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1.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(1): 132-141, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975307

RESUMO

The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth development. Nevertheless, how the ligands, receptors, and antagonists of the FGF pathway are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions remains largely unknown. Miniature pigs exhibit tooth anatomy and replacement patterns like those in humans and hence can serve as large animal models. The present study investigated the spatiotemporal expression patterns of critical genes encoding FGF ligands (FGF3, FGF4, FGF7, and FGF9), antagonists (SPRY2 and SPRY4) and receptors (FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3) in the third deciduous molars of miniature pigs at the cap (embryonic day 40, E40), early bell (E50), and late bell (E60) stages. The results of in situ hybridization (ISH) with tyramide signal amplification and of qRT-PCR analysis revealed increased expression of FGF7, FGFR1, FGFR2, and SPRY4 in dental epithelium and of FGF7 and FGFR1 in mesenchyme from E40 to E50. In contrast, the results revealed decreased expression of FGF3, FGF4, FGF9, and FGFR3 in dental epithelium and of FGF4, FGF9, FGFR2, and FGFR3 in the mesenchyme from E40 to E60. Mesenchyme signals of FGF3, FGF4, FGF7, SPRY2, FGFR2, and FGFR3 were concentrated in the odontoblast layer from E50 to E60. The distinct expression patterns of these molecules indicated elaborate regulation during dental morphogenesis. Our results provide a foundation for further investigation into fine-tuning dental morphogenesis and odontogenesis by controlling interactions between dental epithelium and mesenchyme, thus promoting tooth regeneration in large mammals.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126940, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419850

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to fabricate quaternized polyethylenimine-cellulose fibers (QPCFs) for the fast recovery of Au(I) from alkaline e-waste leachate. QPCFs were prepared by quaternizing PEI-modified cellulose fibers using a (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride solution. The maximum Au(I) adsorption capacity of QPCFs was estimated to be 109.87 ± 3.67 mg/g at pH 9.5 using the Langmuir model. The values of k1 and k2 calculated by the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order models were 1.79 ± 0.15 min-1 and 0.045 ± 0.003 g/mg min, respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 5 min. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the Au(I) adsorption process by the QPCFs was spontaneous (ΔG° < 0) and exothermic (ΔH° < 0). The characterization and adsorption mechanism of QPCFs were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Quaternary amine sites were well developed in the QPCFs. Oxidation or reduction of adsorbed Au(I) was not observed. When QPCFs were applied to the solution obtained by bioleaching of e-waste, the recovery efficiencies of Au and Cu were 61.7 ± 3.1% and 11.1 ± 2.9%, respectively, indicating that QPCFs have Au selectivity. Therefore, QPCFs are suitable for actual wastewater applications because of their high adsorption performance and fast adsorption rate.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Celulose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Polietilenoimina , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 881-887, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371431

RESUMO

While chemical methods are often used to convert graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO), chemical reduction is often environmentally unfriendly due to the high toxicity of many chemical reducing agents. To address this limitation, Bacillus sphaericus was used here for the green reduction of GO to RGO. Successful reduction was confirmed by various advanced characterization techniques including Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). With a new peak attributable to RGO at 261 nm appearing in UV-vis and XRD spectra of the reduced product also developed a new peak at 2θ = 24.6° characteristic of RGO. Successful reduction was also supported by Raman spectroscopy which showed that the ratio of the intensity band (D band: G band) increased from 0.99 to 1.17. FTIR and XPS both confirmed that specific OH (3399 cm-1), CO (1734 cm-1) and COC (287 eV) bonds were reduced. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the produced RGO exhibited good conductivity (changed from 0.8 to 1.1 mW·cm-2). This work developed a green and easy operated method of synthesizing RGO using microorganisms.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Grafite , Bacillaceae , Óxidos
4.
Neuroscience ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848262

RESUMO

Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss (ARHL), is primarily associated with sensory or transduction nerve cell degeneration in the peripheral and/or central auditory systems. During aging, the auditory system shows mitochondrial dysfunction and increased inflammatory responses. Mitochondrial dysfunction promotes leakage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol, which activates the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway to induce type I interferon and inflammatory responses. However, whether this pathway is involved in the occurrence and development of ARHL is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether there are age-related changes in the levels of cytosolic mtDNA and cGAS-STING pathway activation in the auditory pathway and to explore their relationship with ARHL. The results showed that cGAS-positive immunoreactive cells were observed in the cochlea, inferior colliculus, and auditory cortex. Levels of cytosolic mtDNA, cGAS, STING, phosphorylated interferon regulatory factor 3, and cytokines were significantly increased in the cochlea, inferior colliculus, and auditory cortex of 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old mice compared with 3-month-old mice. These findings suggested that cytosolic mtDNA may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ARHL by activating cGAS-STING-mediated type I interferon and inflammatory responses.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823852

RESUMO

The presence of residual antibiotics will lead to potential environmental risks. Here cyclodextrins (CDs) were successfully used to modify graphene-based iron nanoparticles (GO@Fe NPs) to enhance the absorption of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC). The removal of OTC decreased in the order: γCD-GO@Fe NPs > ßCD-GO@Fe NPs > αCD-GO@Fe NPs > GO@Fe NPs, with better performance than that of bare GO and Fe NPs. Characterization techniques were applied to better understand how CDs impact the structure of GO@Fe NPs and improve removal performance. Raman and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that GO acted as a carrier to support Fe NPs within the grafted cyclodextrin, where GO also participated in the removal process. Cyclodextrin modified GO@Fe NPs had relatively small particle sizes (15 nm), with a high surface area (61.7 m2 · g-1). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that cyclodextrin acted as both a stabilizing and capping agent during green synthesis, which could protect the reactivity of Fe NPs and simultaneously reduce aggregation. A potential synthesis mechanism of cyclodextrins modified composites was also proposed, and subsequent wastewater testing indicated that γCD-GO@Fe NPs had high potential for practical applications.

6.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933278, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Sodium salicylate (SS) induces excitotoxicity of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by inhibiting the response of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Our previous studies have shown that SS can increase the internalization of GABAARs on SGNs, which involves dopamine D1-like receptors (D1Rs) and related signaling pathways. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of D1Rs and their downstream molecule protein kinase C (PKC) in the process of SS inhibiting GABAARs. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of D1Rs and GABARγ2 on rat cochlear SGNs cultured in vitro was tested by immunofluorescence. Then, the SGNs were exposed to SS, D1R agonist (SKF38393), D1R antagonist (SCH23390), clathrin/dynamin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor (dynasore), and PKC inhibitor (Bisindolylmaleimide I). Western blotting and whole-cell patch clamp technique were used to assess the changes of surface and total protein of GABARγ2 and GABA-activated currents. RESULTS Immunofluorescence showed that D1 receptors (DRD1) were expressed on SGNs. Data from western blotting showed that SS promoted the internalization of cell surface GABAARs, and activating D1Rs had the same result. Inhibiting D1Rs and PKC decreased the internalization of GABAARs. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation level of GABAARγ2 S327 affected by PKC was positively correlated with the degree of internalization of GABAARs. Moreover, whole-cell patch clamp recording showed that inhibition of D1Rs or co-inhibition of D1Rs and PKC attenuated the inhibitory effect of SS on GABA-activated currents. CONCLUSIONS D1Rs mediate the GABAAR internalization induced by SS via a PKC-dependent manner and participate in the excitotoxic process of SGNs.

7.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 46(11): 1006-1011, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) involves an increased excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to sympathetic nerve stimulation and circulating norepinephrine. The current treatment of SMP has limited efficacy, and hence more mechanistic insights into this intractable pain condition are urgently needed. METHODS: A caudal trunk transection (CTT) model of neuropathic pain was established in mice.Immunofluorescence staining, small interfering RNA, pharmacological and electrophysiological studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that norepinephrine increases the excitability of small-diameter DRG neurons from CTT mice through the activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-protein kinase G (cGMP-PKG) signaling pathway. RESULTS: Behavior study showed that CTT mice developed mechanical and heat hypersensitivities, which were attenuated by intraperitoneal injection of guanethidine. CTT mice also showed an abnormal sprouting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nerve fibers in DRG, and an increased excitability of small-diameter DRG neurons to norepinephrine, suggesting that CTT is a useful model to study SMP. Importantly, inhibiting cGMP-PKG pathway with small interfering RNA and KT5823 attenuated the increased sympathetic sensitivity in CTT mice. In contrast, cGMP activators (Sp-cGMP, 8-Br-cGMP) further increased sympathetic sensitivity. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel, which is a downstream target of PKG, may contribute to the adrenergic modulation of DRG neuron excitability. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest an important role of cGMP-PKG signaling pathway in the increased excitability of small-diameter DRG neurons to norepinephrine after CTT, which involves an inhibition of the ATP-sensitive potassium currents through PKG-induced phosphorylation. Accordingly, drugs targeting this pathway may help to treat SMP.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico , Neuralgia , Animais , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Canais KATP/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 729560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527014

RESUMO

MicroRNAs fine-tune plant growth and resistance against multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. The trade-off between biomass and resistance can penalize crop yield. In this study, we have shown that rice miR530 regulates blast disease resistance, yield, and growth period. While the overexpression of miR530 results in compromised blast disease resistance, reduced grain yield, and late maturity, blocking miR530 using a target mimic (MIM530) leads to enhanced resistance, increased grain yield, and early maturity. Further study revealed that the accumulation of miR530 was decreased in both leaves and panicles along with the increase of age. Such expression patterns were accordant with the enhanced resistance from seedlings to adult plants, and the grain development from panicle formation to fully-filled seeds. Divergence analysis of miR530 precursor with upstream 1,000-bp promoter sequence in 11 rice species revealed that miR530 was diverse in Oryza sativa japonica and O. sativa indica group, which was consistent with the different accumulation of miR530 in japonica accessions and indica accessions. Altogether, our results indicate that miR530 coordinates rice resistance, yield, and maturity, thus providing a potential regulatory module for breeding programs aiming to improve yield and disease resistance.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17836, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497318

RESUMO

For the first time, a polyethyleneimine-impregnated alginate capsule (PEIIAC) with a high adsorption capacity is developed for the recovery of monovalent and trivalent gold from an acidic solution. The strategy results in a new type of adsorbent, polyethyleneimine impregnated alginate capsule (PEIIAC) with a core-shell structure having a large number of amine groups as cationic binding site, facilitating maximum uptake of anionic auric chloride. The maximum uptake of PEIIAC was 3078 and 929 mg/g for Au (III) and Au (I), respectively, are recordable compared to other reported adsorbents to date. The as-prepared material was executed to check the sorption efficacy for Au (III) and Au (I) in the pH range of 1-12. With an increment in pH, the uptake capacity for Au (III) increased, while the uptake capacity for Au (I) decreased. The FTIR, XRD, and XPS studies revealed that the gold adsorption mechanism includes ionic interactions and reduction, wherein the amine, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups are involved. The capsule showed a higher adsorption efficiency than other reported sorbents, making the material applicable in acidic solutions for the recovery of Au (I) and Au (III).

10.
Oncogene ; 40(35): 5441-5450, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285345

RESUMO

Great progress has been made in the investigation on mutation and expression of splicing factor. However, little is known on the role of alternative splicing of splicing factors across cancers. Here, we reported a pan-cancer analysis of alternative splicing of splicing factors spanning 6904 patients across 16 cancer types, and identified 167 splicing factors with implications regulating cancer-specific splicing patterns through alternative splicing. Furthermore, we found that abnormal splicing events of splicing factors could serve as potential common regulators for alternative splicing in different cancers. In addition, we developed a splicing-derived neoepitopes database (ASPNs), which provided the corresponding putative alternative splicing-derived neoepitopes of 16 cancer types. Our results suggested that alternative splicing of splicing factors involved in the pre-RNA splicing process was common across cancer types and may represent an underestimated hallmark of tumorigenesis.

11.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 52, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282123

RESUMO

Given the chronic inflammatory nature of Parkinson's disease (PD), T cell immunity may be important for disease onset. Here, we performed single-cell transcriptome and TCR sequencing, and conducted integrative analyses to decode composition, function and lineage relationship of T cells in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of PD. Combined expression and TCR-based lineage tracking, we discovered a large population of CD8+ T cells showing continuous progression from central memory to terminal effector T cells in PD patients. Additionally, we identified a group of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4 CTLs) remarkably expanded in PD patients, which derived from Th1 cells by TCR-based fate decision. Finally, we screened putative TCR-antigen pairs that existed in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid of PD patients to provide potential evidence for peripheral T cells to participate in neuronal degeneration. Our study provides valuable insights and rich resources for understanding the adaptive immune response in PD.

12.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 20(10): 1809-1819, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253595

RESUMO

Dual bromodomain BET inhibitors that bind with similar affinities to the first and second bromodomains across BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT have displayed modest activity as monotherapy in clinical trials. Thrombocytopenia, closely followed by symptoms characteristic of gastrointestinal toxicity, have presented as dose-limiting adverse events that may have prevented escalation to higher dose levels required for more robust efficacy. ABBV-744 is a highly selective inhibitor for the second bromodomain of the four BET family proteins. In contrast to the broad antiproliferative activities observed with dual bromodomain BET inhibitors, ABBV-744 displayed significant antiproliferative activities largely although not exclusively in cancer cell lines derived from acute myeloid leukemia and androgen receptor positive prostate cancer. Studies in acute myeloid leukemia xenograft models demonstrated antitumor efficacy for ABBV-744 that was comparable with the pan-BET inhibitor ABBV-075 but with an improved therapeutic index. Enhanced antitumor efficacy was also observed with the combination of ABBV-744 and the BCL-2 inhibitor, venetoclax compared with monotherapies of either agent alone. These results collectively support the clinical evaluation of ABBV-744 in AML (Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT03360006).

13.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 703, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130646

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Cancer stemness is associated with metastases in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) and negatively correlates with immune infiltrates. Recent stemness evaluation methods based on the absolute expression have been proposed to reveal the relationship between stemness and cancer. However, we found that existing methods do not perform well in assessing the stemness of KIRC patients, and they overlooked the impact of alternative splicing. Alternative splicing not only progresses during the differentiation of stem cells, but also changes during the acquisition of the stemness features of cancer stem cells. There is an urgent need for a new method to predict KIRC-specific stemness more accurately, so as to provide help in selecting treatment options. METHODS: The corresponding RNA-Seq data were obtained from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal. We also downloaded stem cell RNA sequence data from the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium (PCBC) Synapse Portal. Independent validation sets with large sample size and common clinic pathological characteristics were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. we constructed a KIRC-specific stemness prediction model using an algorithm called one-class logistic regression based on the expression and alternative splicing data to predict stemness indices of KIRC patients, and the model was externally validated. We identify stemness-associated alternative splicing events (SASEs) by analyzing different alternative splicing event between high- and low- stemness groups. Univariate Cox and multivariable logistic regression analysisw as carried out to detect the prognosis-related SASEs respectively. The area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed to evaluate the predictive values of our model. RESULTS: Here, we constructed a KIRC-specific stemness prediction model with an AUC of 0.968,and to provide a user-friendly interface of our model for KIRC stemness analysis, we have developed KIRC Stemness Calculator and Visualization (KSCV), hosted on the Shiny server, can most easily be accessed via web browser and the url https://jiang-lab.shinyapps.io/kscv/ . When applied to 605 KIRC patients, our stemness indices had a higher correlation with the gender, smoking history and metastasis of the patients than the previous stemness indices, and revealed intratumor heterogeneity at the stemness level. We identified 77 novel SASEs by dividing patients into high- and low- stemness groups with significantly different outcome and they had significant correlations with expression of 17 experimentally validated splicing factors. Both univariate and multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that SASEs closely correlated with the overall survival of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Basing on the stemness indices, we found that not only immune infiltration but also alternative splicing events showed significant different at the stemness level. More importantly, we highlight the critical role of these differential alternative splicing events in poor prognosis, and we believe in the potential for their further translation into targets for immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015809

RESUMO

The world is facing a pandemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Adaptive immune responses are essential for SARS-CoV-2 virus clearance. Although a large body of studies have been conducted to investigate the immune mechanism in COVID-19 patients, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the BCR repertoire in patients. In this study, we used the single-cell V(D)J sequencing to characterize the BCR repertoire across convalescent COVID-19 patients. We observed that the BCR diversity was significantly reduced in disease compared with healthy controls. And BCRs tend to skew toward different V gene segments in COVID-19 and healthy controls. The CDR3 sequences of heavy chain in clonal BCRs in patients were more convergent than that in healthy controls. In addition, we discovered increased IgG and IgA isotypes in the disease, including IgG1, IgG3 and IgA1. In all clonal BCRs, IgG isotypes had the most frequent class switch recombination events and the highest somatic hypermutation rate, especially IgG3. Moreover, we found that an IgG3 cluster from different clonal groups had the same IGHV, IGHJ and CDR3 sequences (IGHV4-4-CARLANTNQFYDSSSYLNAMDVW-IGHJ6). Overall, our study provides a comprehensive characterization of the BCR repertoire in COVID-19 patients, which contributes to the understanding of the mechanism for the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Éxons VDJ/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/genética , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência , Análise de Célula Única , Éxons VDJ/imunologia
15.
ACS Omega ; 6(20): 13057-13065, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056455

RESUMO

The ion/molecular imprinting technique is an efficient method for developing materials with high adsorption selectivity. However, it is still difficult to obtain an imprinted adsorbent with desirably high selectivity when the preparation processes are not well designed and optimized. In this present work, a chitosan-based ion-imprinted adsorbent was optimally prepared through Box-Behnken experimental design to achieve desirably high selectivity for Pd anions (PdCl4 2-) from aqueous solutions with high acidity. The dosage of epichlorohydrin (ECH) used in the first and second steps of cross-linking as well as the pH of the imprinting reaction medium is likely one of the key factors affecting the selectivity of the synthesized ion-imprinted chitosan adsorbent, which were selected as factors in a three-level factorial Box-Behnken design. As a result, the effects of these three factors on Pd(II) selectivity were able to be described by using a second-order polynomial model with a high regression coefficient (R 2; 0.996). The obtained optimal conditions via the response surface methodology were 0.10% (v/v) of first cross-linking ECH, an imprinting pH of 1.0, and 1.00% of second cross-linking ECH. Competitive adsorption was performed to investigate the selectivities of the ion-imprinted chitosan adsorbents prepared under the optimal conditions. The selectivity coefficient of Pd(II) versus Pt(IV) (ßPd/Pt) of the Pd(II)-imprinted adsorbent was 115.83, much greater than that of the chitosan adsorbent without imprinting and various reported selective adsorbents. Therefore, the Box-Behnken design can be a useful method for optimizing the synthesis of ion-imprinted adsorbents with desirably high adsorptive selectivity for precious metals.

17.
Oncol Rep ; 45(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649843

RESUMO

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells­1 (TREM1) is a cell­surface protein expressed on tumor­associated macrophages (TAMs), the predominant inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment; however, the mechanisms for the influence of TREM1 on TAM polarization during liver cancer progression have not been investigated. In the present study, 20 patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent surgery were enrolled, and TREM1 expression on M1/M2 macrophages and on M2 macrophages was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Human leukemia monocytic cells (THP­1) were differentiated into M2 macrophages using phorbol 12­myristate 13­acetate, IL­4 and IL­13. A specific short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown TREM1 expression. To investigate the effects of TREM1 downregulation in macrophages on the migration and invasion of liver cancer cells, HepG2 and MHCC97H cell lines were co­cultured with specific conditioned media. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were used to detect M1 and M2 macrophage marker expression. The expression levels of proteins of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway were analyzed by western blotting, revealing that TREM1 expression in HCC tissues was significantly elevated compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and TREM1 was highly expressed on the cell membranes of M2 macrophages in tumor tissues compared with in adjacent normal tissues. The present results demonstrated that TREM1 downregulation in macrophages shifted M2 macrophages towards an M1 phenotype, as defined by higher expression levels of M1­associated markers and decreased expression levels of M2­associated markers. In addition, TREM1 downregulation in macrophages suppressed migration and invasion of HepG2 and MHCC97H cells. Furthermore, TREM1­knockdown in macrophages inhibited PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation in the polarization of M2 macrophages. In conclusion, downregulation of TREM1 expression in macrophages shifted M2 macrophages towards a M1 phenotype via inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling. In addition, migration and invasion of HepG2 and MHCC97H cells were inhibited when this signaling pathway was blocked. The present findings suggest TREM1 as a novel potential therapeutic target for liver cancer management.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
18.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(1): 154-163, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473279

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the freshness of ice stored rainbow trout by bioelectrical impedance measurements. Rigor mortis, ATP-related components, K-value, and hardness of rainbow trout muscle during storage were monitored along with impedance. The results showed that the progress of rigor mortis was accompanied by an increase in impedance. Impedance kept decreasing even in rigor state, and during the gradual resolution of rigor mortis with impedance change upon storage of fish was biphasic (r = -0.944, p < .01). Thus, when impedance decreased close to the lowest value, K-value was only about 61.57 ± 0.52%, but still exhibited a high pertinence (r = -0.959, p < .01). A gradual decrease of the hardness of fish muscle upon storage of fish showed a close correlation (r = 0.981, p < .01) with impedance decrease. These results suggested that the impedance measurement has a great potential for predicting the freshness of the rainbow trout during ice storage.

19.
J Texture Stud ; 52(2): 240-250, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315243

RESUMO

One in every twelve people worldwide suffers from dysphagia that affects the swallowing mechanism and some patients require a special texture-modified food for their sustenance. Fish is a great source of nutrients and proteins, however the commercially dysphagia diet made from fish is limited. This study investigated the textural characteristics of a soft fish paste produced from steamed grass carp fillet with different the water addition, grinding cycles and ratio of starch with the mixture of steamed fillet and water, following International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) guidelines and other instruments. The water addition and particle size affected the physical properties, and the starch had a certain masking effect on fishy odor. The mixture of steamed fish fillets and water (91:9 wt/wt) was ground in a colloid mill for 3 cycles. The fish paste was then sterilized by adding sugar, salt, and starch in the mixture (ratios of 0.5:100, 0.5:100, and 0.6:100, wt/wt, respectively) and mixing well. The paste conformed to Level 4-pureed and extremely thick of IDDSI framework. The fish paste product had a light fishy odor that was acceptable to sensory specialists.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Bebidas , Deglutição , Dieta , Humanos , Viscosidade
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 321: 124503, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310408

RESUMO

Lignin is an abundant renewable source of bio-aromatics and its valorization is of great importance. In this work, an efficient non-precious carbon based metal-Mo2C catalytic system for selective production of phenolic monomers (PMs) from organosolv lignin depolymerization is proposed. With the optimized catalyst of Ni-Fe-Mo2C, 89.56% of liquefaction and 35.53% of PMs yields were achieved under 260 ℃ for 4 h with water-methanol (4:1 v/v) solvent. Characterization of the catalysts shows that the induction of Ni-Fe species was favor for the formation of ß-Mo2C, and efficiently promoted the lignin liquefaction. The decoration of Ni/Fe can also change the side chain hydrogenolysis ability of the catalyst and exhibite high yield for 4-ethylphenol (14.77%) production. Methanol, used as co-solvent, was found to play an important role in PMs production and lignin depolymerization. These results demonstrated that the Ni-Fe-Mo2C catalytic system has potential to produce valuable phenolic monomers from lignin under mild conditions.


Assuntos
Lignina , Níquel , Carbono , Catálise , Ferro , Molibdênio
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