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1.
CNS Spectr ; : 1-6, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND.: The antidepressant effect of low-dose ketamine infusion on Taiwanese patients with anxious vs nonanxious treatment-resistant depression (ANX-TRD vs NANX-TRD) has remained unknown. METHODS.: In total, 71 patients with TRD were randomized to three groups. Each group had participants who received saline infusions mixed with 0 (a normal saline infusion), 0.2, and 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine. Participants were followed up for 2 weeks. Anxious depression was defined as major depressive disorder with a total score of 7 or more on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Anxiety-Somatization factor. Generalized estimating equation models were used to investigate the effects of treatment (ketamine vs placebo) and depression type (ANX-TRD vs NANX-TRD) in the reduction of depressive symptoms during the follow-up period. RESULTS.: Patients with ANX-TRD were less likely to respond to a single low-dose ketamine infusion than those with NANX-TRD. Among patients with NANX-TRD, low-dose ketamine infusion was significantly superior to placebo for reducing depressive symptoms. However, among patients with ANX-TRD, ketamine was not superior to placebo; nonetheless, approximately 30% of the patients responded to ketamine infusion compared to 13% who responded to the placebo. CONCLUSIONS.: Low-dose ketamine infusion was effective for Taiwanese patients with NANX-TRD but not so effective for those with ANX-TRD. A higher level of anxiety severity accompanying depression was related to greater depression severity. This may confound and reduce the antidepressant effect of ketamine infusion.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20098, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384482

RESUMO

Bacillus coagulans (PROBACI) bacteria have been examined for efficacy against infectious or inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this observational and cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effects of PROBACI against various functional bowel symptoms.Thirty-eight enrolled patients (36.5 ±â€Š12.6 years) with functional bowel disorders in a gastrointestinal clinic were administered PROBACI (300-mg formulation containing 1 × 10 colony-forming units of B coagulans) twice/day over a 4-week period. Abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and global assessment were evaluated using a 5-point visual analog scale. The defecation characteristics, discomfort level, and effort required for defecation were recorded. The gut-microbiota composition in terms of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was analyzed by 16S-ribosomal RNA gene sequencing with stool samples at days 0, 14, and 28 post-treatment.The 38 patients achieved significant improvements in abdominal pain (2.8 ±â€Š0.5 to 3.3 ±â€Š0.7, P = .0009), abdominal distention (2.5 ±â€Š0.7 to 3.2 ±â€Š0.8, P = .0002), and global assessment (2.7 ±â€Š0.6 to 3.6 ±â€Š0.7, P = .0001) from days 0 to 14. Compared with the diarrhea group, the constipation group achieved greater improvements in terms of discomfort during defecation (2.5 ±â€Š0.7 to 3.1 ±â€Š0.7, P = .02) and normalization of defecation style (50% vs 7.1%, P = .007) by day 28. A difference was observed in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the constipation-dominant group (118.0) and diarrhea-dominant group (319.2), but this difference was not significant.PROBACI provided control of abdominal pain, less discomfort during defecation, and a more normalized defecation style, especially in the constipation-dominant group.


Assuntos
Bacillus coagulans , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Environ Technol ; : 1-23, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431226

RESUMO

The UV-C light emitting diode (LED) has shown numerous advantages over the traditional UV mercury lamp for water sterilization applications. Multi-chip LED array was used to provide sufficient UV fluence for bacteria inactivation in limited time. According to point light source characteristic of LEDs, arrangement of LEDs in the batch reactor is crucial to optimize the inactivation efficiency. In this study, the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated using 280 nm UV-C LED array. Input electrical power, chip interspace (L) and distance (D) between the reactor and water surface were analyzed in terms of their effects on the inactivation of the microorganisms. An optimal inactivation efficiency of E. coli was obtained under the condition of L = D=25 mm to reach 4.0 log without using a magnetic stirrer. Additionally, the increasing rate of log inactivation of E. coli decreased with input power due to significant decrease of wall plug efficiency of the UV-CLEDs.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175870

RESUMO

Identifying motifs in promoter regions is crucial to our understanding of transcription regulation. Researchers commonly use known promoter features in a variety of species to predict promoter motifs. However the results are not particularly useful. Different species rarely have similar features in promoter binding sites. In this study, we adopt sequence analysis techniques to find the possible promoter binding sites among all species. We sought to improve the existing algorithm to suit the task of mining sequential patterns with specific number of gaps. Moreover, we discuss the implementation of proposed method in a distributed environment. The proposed method finds the transcription start sites (TSS) and extracts possible promoter regions from DNA sequences according to TSS. We derived the motifs in the possible promoter regions, while taking into account the number of gaps in the motifs to deal with unimportant nucleotides. The motifs generated from promoter regions using the proposed methodology were shown to tolerate unimportant nucleotides. A comparison with known promoter motifs verified the efficacy of the proposed method.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(11): 5282-5292, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083852

RESUMO

Human endo-O-sulfatases (Sulf-1 and Sulf-2) are extracellular heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-specific 6-O-endosulfatases, which regulate a multitude of cell-signaling events through heparan sulfate (HS)-protein interactions and are associated with the onset of osteoarthritis. These endo-O-sulfatases are transported onto the cell surface to liberate the 6-sulfate groups from the internal d-glucosamine residues in the highly sulfated subdomains of HSPGs. In this study, a variety of HS oligosaccharides with different chain lengths and N- and O-sulfation patterns via chemical synthesis were systematically studied about the substrate specificity of human Sulf-1 employing the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl sulfate (4-MUS) in a competition assay. The trisaccharide sulfate IdoA2S-GlcNS6S-IdoA2S was found to be the minimal-size substrate for Sulf-1, and substitution of the sulfate group at the 6-O position of the d-glucosamine unit with the sulfonamide motif effectively inhibited the Sulf-1 activity with IC50 = 0.53 µM, Ki = 0.36 µM, and KD = 12 nM.

6.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051138

RESUMO

AIMS: To report the clinical manifestations, ultrastructure and evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic lamellar keratectomy (TLK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for microsporidial stromal keratitis (MSK). METHODS: Fourteen MSK cases between 2009 and 2018 were recruited. Each patient's clinical presentation, light microscopy, histopathology, PCR and electron microscopy (EM) of corneal samples were reviewed. RESULTS: The patients were 70.0±4.7 years old (average follow-up, 4.5 years). Time from symptoms to presentation was 10.6±13.0 weeks. The corneal manifestations were highly variable. Corneal scrapings revealed Gram stain positivity in 12 cases (85.7%) and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain positivity in 9 (64.3%). Histopathology revealed spores in all specimens, while sequencing of small subunit rRNA-based PCR products identified Vittaforma corneae in 82% of patients. EM demonstrated various forms of microsporidial sporoplasm in corneal keratocytes. All patients were treated with topical antimicrobial agents or combined with oral antiparasitic medications for >3 weeks. As all patients were refractory to medical therapy, they ultimately underwent surgical intervention (TLK in 7, PK in 6 and 1 received TLK first, followed by PK). Postoperatively, the infection was resolved in 78.6% of the patients. Nevertheless, a high recurrence rate (21.4%) was noted during 3-year follow-up, with only two patients retained a final visual acuity ≥20/100. CONCLUSION: MSK usually presents with a non-specific corneal infiltration refractory to antimicrobial therapy. The diagnosis relies on light microscopic examinations on corneal scrapings and histopathological analyses. Surgical intervention is warranted by limiting the infection; however, it was associated with an overall poor outcome.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102168

RESUMO

This research mainly aims at the construction of the novel acceleration pedal, the brake pedal and the steering system by mechanical designs and mechatronics technologies, an approach of which is rarely seen in Taiwan. Three highlights can be addressed: 1. The original steering parts were removed with the fault tolerance design being implemented so that the basic steering function can still remain in case of the function failure of the control system. 2. A larger steering angle of the front wheels in response to a specific rotated angle of the steering wheel is devised when cornering or parking at low speed in interest of drivability, while a smaller one is designed at high speed in favor of driving stability. 3. The operating patterns of the throttle, brake, and steering wheel can be customized in accordance with various driving environments and drivers' requirements using the self-developed software. The implementation of a steer-by-wire system in the remote driving control for a go kart is described in this study. The mechatronic system is designed in order to support the conversion from human driving to autonomous driving for the go kart in the future. The go kart, using machine vision, is wirelessly controlled in the WiFi frequency bands. The steer-by-wire system was initially modeled as a standalone system for one wheel and subsequently developed into its complete form, including front wheel steering components, acceleration components, brake components, a microcontroller, drive circuit and digital to analog converter. The control output section delivers the commands to the subsystem controllers, relays and converters. The remote driving control of the go kart is activated when proper commands are sent by the vehicle control unit (VCU). All simulation and experiment results demonstrated that the control strategies of duel motors and the VCU control were successfully optimized. The feasibility study and performance evaluation of Taiwan's go karts will be conducted as an extension of this study in the near future.

8.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 42, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous individual studies have shown the differences in inflammatory cytokines and gray matter volumes between bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar depression (UD). However, few studies have investigated the association between pro-inflammatory cytokines and differences in brain gray matter volumes between BD and UD. METHODS: In this study, 72 BD patients and 64 UD patients were enrolled, with comparable gender and age distributions (33.8% males and an average age of 39.3 ± 13.7 years). Each participant underwent metabolic profiling (including body mass index (BMI), glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, insulin, adiponectin), pro-inflammatory cytokine (including soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNF-R1) examinations, and structural magnetic resonance imaging exams. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate the gray matter volume differences between BD and UD patients. Correlations between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the gray matter volume difference were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared to UD patients, the BD group had significantly higher BMI, and higher levels of sIL-6R and sTNF-R1 than the UD patients. The BMI significantly correlated with the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Adjusted for age, sex, BMI, duration of illness and total intracranial volume, the BD individuals had significantly more reduced gray matter volumes over 12 areas: R. cerebellar lobule VIII, R. putamen, L. putamen, R. superior frontal gyrus, L. lingual gyrus, L. precentral gyrus, R. fusiform gyrus, L. calcarine, R. precuneus, L. inferior temporal gyrus, L. hippocampus, and L. superior frontal gyrus. These 12 gray matter volume differences between BP and UD patients negatively correlated with sIL-6R and sTNF-R1 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that BD patients had higher BMI and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in comparison to UD patients, especially IL-6 and sTNF-R1, which may contribute to greater gray matter reductions in BD patients in comparison to UD patients. The results support the neuro-inflammation pathophysiology mechanism in mood disorder. It is clinically important to monitor BMI, which, in this investigation, positively correlated with levels of inflammatory cytokines.

9.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054719900232, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971056

RESUMO

Objective: ADHD potentially leads to risky sexual behaviors, and is considered a major risk factor for early pregnancy (EP). However, the association between ADHD and subsequent EP remains unknown. Method: Seven thousand five hundred five adolescents with ADHD and 30,020 age- and sex-matched individuals without ADHD were enrolled from 2001 to 2009 and were followed until the end of 2011. Adolescents who developed any pregnancy (at age ≤30 years) or EP (at age <20 years) during the follow-up period were identified. Results: Adolescents with ADHD were found to be prone to pregnancy (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27) and EP (HR = 2.30) compared with those without ADHD. Long-term ADHD medication use was related to a lower risk of subsequent any pregnancy (HR = 0.72) and EP (HR = 0.69). Conclusion: Adolescents with ADHD had an increased risk of any pregnancy and EP compared with their non-ADHD counterparts. Long-term ADHD medication use was associated with a lower subsequent EP risk.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have an increased risk of the major psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, OCD, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), remains unclear. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database with the whole population sample size (n = 23 258 175), 89 500 FDRs, including parents, offspring, siblings, and twins, of patients with OCD were identified in our study. The relative risks (RRs) of major psychiatric disorders were assessed among FDRs of patients with OCD. RESULTS: FDRs of patients with OCD had higher RRs of major psychiatric disorders, namely OCD (RR 8.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.68-8.57), bipolar disorder (RR 2.85, 95% CI 2.68-3.04), MDD (RR 2.67, 95% CI 2.58-2.76), ASD (RR 2.38, 95% CI 2.10-2.71), ADHD (RR 2.19, 95% CI 2.07-2.32), and schizophrenia (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.86-2.09), compared with the total population. Different familial kinships of FDRs, such as parents, offspring, siblings, and twins consistently had increased risks for these disorders. In addition, a dose-dependent relationship was found between the numbers of OCD probands and the risk of each major psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The FDRs, including parents, offspring, siblings, and twins, of patients with OCD have a higher risk of OCD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, MDD, ADHD, and ASD. The familial co-aggregation of OCD with OCD and other major psychiatric disorders was existent in a dose-dependent manner. Given the increased risks of psychiatric disorders, medical practitioners should closely monitor the mental health of the FDRs of patients with OCD.

11.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that causes relapsing inflammation and severe mucosal damage in the intestine. Crohn's disease (CD)-related stricturing complications are a major cause of surgery, disability, and reduced quality of life. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) has been shown to reliably delay or prevent surgery in patients with stricturing CD. However, cases of EBD performed for stricture in CD in Taiwan are rare. In this study, we want to evaluate the experiences regarding EBD for stricturing CD in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 9 medical centers in Taiwan. Patients with CD-related strictures who were treated with EBD were included and analyzed. RESULTS: In nine medical centers, a total of 26 CD patients (19 male, 7 female, mean disease duration 75.4 ± 65.2 months) underwent 42 EBD procedures during the study period. Among the subjects, an 83.3% (35/42) EBD success rate was seen, but 26.9% (7/26) patients underwent surgery after ineffective EBD. In the surgery group, the the small bowel strictures was high compared with the non-surgery group (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in disease phenotype, disease duration or history of fistulizing disease. In the surgery group, immunosuppressant use was high, and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) use was low compared with the non-surgery group. After EBD, the physicians tended to change the drugs, especially increasing the use of biologic agents. CONCLUSION: EBD is a safe and effective procedure for CD-related stricture, with a 83.3% success rate in Taiwan.

12.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 131-136, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950864

RESUMO

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a potential biomarker of cardiovascular disease complications and severity. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with an increased risk of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum OPG levels and PAD by measuring the ankle-brachial index (ABI) of patients on PD. A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to measure OPG values. Left or right ABI values of <0.9 were categorized as the low ABI group. Among 70 patients on PD, 13 (18.6%) were categorized in the low ABI group. Patients in the low ABI group had higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (p = .044) and higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < .001) and OPG levels (p < .001) but lower creatinine (p = .013) and peritoneal Kt/V (p = .048) levels than those in the normal ABI group. Results of multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that OPG [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.027, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.010-1.045, p = .002] and CRP (aOR 1.102, 95% CI 1.006-1.207, p = .037) levels were independent predictors of PAD in patients on PD. OPG can also be used to predict PAD development with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.823 (95% CI: 0.714-0.904, p < .001) in patients on PD. Therefore, serum OPG and CRP levels can be considered as risk factors for PAD development in patients on PD.

13.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112785, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have impaired social cognition and communication. However, the functioning of the brain networks involved in the social cognition and communication impairment in ADHD patients remains unclear. METHODS: In total, 18 adolescents with ADHD and 16 age- and sex-matched typically developing adolescents (controls)-all of whom underwent a brain magnetic resonance imaging examination-were enrolled. Their parents filled out Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV (SNAP-IV) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) questionnaires. Functional connectivity analyses based on the default mode network, frontoparietal network, and cinguloopercular network were performed. RESULTS: Compared with controls, adolescents with ADHD exhibited higher total and subscale scores on SNAP-IV and SRS. Higher SNAP-IV and SRS scores were associated with higher functional connectivity between the default mode network (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and cinguloopercular network (anterior insula) and between the FPN (dorsolateral and prefrontal cortex) and cinguloopercular network, but with lower functional connectivity between the default mode network (posterior cingulate cortex) and frontoparietal network (inferior parietal lobule) and between the default mode network (precuneus) and cinguloopercular network (temporoparietal junction). DISCUSSION: Social cognition and communication impairment and ADHD may commonly share the aberrant functional connectivity in the default mode network, frontoparietal network, and cinguloopercular network.

14.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(2): 105823, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622653

RESUMO

ß-Lactams are well known as the best antibiotics for inhibiting the cross-linking between adjacent polysaccharide chains and peptides in the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls, causing bacterial cell lysis. There are no reports on the action of and resistance mechanisms to ß-lactams in protozoa. Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living protozoan pathogen capable of causing blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. When Acanthamoeba is exposed to harsh conditions, it differentiates into the cyst stage to avoid environmental stresses, such as drug treatment. In this study, it was shown that the mature encystation rate of A. castellanii is decreased by treatment with cefotaxime (CTX) and clavulanic acid (CLA); however, the drugs do not kill the amoeba. We hypothesise that ß-lactam antibiotics may disturb synthesis of the double cell wall during the encystation process of Acanthamoeba. Interestingly, CTX is considered a powerful ß-lactam, whereas CLA is considered a weak ß-lactam but an efficient ß-lactamase inhibitor. It was demonstrated that Acanthamoeba expresses ß-lactamases to prevent inhibition of the encystation process by ß-lactams. To reveal the functions of Acanthamoeba ß-lactamases, a recombinant Acanthamoeba ß-lactamase was produced in Escherichia coli that conferred resistance to ß-lactams such as CTX, cefuroxime, penicillin and meropenem. Consequently, we suggest that Acanthamoeba produces enzymes similar to ß-lactamases to avoid interference from the environment. Here we provide a new point of view on an important gene responsible for drug resistance and advocate for the development of more efficient treatment against Acanthamoeba infection.

15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 443-450, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged intermittent theta burst stimulation (piTBS) with triple doses of the standard protocol is an updated form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and it is an effective add-on intervention for major depressive disorder. In the present study, our objective was to investigate the antidepressant efficacy of piTBS monotherapy. Efficacy between the standard 5-cm method and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided coil positioning to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex method was also compared. METHODS: In the present double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial, 105 patients with recurrent depression who exhibited no responses to at least one adequate antidepressant treatment for the prevailing episode were assigned randomly to one of three groups: piTBS monotherapy (n = 35), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation monotherapy (n = 35), or sham stimulation (n = 35). The acute treatment period was 2 weeks. Half of the patients were randomized to MRI navigation in each group. RESULTS: No serious adverse events were observed. The piTBS group exhibited significantly greater decreases in depression scores than the sham group at week 2 (-40.0% vs. -13.9%; p < .001 after correcting for multiple comparisons by Bonferroni [effect size (Cohen's d) = 1.12]), and the odds ratio for responses was high. The MRI navigation method (-32.4%) did not yield better antidepressant effects than the standard method (-40.6%). Brain stimulation and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale changes in the first week were the most important variables for predicting antidepressant responses. CONCLUSIONS: Left prefrontal piTBS monotherapy is effective for the treatment of recurrent depression, and the MRI-guided method of coil targeting is not better than the standard method.

16.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 414, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was emerging as a worldwide epidemic disease, and the advanced therapy changed the clinical course and possibly the outcomes. Our previous study reported a higher mortality rate from (IBD) in Taiwan than in Western countries. We proposed to analyze the trend and risk factors of mortality in order to improve the care quality of IBD patients. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted to analyze data for January 2001 to December 2015 from a registered database, compiled by the Taiwan's National Health Insurance. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2015, a total of 3806 IBD patients [Crohn's disease (CD): 919; ulcerative colitis (UC): 2887] were registered as having catastrophic illness, and 8.2% of these patients died during follow-up. The standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of CD and UC were 3.72 (95% CI 3.02-4.55) and 1.44 (95% CI 1.26-1.65), respectively, from 2001 to 2015, respectively. A comparison of the periods of 2011-2015 and 2001-2005 revealed a decrease in the mortality rates from both UC and CD. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified elderly individuals; sepsis and pneumonia were the risk factors for IBD mortality. The specific risk factors of mortality were liver cancer for UC and surgeries for CD. CONCLUSION: For further decreasing IBD-related mortality in Taiwan, we need to pay special attention toward elderly individuals, infection control, cancer screening and improvement in perioperative care.

17.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847255

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba are a free-living protozoan whose pathogenic strain can cause severe human diseases, such as granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis. As such, the pathogenic mechanism between humans and Acanthamoeba is still unknown. In our previous study, we identified the secreted Acanthamoeba M28 aminopeptidase (M28AP) and then suggested that M28AP can degrade human C3b and iC3b for inhibiting the destruction of Acanthamoeba spp. with the human immune response. We constructed the produced the recombinant M28AP from a CHO cell, which is a mammalian expression system, to characterize the biochemical properties of Acanthamoeba M28AP. The recombinant M28AP more rapidly hydrolyzed Leu-AMC than Arg-AMC and could be inhibited by EDTA treatment. We show that recombinant M28AP can be delivered into the individual cell line and cause cell line apoptosis in a co-culture model. In conclusion, we successfully investigated the potential molecular characteristics of M28AP.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba/enzimologia , Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Complemento C3b/química , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Acanthamoeba/patogenicidade , Aminopeptidases/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Células CHO , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Complemento C3b/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/parasitologia , Humanos , Hidrólise , Proteólise , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) protein is widely present in eukaryotes from vertebrates to protozoa. However, there are several variants within species, and previous studies have shown evidence that they may have additional functions. There are two SBDS-related proteins in Acanthamoeba. One is an rRNA metabolism protein of the SBDS family (ACA1_142090), and the other is SBDS (ACA1_204560). Although there is a conserved SBDS domain in the Acanthamoeba SBDS (ACA1_204560; AcSBDS), its function has not been reported. The aims of this study were to characterize the expression of AcSBDS during phagocytosis and encystation. METHODS: AcSBDS-specific primer was designed to amplify the genomic AcSBDS of Acanthamoeba ATCC-30010. The AcSBDS expression was examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining after phagocytosis and encystation treatment. RESULTS: In this study, we found that the mRNA expression level of AcSBDS increased rapidly and that alternative splice variants were detected during phagocytosis and encystation processes. The results of immunofluorescence staining showed that the AcSBDS proteins accumulated surrounding phagocytosed bacteria. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that AcSBDS may not only have ribosomal maturation features but also have cytoskeleton-associated functions related to phagocytosis and encystation.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Affective disorders are associated with increased risk of dementia, yet most studies focus on the association of major depressive disorder or depressive episodes of bipolar disorder with increased dementia risk. The association of manic/mixed episodes of bipolar disorder with increased dementia risk is unclear. PARTICIPANTS: Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009, 20,535 individuals aged 45-80 years with bipolar disorder and 82,140 age- and sex-matched comparisons were enrolled and followed up to December 2011 in Taiwan. Those who developed dementia (ICD-9-CM codes: 290.0-290.4, 294.1-294.2, and 331.0-331.2) during the follow-up period were identified. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship between manic/mixed/depressive episodes of bipolar disorder and incident dementia. We also assessed the association between the frequency of psychiatric admissions (total, manic/mixed, and depressive episodes per year) for bipolar disorder and dementia risk. RESULTS: Bipolar disorder was associated with increased risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.86-8.25). Greater frequency of manic/mixed (>2/year: HR: 4.50, 3.50-5.79; 1-2/year: HR: 3.17, 2.31-4.36) and depressive episodes (>2/year: HR: 7.84, 5.93-10.36; 1-2/year: HR: 2.93, 2.05-4.19) were associated with increased risk of incident dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Not only depressive episode of bipolar disorder, but manic/mixed episodes of bipolar play a role as a risk factor of incident dementia, especially for those patients with more than two manic/mixed episodes per year. These findings remind the clinicians the importance of preventing the relapse of bipolar disorder for the potential subsequent cognitive decline and disease.

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