terms of these key enzymes, could provide scientific insights that would underpin future work on microbial gossypol detoxification in the rumen, with the ultimate aim of further alleviating gossypol toxicity in ruminant animals.

18.
Front Nutr ; 8: 723446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595199

RESUMO

Bamboo leaf extracts, with high content of flavonoids and diverse biological activities, are used in animal husbandry. Increasing evidence has suggested an association between the bovine physiology and the udder microbiome, yet whether the microbiota and the metabolites of milk affect the mammary gland health or the milk quality remains unknown. In this study, we provide a potential mechanism for the effects of bamboo leaf extracts on milk microbiota and metabolites of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous lactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows were randomly separated into two groups: basal diet as the control group (CON, n = 6) and a diet supplemented with 30 g/d bamboo leaf extract per head as antioxidants of bamboo leaf (AOB) group (AOB, n = 6) for 7 weeks (2-week adaptation, 5-week treatment). Milk samples were collected at the end of the trial (week 7) for microbiome and associated metabolic analysis by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results showed that the milk protein was increased (p < 0.0001) and somatic cell count (SCC) showed a tendency to decrease (p = 0.09) with AOB supplementation. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was significantly decreased (p = 0.04) while a higher relative abundance of Probacteria (p = 0.01) was seen in the group receiving AOB compared to the CON group. The AOB group had a significantly lower relative abundance of Corynebacterium_1 (p = 0.01), Aerococcus (p = 0.01), and Staphylococcus (p = 0.02). There were 64 different types of metabolites significantly upregulated, namely, glycerophospholipids and fatty acyls, and 15 significantly downregulated metabolites, such as moracetin, sphinganine, and lactulose in the AOB group. Metabolic pathway analysis of the different metabolites revealed that the sphingolipid signaling pathway was significantly enriched, together with glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and necroptosis in response to AOB supplementation. Several typical metabolites were highly correlated with specific ruminal bacteria, demonstrating a functional correlation between the milk microbiome and the associated metabolites. These insights into the complex mechanism and corresponding biological responses highlight the potential function of AOB, warranting further investigation into the regulatory role of specific pathways in the metabolism.

19.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9820-9829, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumbar degenerative disease (LDD) is a narrowing of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina caused by aging and degeneration of lumbar spine tissue. Minimally invasive internal lumbar spine fixation is emerging in the treatment of LDD. However, no standard early rehabilitation protocol for orthopedic robot-assisted minimally invasive internal lumbar spine fixation exits. To investigate the effect of a nurse-led early rehabilitation program in the postoperative recovery of patients with lumbar degenerative lesions undergoing orthopedic robot-assisted minimally invasive lumbar internal fixation. METHODS: Eighty patients with minimally invasive orthopedic robot-assisted lumbar degenerative lesions admitted to our hospital between January 2019 and January 2021 were recruited to this study. The patients were randomly allocated to a control group (n=40), involving conventional care, and an observation group (n=38; 40 initially and 2 later excluded) including a nurse-led early rehabilitation program added on the basis of the control group. The primary outcomes were the general postoperative conditions, scores of daily living ability, the degree of low back pain and functional recovery. Participants were also compared in terms of their compliance with the care regimen and the incidence of complications. RESULTS: Participants in the observation group had a significantly shorter first time on the floor after surgery (P<0.001) and shorter hospital stay (P=0.003). Meanwhile, participants in the observation group had higher Barthel index (BI) scores (P=0.039), lower visual analogue scale (VAS) scores (P=0.028), and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores (P=0.002) at 3 days postoperatively, and there was no difference in the three scores between the two groups at 1 month postoperatively (all P>0.05). The compliance of participants in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.001). Participants in the observation group were less likely to experience constipation (P=0.043) and bloating (P=0.012) within 1 month after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a nurse-led early rehabilitation program in patients undergoing orthopedic robotic-assisted minimally invasive treatment of lumbar degenerative lesions can significantly improve patient compliance, significantly shorten postoperative flooring and hospitalization time, reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events, and accelerate postoperative recovery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100048698.


Assuntos
Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Fusão Vertebral , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211042566, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). METHODS: This study was conducted by searching the longitudinal health insurance database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program for relevant information from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011. Patients with AF were matched with non-AF controls with a 1:1 strategy according to propensity scores. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk of SSNHL. RESULTS: In total, 14 698 patients with AF were matched with the same number of non-AF patients as controls. After propensity score matching, the use of antiplatelet or anticoagulation medications and the occurrence of SSNHL were found to have a significant difference between AF and non-AF patients. The occurrence of SSNHL was found to be higher in men, those of 45 to 74 years old, and patients with hypertension in both AF and non-AF groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that male gender, age between 45 and 74 years, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension are risk factors for SSNHL. The use of aspirin was found to reduce the rate of SSNHL (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49-0.94, P = .019), but AF was not found to be a risk factor for SSNHL (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.64-1.23, P = .467). CONCLUSION: The association between AF and SSNHL is not significant.

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