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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(40): 4548-4553, 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386104

RESUMO

At present, the best rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection following failure of first-line eradication remains unclear. The Maastricht V/Florence Consensus Report recommends bismuth quadruple therapy, or fluoroquinolone-amoxicillin triple/quadruple therapy as the second-line therapy for H. pylori infection. Meta-analyses have shown that bismuth quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-amoxicillin triple therapy have comparable eradication rates, while the former has more adverse effects than the latter. There are no significant differences between the eradication rates of levofloxacin-amoxicillin triple and quadruple therapies. However, the eradication rates of both levofloxacin-containing treatments are suboptimal. An important caveat of levofloxacin-amoxicillin triple or quadruple therapy is poor eradication efficacy in the presence of fluoroquinolone resistance. High-dose dual therapy is an emerging second-line therapy and has an eradication efficacy comparable with levofloxacin-amoxicillin triple therapy. Recently, a 10-d tetracycline-levofloxacin (TL) quadruple therapy comprised of a proton pump inhibitor, bismuth, tetracycline and levofloxacin has been developed, which achieves a markedly higher eradication rate compared with levofloxacin-amoxicillin triple therapy (98% vs 69%) in patients with failure of standard triple, bismuth quadruple or non-bismuth quadruple therapy. The present article reviews current second-line anti-H. pylori regimens and treatment algorisms. In conclusion, bismuth quadruple therapy, levofloxacin-amoxicillin triple/quadruple therapy, high-dose dual therapy and TL quadruple therapy can be used as second-line treatment for H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that 10-d TL quadruple therapy is a simple and effective regimen, and has the potential to become a universal rescue treatment following eradication failure by all first-line eradication regimens for H. pylori infection.

2.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(9): 1427-1433, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bismuth quadruple therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in the United States but hybrid therapy is an alternative option. Reverse hybrid therapy (proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin for 14 days, and clarithromycin plus metronidazole for the initial 7 days) is a simplified hybrid treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacies of reverse hybrid therapy vs bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatments for patients with H pylori infection in a randomized trial. METHODS: In a prospective study, patients with H pylori infection were randomly assigned to groups that received either reverse hybrid therapy (n = 176) or a bismuth quadruple therapy (pantoprazole, bismuth, tetracycline, and metronidazole for 14 days; n = 176). Patients were examined the end of therapy for adverse events. The study was performed from August 2015 through February 2017. The primary outcome was cure of H pylori infection, determined based on a negative result from the urea breath test, or negative results from histologic analysis, the urease test, and bacterial culture analyses. RESULTS: H pylori infection was eradicated from 96.6% of patients who received reverse hybrid therapy and 96.0% who received bismuth quadruple therapy-this difference was not significant in the intention-to-treat analysis (95% CI, 8.0% ∼ 2.2%; P = .281). There were no significant differences between therapies eradication of clarithromycin-resistant strains (88.2% with reverse hybrid therapy vs 92.3% with bismuth quadruple therapy) or metronidazole-resistant strains (100% vs 96.9%). However, reverse hybrid therapy was associated with fewer adverse events (18.7% of patients) than bismuth quadruple therapy (47.7%) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial, we found 14-day reverse hybrid therapy to not be inferior to bismuth quadruple therapy as a first-line treatment for H pylori infection. Reverse hybrid therapy was associated with fewer adverse events. ClincialTrials.gov no: NCT02547038.

3.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2017: 4192169, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. METHODS: Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60-89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. RESULTS: A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM) (p = 0.028) and CKD-3 (p = 0.043) were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.

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