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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150209, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517331

RESUMO

The signals of fire activity induced from climate and ancient human activities could be recorded in sedimentary strata. We examined a 6000-year black­carbon (BC) record-including char and soot-of a sediment core from the South Yellow Sea. The climate change had a threshold effect on the fire regime, and dominated the char emissions. The soot/BC signals depicted that the anthropogenic emissions related to the evolution of the Chinese civilization since the Early Bronze Age (~4 ka) have overwhelmed natural soot emissions. The soot variation in the record closely matched periods when there was large-scale use of coal or charcoal after the Han Dynasty and when indigenous coking technology was promoted after the Tang Dynasty; low soot-abundance in the record coincided with periods of social unrest. This work illustrates how soot signals can be a robust tracer of civilization evolution.


Assuntos
Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Carbono/análise , China , Civilização , Humanos , Fuligem/análise
3.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 39(11): 705-710, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762532

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapies of low-level green laser and chemical desensitizer in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methods: Forty-eight patients with 96 sensitive teeth were invited to participate in this clinical trial and were randomly divided into three groups. One group was treated with low-level green laser, the second group was treated with desensitizer [sodium fluoride (NaF)], and the third group acted as the placebo group and was treated with distilled water and placebo laser. The wavelength of green laser was 532 nm and the irradiance was 15 J/cm2 per treatment site. Hypersensitivity was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) according to cold test and probing at baseline. Immediately, 2 weeks, and 3 months after the application of green laser, NaF, and placebo, the participants' sensitivity level was accessed by new VAS analysis. Results: Forty-five patients with 90 teeth (n = 15 patients/group; 30 teeth/group) were followed up for 2 weeks and 3 months after treatment. There were significant differences in VAS scores between the placebo group and intervention group (green laser group and NaF group; analysis of variance, p < 0.05) at all three time points. The mean pain scores in DH reduced significantly immediately after treatment in the green laser group and NaF group when stimulated by cold and probing, whereas no significant difference was observed with these two therapies after 2 weeks (p > 0.05). After 3 months, mean VAS scores of the NaF group were higher than those of the green laser group (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Therefore, the green laser displayed similar effectiveness as NaF in treatment of DH and could be a promising new therapy to reduce DH.


Assuntos
Dessensibilizantes Dentinários , Sensibilidade da Dentina , Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595719

RESUMO

The dust on indoor and outdoor surfaces of the window glasses were collected using sterile cotton balls in 11 cities from China. Two sampling campaigns were conducted with the time interval of 7 days to investigate the accumulation especially during the Spring festival holidays. Twenty-nine perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) were quantified to investigate concentration, composition, and toddlers' exposure. The concentrations of ∑PFAA ranged from no detection (nd) to 43 ng/m2 (mean 8.9 ± 10 ng/m2). Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was detected in 78% samples and accounted for 55 ± 21% of ∑PFAA concentrations. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) were detected in more than 50% samples indicating the use of alternatives. Fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA) and fluorotelomer unsaturated acid (FTUCA) were found in the dust, implying the degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH). The highest concentration of ∑PFAA (43 ng/m2) was found in outdoor dust from Xinzhou, Shanxi Province. Higher ∑PFAA concentrations were found in indoor dust than outdoor in 6 paired samples (3 from Feb. 14 and 3 from Feb. 21). In Tianjin and Handan, the concentrations of ∑PFAA from outdoor surfaces were higher in sampling campaign I (SC I, Feb. 21) than in sampling campaign II (SC II, Feb. 14), implying intensive outdoor release. The exposure of 2-year-old toddlers to PFAA via hand-to-mouth ingestion and dermal absorption was estimated; the mean values of intake were 2.1 and 1.5 pg/kg body weight, respectively, assuming an exposure time of 1 h.

5.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596600

RESUMO

To reduce treatment-related side effects in low-risk prostate cancer (PCa), both focal therapy and deferred treatments, including active surveillance (AS) and watchful waiting (WW), are worth considering over radical prostatectomy (RP). Therefore, this study aimed to compare long-term survival outcomes between focal therapy and AS/WW. Data were obtained and analyzed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients with low-risk PCa who received focal therapy or AS/WW from 2010 to 2016 were included. Focal therapy included cryotherapy and laser ablation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall mortality (OM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) between AS/WW and focal therapy, and propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to reduce the influence of bias and unmeasured confounders. A total of 19 292 patients with low-risk PCa were included in this study. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis, the risk of OM was higher in patients receiving focal therapy than those receiving AS/WW (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.79, P = 0.037), whereas no significant difference was found in CSM (HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.23-4.11, P = 0.977). After PSM, the OM and CSM of focal therapy and AS/WW showed no significant differences (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.92-1.74, P = 0.149; and HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.24-6.51, P = 0.782, respectively). For patients with low-risk PCa, focal therapy was no match for AS/WW in decreasing OM, suggesting that AS/WW could bring more overall survival benefits.

6.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(6): 367-375, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632698

RESUMO

This study investigates if genetic factors could contribute to the high rate of mood disorders reported in a U.S. community known to have a restricted early founder population (confirmed here through runs of homozygosity analysis). Polygenic scores (PGSs) for eight common diseases, disorders, or traits, including psychiatric disorders, were calculated in 274 participants (125 mood disorder cases) who each reported three or four grandparents born in the community. Ancestry-matched controls were selected from the UK Biobank (UKB; three sets of N = 1,822 each). The mean PGSs were significantly higher in the community for major depression PRS (p = 2.1 × 10-19 , 0.56 SD units), bipolar disorder (p = 2.5 × 10-15 , 0.56 SD units), and schizophrenia (p = 3.8 × 10-21 , 0.64 SD units). The PGSs were not significantly different between the community participants and UKB controls for the traits of body mass index, Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and chronotype. The mean PGSs for height were significantly lower in the community sample compared to controls (-0.21 SD units, p = 1.2 × 10-5 ). The results are consistent with enrichment of polygenic risk factors for psychiatric disorders in this community.

7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed that diabetes mellitus (DM) promotes disease progress of gastric cancer (GC), thus this study aimed to further investigating whether DM advanced lymph nodes (LNs) metastasis in GC. METHODS: The clinicopathologic data of GC patients with >15 examined LN (ELN) between October 2004 and December 2019 from a prospectively maintained database were included. The observational outcomes included the number (N3b status) and anatomical distribution (N3 stations) of metastatic LN (MLN). RESULTS: A total of 2142 eligible patients were included in the study between October 2004 and December 2019. N3 stations metastasis (28.80% in DM vs. 19.30% in non-DM, P = 0.026) and N3b status (18.70% in DM vs. 12.80% in non-DM, P = 0.039) were more advanced in the DM group, and multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed that DM was an independent factor of developing N3 stations metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.771, P = 0.011) and N3b status (OR = 1.752, P = 0.028). Also, multivariate analyses determined DM was independently associated with more MLN (ß = 1.424, P = 0.047). The preponderance of N3 stations metastasis (DM vs. non-DM, T1-2: 2.17% vs. 4.85%, T3: 29.03% vs. 20.27%, T4a: 38.89% vs. 25.84%, T4b: 50.00% vs. 36.64%; ELN16-29: 8.57% vs. 10.36%, ELN30-44: 27.87% vs. 20.45%, ELN≥45: 37.74% vs. 25.25%), N3b status (DM vs. non-DM, T1-2: 0.00% vs. 1.67%, T3: 16.13% vs. 5.14%, T4a: 27.78% vs. 19.10%, T4b: 44.00% vs. 28.00%; ELN16-29: 8.57% vs. 7.89%, ELN30-44: 18.03% vs. 11.79%, ELN≥45: 26.42% vs. 17.33%), and the number of MLN (DM vs. non-DM, T1-2: 0.40 vs. 1.05, T3: 8.58 vs. 5.16, T4a: 9.65 vs. 8.64, T4b: 17.00 vs. 12.75; ELN16-29: 3.63 vs. 4.61, ELN30-44: 5.75 vs. 5.45, ELN≥45: 11.96 vs. 7.65) of DM group increased with the advancement of primary tumor depth stage and raising of ELN. CONCLUSIONS: DM was an independent risk factor for promoting LN metastasis. The preponderance of LN involvement in the DM group was aggravated with the advancement of tumor depth.

8.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(10): 1463-1472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667721

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aures) lysates (SALs) on herpes simplex virus type-I (HSV1) infection in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and in a mouse model of HSV1 keratitis. METHODS: HCE, Vero, HeLa, and BV2 cells were infected with HSV1 [HSV1 f strain, HSV1f; HSV-1-H129 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in, HSV1g]. Pre- or post-infection, SAL at various concentrations was added to the culture medium for 24h. GFP fluorescence in HSV1g or plaque formation by HSV1f were examined. The effects of heat-treated SAL, precooled acetone-precipitated SAL, and SAL subjected to ultrafiltration (100 kDa) were evaluated. The effects of other bacterial components and lysates on HSV1 infection were also tested, including lipoteichoic acid (LTA), peptidoglycan (PGN), staphylococcal protein A (SPA), and α-hemolysin from S. aureus (α-toxin) as well as lysates from a wild-type S. aureus strain, S. epidermidis, and Escherichia coli (W-SAL, SEL, and ECL, respectively). In addition, SAL eye drops were applied topically to BALB/c mice with HSV1 keratitis, followed by in vivo observations. RESULTS: The cytopathic effect, plaque formation (HSV1f), and GFP expression (HSV1g) in infected cells were inhibited by SAL in a dose-dependent manner. The active component of SAL (≥100 kDa) was heat-sensitive and retained activity after acetone precipitation. In HSV1g-infected cells, treatment with LTA-sa, α-toxin, PGN-sa, or SPA did not inhibit GFP expression. SAL, W-SAL, and SEL (but not ECL) decreased GFP expression. In mice with HSV1 keratitis, SAL reduced corneal lesions by 71%. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that SAL can be used to inhibit HSV1 infection, particularly keratitis. Further studies are needed to determine the active components and mechanism underlying the effects of SAL.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 688986, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485331

RESUMO

Purpose: To develop an algorithm to detect and quantify hyperreflective dots (HRDs) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods: Twenty OCTs (each OCT contains 128 b scans) from 20 patients diagnosed with DME were included in this study. Two types of HRDs, hard exudates and small HRDs (hypothesized to be activated microglia), were identified and labeled independently by two raters. An algorithm using deep learning technology was developed based on input (in total 2,560 OCT b scans) of manual labeling and differentiation of HRDs from rater 1. 4-fold cross-validation was used to train and validate the algorithm. Dice coefficient, intraclass coefficient (ICC), correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plot were used to evaluate agreement of the output parameters between two methods (either between two raters or between one rater and proposed algorithm). Results: The Dice coefficients of total HRDs, hard exudates, and small HRDs area of the algorithm were 0.70 ± 0.10, 0.72 ± 0.11, and 0.46 ± 0.06, respectively. The correlations between rater 1 and proposed algorithm (range: 0.95-0.99, all p < 0.001) were stronger than the correlations between the two raters (range: 0.84-0.96, all p < 0.001) for all parameters. The ICCs were higher for all the parameters between rater 1 and proposed algorithm (range: 0.972-0.997) than those between the two raters (range: 0.860-0.953). Conclusions: Our proposed algorithm is a good tool to detect and quantify HRDs and can provide objective and repeatable information of OCT for DME patients in clinical practice and studies.

10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt A): 112926, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536705

RESUMO

Squids are globally distributed. Hg-contaminated squids may have high risks on humans. With abundant Se (antagonistic effect on Hg), the risks can be reduced. We collected squids around the world (Northwest Pacific Ocean, Southeast Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean). Concentrations of Hg and Se were region-based and tissue-based. The higher content of Se were, the lower relative Hg levels were. The correlation between Se:Hg and Se was the strongest in the digestive gland. The values of Se:Hg and THQ all confirm that the health risk was lower in samples with higher concentrations of Se. Despite the risk assessment by Se:Hg, BRV and THQ analysis showed no risk when consumed in moderation, the maximum daily intake is provided based on Monte Carlo simulation. In future, when evaluating the risks cause by Hg exposure and providing the recommended daily amount, it may need to concurrent consideration of Se levels.

11.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1311-1321, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493871

RESUMO

Characterizing genetic influences on DNA methylation (DNAm) provides an opportunity to understand mechanisms underpinning gene regulation and disease. In the present study, we describe results of DNAm quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analyses on 32,851 participants, identifying genetic variants associated with DNAm at 420,509 DNAm sites in blood. We present a database of >270,000 independent mQTLs, of which 8.5% comprise long-range (trans) associations. Identified mQTL associations explain 15-17% of the additive genetic variance of DNAm. We show that the genetic architecture of DNAm levels is highly polygenic. Using shared genetic control between distal DNAm sites, we constructed networks, identifying 405 discrete genomic communities enriched for genomic annotations and complex traits. Shared genetic variants are associated with both DNAm levels and complex diseases, but only in a minority of cases do these associations reflect causal relationships from DNAm to trait or vice versa, indicating a more complex genotype-phenotype map than previously anticipated.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 286: 114335, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450390

RESUMO

RATIONALE/OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought far-reaching consequences on individual and societal levels. Social distancing and physical hygiene constitute effective public health measures to limit the spread of the virus. This study investigated age and gender demographics, in tandem with national levels of human development, as crucial factors influencing self-reported compliance with COVID-19-related public health measures. METHODS: The present study leveraged a large multi-national sample that ranged across the adult lifespan (18-100 years) and comprised 45,772 women and men from 66 countries/territories. Data were collected in Spring (2020) during the earlier phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-reports of compliance with two public health measures (spatial distancing and physical hygiene) were assessed via online survey. Human Development Index (HDI), developed by the United Nations Development Program, was used as a proxy of a country's achievement in key dimensions of human development. RESULTS: Older age, female gender, and lower HDI were independently associated with greater self-reported compliance. A significant three-way interaction further revealed that self-reported compliance was lowest in young males from well-developed countries, while highest among females across all ages from less-developed countries. CONCLUSION: The study offers an integration of individual-level and country-level demographic predictors of self-reported compliance and allows for robust testing in a large multi-national adult lifespan sample for enhanced generalizability. The results highlight the potential of data-driven, tailored (i.e., towards specific demographics, countries) health campaigns and public policies in the fight against a global pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato
13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375326

RESUMO

With the decline in public budgets for agricultural extension support, ties between members of farmer groups are becoming more important to facilitate information transfer about agroforestry. This paper examines the role of social network ties in predicting organizational leadership in an agroforestry-based farmer group. Using social network data derived from interviews with members of farming groups based in the Ayeyarwady Delta of Myanmar, we established a positive relationship between advice-seeking ties and organizational leadership. In other words, farmers who were highly sought for agroforestry advice were more likely to be elected as leaders of the farmer group. Results show the frequency of interactions through advice-seeking ties also had a positive influence on the probability of farmers holding leadership positions. We found a core-periphery structure for the advice networks, whereby farmer leaders were overrepresented at the network core. Interestingly, general members of the farmer group were also in the core of the core-periphery structure, suggesting that engaging with farmers without leadership roles can also effectively disseminate agroforestry information to peripheral farmers. We conclude that farmer groups are valuable in agroforestry adoption and persistence and further analyses of formal leadership structures are needed to support more transparent and accountable governance.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 634075, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268107

RESUMO

M2-tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) work as a promoter in the processes of bone metastases, chemotherapy resistance, and castration resistance in prostate cancer (PCa), but how M2-TAMs affect PCa has not been fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the proportion of tumor-infiltrating immune cells using the CIBERSORT algorithm, based on samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Then we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis to examine the modules concerning infiltrated M2-TAMs. Gene Ontology analysis and pathway enrichment analysis were performed for functional annotation and a protein-protein interaction network was constructed. The International Cancer Genomics Consortium cohort was used as a validation cohort. The red module showed the most correlation with M2-TAMs in PCa. Biological processes and pathways were mainly associated with the immune-related processes, as revealed by functional annotation. Four hub genes were screened: ACSL1, DLGAP5, KIF23 and NCAPG. Further validation showed that the four hub genes had a higher expression level in tumor tissues than that in normal tissues, and they were good prognosis biomarkers for PCa. In conclusion, these findings contribute to understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of how M2-TAMs affect PCa, and looking for the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for PCa patients.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(14): 9740-9749, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213322

RESUMO

Although organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been banned for more than three decades, their concentrations have only decreased gradually. This may be largely attributable to their environmental persistence, illegal application, and exemption usage. This study assessed the historic and current regional context for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which were added to the Stockholm Convention in 2001. An air sampling campaign was carried out in 2018 in nine cities of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), where the historical OCP application was the most intensive in China. Different seasonalities were observed: DDT exhibited higher concentrations in summer than in winter; chlordane showed less seasonal variation, whereas HCB was higher in winter. The unique coupling of summer monsoon with DDT-infused paint usage, winter monsoon with HCB-combustion emission, and local chlordane emission jointly presents a dynamic picture of these OCPs in the PRD air. We used the BETR Global model to back-calculate annual local emissions, which accounted for insignificant contributions to the nationally documented production (<1‰). Local emissions were the main sources of p,p'-DDT and chlordane, while ocean sources were limited (<4%). This study shows that geographic-anthropogenic factors, including source, history, and air circulation pattern, combine to affect the regional fate of OCP compounds.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , China , Clordano/análise , DDT/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Rios
16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(10): 2380-2398, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326682

RESUMO

Tamoxifen (TAM) resistance has indicated a significant challenge during endocrine therapy for hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Thus, it is significant to elucidate the molecular events endowing TAM resistance to endocrine therapy. In this study, we found that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was an important event to confer TAM resistance, and attenuating EMT by elevating connexin (Cx) 43 expression could reverse TAM resistance. Specifically, Cx43 overexpression improved TAM sensitivity, while Cx43 depletion facilitated TAM insensitivity by modulating EMT in T47D TAM-resistant and -sensitive cells, and transplanted xenografts. Importantly, we found a novel reciprocal regulation between Cx43 and c-Src/PI3K/Akt pathway contributing to EMT and TAM resistance in breast cancer. Moreover, we identified that Cx43 deficiency was significantly correlated with poor relapse-free survival in patients undergoing TAM treatment. Therefore, Cx43 represents a prognostic marker and an attractive target for breast cancer treatments. Therapeutic strategies designed to increase or maintain Cx43 function may be beneficial to overcome TAM resistance.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126164, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323730

RESUMO

Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) are high lipophilic and degradation-resistant, which have been detected in the air, water, sediment and biota. HPAHs tend to have strong adverse effects on animals and humans. Although we have realized HPAHs are emerging contaminants which needs to be paid attention, there is still a lack of their individual commercial standards. This makes it difficult for understanding HPAHs comprehensively. This review is devoted to collect all the results have reported, and give a systemic look of their global distributions, influence factors and sources. Compared with air, studies on other environmental matrices (water and sediment) are more limited. The researches on organisms are fewest. Comparing the studied congeners, there are more studies on ClPAHs than BrPAHs. Human activities contribute mostly to their occurrence. Further, we then also introduce the toxicity and analytical methods to better understand HPAHs. The future research directions are also provided. Through this review, we can conclude there is an urgent need to develop analysis methods and ecologic risk assessment for better exploring HPAHs. Effective methods should be done to control HPAHs. Therefore, this review can provide a good basis for researchers to understand and control global pollution.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114373, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181959

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Prunella vulgaris L. (P. vulgaris) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Labiatae family, and its dried spikes is called as Xiakucao in China, which is a common traditional Chinese medicine with the activities of clearing the liver and expelling fire, improving eyesight, dispersing nodules and detumescence. Modern pharmacological studies have proved that P. vulgaris has various pharmacological activities such as immunomodulatory, antiviral, antibacterial and anti-insomnia activities. AIMS OF THIS REVIEW: P. vulgaris have been reported to have anti-insomnia effects. Nevertheless, the pharmacodynamic substance basis of this anti-insomnia effect is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the active components responsible for evoking the anti-insomnia effect of P. vulgaris and to evaluate its anti-insomnia effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we proposed a method combined with pharmacodynamic experiments, extraction and enrichment of chemical components, and the plasma pharmacochemistry to screen out the anti-insomnia components of P. vulgaris. Firstly, the active eluted fraction of the ethanol extract was screened out based on pharmacodynamic tracing method, and then the chemical composition was analyzed systematically by UPLC-MS/MS. Thirdly, pharmacodynamic tracing method and silica gel column chromatography were employed to screen out the active fraction of 70% ethanol eluted fraction, and its bioactive components in vitro and in vivo were identified by UPLC-MS/MS. Finally, screening out the anti-insomnia components of P. vulgaris by comparing the difference between in vivo and in vitro components, and three potentially bioactive ingredients were validated experimentally. RESULTS: It was confirmed that the fraction eluted with 70% ethanol from macroporous adsorption resin column was responsible for the anti-insomnia efficacy, and 55 compounds were identified or preliminarily identified. Then totally 9 compounds in vitro and 12 compounds in vivo from the active fraction of 70% ethanol eluted fraction were tentatively identified. Among them, mangiferin, rosmarinic acid and salviaflaside were the prototype components of P. vulgaris, which indicated that the three compounds might play the key role in the anti-insomnia activities. In vivo, compared to blank control group, the three compounds significantly shortened the sleeping latency and prolonged the sleeping time produced by pentobarbital sodium. CONCLUSIONS: This study clarified that mangiferin, rosmarinic acid and salviaflaside were considered as the anti-insomnia components of P. vulgaris. This is the first study on screening out the active ingredients responsible for evoking the anti-insomnia effect of P. vulgaris. The three compounds of P. vulgaris may help develop one or more drugs to prevent or treat insomnia. Further investigations are recommended to define the mechanism of the anti-insomnia activity of P. vulgaris.

19.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(8): 1979-1994, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131400

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in various human cancers. We aimed to determine the key lncRNAs mediating colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. We identified some lncRNAs aberrantly expressed in CRC tissues by using lncRNA microarrays and demonstrated that SH3PXD2A-AS1 was one of the most highly overexpressed lncRNAs in CRC. We further aimed to explore the roles and possible molecular mechanisms of SH3PXD2A-AS1 in CRC. RNA ISH revealed that SH3PXD2A-AS1 was overexpressed in CRC compared with adjacent normal colon tissues and indicated poor prognosis in CRC. Functional analyses showed that SH3PXD2A-AS1 enhanced cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Mechanistically, SH3PXD2A-AS1 can directly interact with p53 protein and regulate p53-mediated gene transcription in CRC. We provided mechanistic insights into the regulation of SH3PXD2A-AS1 on p53-mediated gene transcription and suggested its potential as a new prognostic biomarker and target for the clinical management of CRC.

20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 139: 62-70, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044265

RESUMO

Delay discounting reflects a devaluation of delayed long-term benefits but pursuing immediate rewards. Higher discounting rates (h-DR) are found ubiquitous in many diseases and unhealthy conditions, particularly in addiction disorder (AD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obesity. Thus, h-DR was considered to be a common benchmark across many diseases facilitating to understand one disease to relevant others, which was called trans-disease process. However, the common and specific neural biomarkers associated with this process has not yet been studied well. We performed a voxel-wise task-related neuroimaging meta-analysis to clarify the neural pattern of trans-disease process across AD, ADHD and obesity. We recruited 19 eligible papers, including 9 AD papers (154 patients), 6 ADHD papers (106 patients) and 4 obesity studies (94 patients). Neuroimaging meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of neural biomarkers of trans-disease process: these patients showed inadequate brain response in caudate, ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) than do of healthy controls (HCs). Disease-specific neural patterns were also found, with prominent hypoactivation in parahippocampal-striatum network for AD, hyperactivation in dopamine-projection striatum network for ADHD and decreased activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dlPFC for obesity. This study provided robust evidence to reveal the neural substrates of trans-disease process, as well further promoted the triple brain network model in favor of the theoretical developments of these neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação
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