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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065553

RESUMO

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) has been shown with a neuroprotective function against inflammation and neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the TREM2 induced anti-inflammatory mechanism is still not well known. In this study it has been demonstrated that the expression of TREM2 was upregulated in hippocampus of 5xFAD mice, whereas TREM2 knock-out mediated by AAV significantly increased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and aggravated cognitive defect. Additionally, FoxO3a, a downstream member of the PI3K/AKT pathway, could be activated by TREM2 defect via the PI3K/AKT signaling in 5xFAD mice. That suggests TREM2-induced protection is associated with the PI3K-FoxO3a axis. On the contrary, overexpression of TREM2 alleviated the LPS-induced inflammatory response and induced M2 phenotype microglia in vitro. This phenomenon can be abolished by applying the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, suggesting FoxO3a not only participates in TREM2-induced anti-inflammation response, but is also involved in regulating the phenotype of microglia. Taken together, our results show that the protective functions of TREM2, both in inflammatory response and cognitive impairment as well as in the decrease of M1 phenotype microglia, are related to PI3K/AKT/FoxO3a signaling pathway in AD mice.

2.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant hematological disease, originating from hematopoiesis stem cell differentiation obstruction and clonal proliferation. New reagents or biologicals for the treatment of AML are urgently needed, and exosomes have been identified as candidate biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exosomes from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on AML cells as well as the underlying microRNA (miRNA)-mediated mechanisms. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated using a precipitation method, followed by validation using marker protein expression and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by deep RNA sequencing and confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cell proliferation was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium inner salt method, and cell cycle progression and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Functional gene expression was analyzed by qPCR and Western blotting (WB). Significant differences were determined using Student's t test or analysis of variance. RESULTS: BMSCs-derived exosomes effectively suppressed cell proliferation (both P < 0.0001 at 10 and 20 µg/mL) and cell cycle progression (P < 0.01 at G0-G1 stage), and also significantly enhanced cell apoptosis (P < 0.001) in KG-1a cells. There were 1167 differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from BMSCs-derived exosomes compared with KG-1a cell-derived exosomes (P < 0.05). Knockdown of hsa-miR-124-5p in BMSCs abrogated the effects of BMSCs-derived exosomes in regulating KG-1a such as the change in cell proliferation (both P < 0.0001 vs. normal KG-1a cell [NC] at 48 and 72 h). KG-1a cells treated with BMSCs-derived exosomes suppressed expression of structural maintenance of chromosomes 4 (P < 0.001 vs. NC by qPCR and P < 0.0001 vs. NC by WB), which is associated with the progression of various cancers. This BMSCs-derived exosomes effect was significantly reversed with knockdown of hsa-miR-124-5p (P < 0.0001 vs. NC by WB). CONCLUSIONS: BMSCs-derived exosomes suppress cell proliferation and cycle progression and promote cell apoptosis in KG-1a cells, likely acting through hsa-miR-124-5p. Our study establishes a basis for a BMSCs-derived exosomes-based AML treatment.

3.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925151, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Although the V617F mutation in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene and the breakpoint cluster region-abl1 (BCR-ABL1) oncogene fusion have been considered mutually exclusive in most myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), many recent studies have described patients with both. This report describes a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and the unusual JAK2 R795S mutation and reviews 23 additional patients with JAK2 gene mutations coexisting with myelofibrosis (MF) and CML. CASE REPORT A 50-year-old woman with MF experienced rapid disease progression 3 weeks later, accompanied by severe abdominal pain and a white blood cell count of 257.45×109/l. Karyotype analysis indicated that she was 46, XY, Philadelphia (Ph) (+) and BCR-ABL1 positive. Bone marrow aspiration after 1 cycle of chemotherapy and treatment with dasatinib showed that her marrow was hypercellular, with an increased number of megakaryocytes and 48.5% myeloblasts expressing the myeloid antigens CD33, CD13, CD34, CD117, and CD71. Next-generation sequencing identified a rare JAK2 R795S mutation. She was diagnosed with CML in blast phase, and was successfully treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). CONCLUSIONS JAK2 gene mutations, including the rare JAK2 R795S mutation, can coexist with BCR-ABL1 in patients with MPNs. The clinical course of MPN in patients with both BCR-ABL1 and JAK2 mutations may be different from that in patients with classical MPNs.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040052

RESUMO

Previous reports have shown that excess calorie intake promotes p53 dependent senescence in mouse adipose tissues. The objective of the current study was to address the mechanism underlying this observation, i.e. adipocyte aging. Using cultured 3T3-L1 cells, we investigated the involvement of energy regulators Sirt1, AMPK, and LKB1 in senescence. Fifteen days post differentiation, Sirt1 knock-down increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) staining by 20-40% (p<0.05, n=12) and both cyclin kinase inhibitor p21Cip and chemokine receptor IL8Rb expression by 2-4 fold. ATP and expression of mitochondria Complex 1 were also reduced by 30% and 50%, respectively (p<0.05, n=4). Such energy depletion may have caused the observed increase in AMPK activity, despite LKB1 activity downregulation. This association between Sirt1 and LKB1 activity was confirmed in vivo in mouse adipose tissue. Upregulation of LKB1 activity by expression of the Sirt1-insensitive LKB1-K48R mutant in 3T3-L1 cells completely prevented the senescence-associated changes of Sirt1 knock-down. In addition, cellular senescence, which also occurs in cultured primary human aortic endothelial cells, was largely prevented by ectopic expression of LKB1. These results suggest that LKB1 plays a pivotal role in cellular senescence occurring in adipocytes and other cell types.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045325

RESUMO

This study sought to characterize sirtuin 2 (sirt2), sirtuin 3 (sirt3), and sirtuin 5 (sirt5) in Megalobrama amblycephala (M. amblycephala) by cloning the open reading frame (ORF) of sirt2, sirt3, and sirt5. The full-lengths of the resulting M. amblycephala sirt2, sirt3, and sirt5 cDNA sequences were 1845, 1534, and 1920 bp, respectively, with 92%, 98%, and 91% similarities to Danio rerio sequences. Based on our bioinformatic analyses and predictions, the sirt2 and sirt3 genes of M. amblycephala were classified within the Sir2 I family, whereas sirt5 belonged to the Sir2 III family. Furthermore, sirt2, sirt3, and sirt5 were widely distributed in different M. amblycephala tissues. Particularly, sirt2 and sirt5 were highly expressed in gills, intestines, and liver (P < 0.05), whereas sirt3 was highly expressed in gills, kidney, liver, and spleen (P < 0.05). A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was also conducted to analyze sirt2, sirt3, and sirt5 expression patterns in response to acute temperature (25 and 32 °C) and ammonia nitrogen (0 and 20 mg/L) stress. Notably, these two stressors were found to interactively affect sirt2, sirt3, and sirt5 expression patterns in M. amblycephala liver. At the higher water temperature (32 °C) and ammonia nitrogen concentration (20 mg/L) tested herein, sirt2, sirt3, and sirt5 had similar expression levels and exhibited a down-regulation trend at 6 and 48 h post-stress but became up-regulated thereafter to counteract the stressors at 96 h post-stress.

6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 299, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the value of continuous nursing in patients after cardiac valve replacement. METHODS: The clinical data of 116 patients after cardiac mechanical valve replacement from January 2017 to January 2018 were analysed retrospectively. According to the nursing mode, the patients were divided into two groups: the continuous nursing group (group A, n = 56) and the conventional nursing group (group B, n = 60). RESULTS: The continuous nursing group exhibited significantly decreased SAS and SDS scores 1 year after surgery compared to the preoperative SAS and SDS scores(P < 0.05). The SAS and SDS scores of the continuous nursing group were significantly better than those of the traditional nursing group 1 year after surgery(P < 0.05). There were 4 patients with anticoagulant complications after discharge in the continuous nursing group, and 13 cases of anticoagulant complications in the conventional nursing group. There was a significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Continuous nursing improves patient compliance with treatment and reduces the occurrence of postoperative anticoagulation complications. The patient also receives proper psychological evaluations, which relieve patient anxiety and depression.

7.
J Food Biochem ; : e13492, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000482

RESUMO

Rice bran contains lipolytic enzymes with extremely high activity that facilitate the hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. This also causes rice bran to easily deteriorate, limiting its use, and they are not popular in the market. Researchers look forward to seeing the refined rice brans work well for metabolic syndrome. This study used gas cooling by liquid nitrogen and an instant sterilization system operated at high temperature to stabilize and refine the rice bran. The refined rice bran was compared using in vitro tests with three other types of rice bran that had not been specially treated. The refined rice bran was discovered to have superior solubility, fast absorption, and excellent oxidation resistance compared with the other three rice bran samples. In a human subject test, significant improvements in waistline, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and triglyceride level were discovered after participants ingested refined rice bran for 8 weeks. This indicated that consuming refined rice bran can reduce the waistline, control blood pressure and blood glucose, and inhibit fate formation. The items for which significance was obtained are also the indicators of metabolic syndrome, as stipulated by the World Health Organization. Therefore, according to the results of the human subject test, ingesting refined rice bran can improve the metabolic syndrome. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This refinement improved the in vivo absorption and stabilized the properties of the rice bran for better preservation. In this study, excellent results were obtained using the refined rice bran in both in vitro tests and a human subject test. Refined rice bran thus has potential for mass production and used as a health supplement. It can alleviate the symptoms of metabolic syndrome and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.

8.
Environ Int ; 145: 106154, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ozone (O3) exposure has been associated with biomarkers of platelet activation and oxidative stress. The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) plays an important role in platelet activation and oxidative stress. However, AA metabolic pathways have not been examined in relation to O3 and other air pollutants. METHODS: Early morning urine and fasting blood were longitudinally collected up to four times from 89 healthy adults (22-52 years old, 25 women) in Changsha City, China. We measured three urinary AA metabolites, namely 11-dehydro-Thromboxane B2 (11-dhTXB2) produced from the arachidonic cyclooxygenase pathway, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) from the CYPs pathway, and 8-isoprostane from the non-enzymatic pathway. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured as indicators of oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. We measured soluble P-selectin (sCD62p) concentrations in plasma as an indicator of platelet activation. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants were measured and combined with participants' time-activity pattern to calculate personal exposure to O3, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 averaged over 12-hour, 24-hour, 1-week, and 2-week periods prior to biospecimen collection, respectively. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the relationships of AA metabolites with air pollutant exposures, plasma sCD62p, and urinary MDA & 8-OHdG. RESULTS: We found that a 10% increase in 12 h and 24 h O3 exposure were associated with increases in urinary11-dhTXB2 by 1.4% (95%, 0.1% to 2.6%) and 1.3% (0.05% to 2.5%), respectively. These associations remained robust after adjusting for co-pollutant exposures. No significant associations were observed between 11-dhTXB2 and other pollutants or between O3 exposures and other AA metabolites. All the three AA metabolites were significantly and positively associated with urinary MDA and 8-OHdG, whereas only urinary 11-dhTXB2 was significantly and positively associated with plasma sCD62p. CONCLUSIONS: A metabolite of AA from the cyclooxygenase pathway was positively associated with short-term O3 exposure, and with a plasma marker of platelet activation and two urinary markers of oxidative stress. The results suggest that O3 exposure may contribute to increased platelet activation and oxidative damages via altering the metabolism of AA.

9.
J Int Med Res ; 48(10): 300060520959217, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the usefulness of highly sensitive nucleic acid detection for assisting with the accurate antiviral treatment of patients with cirrhosis that was caused by hepatitis. METHODS: There were 377 patients with hepatitis B with cirrhosis and 119 patients with hepatitis C with cirrhosis, either as hospitalized patients and outpatients, who were enrolled into the study. Among them, 299 were men and 197 were women between 23 and 82 years of age. All patients were examined using a domestic HBV DNA/HCV RNA test, which was negative in 162 cirrhosis with hepatitis B and 54 cirrhosis with hepatitis C patients (HBV DNA/HCV RNA <500 IU/mL). Prediction and analysis of the HBV DNA load using alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: For patients with hepatitis C with cirrhosis, after the antiviral therapy, ALT, HCV RNA, and Child-Pugh grade were significantly improved compared with before treatment. ROC analysis results showed that an ALT level of 29 IU/mL was the most sensitive cutoff value to judge a positive HBV DNA load (sensitivity 1.0, specificity 0.237, Youden index 0.763). CONCLUSION: Precise detection for patients with cirrhosis caused by hepatitis is required for accurate therapy.

11.
Acta Radiol ; : 284185120951961, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The psoas major (PM) can support the lumbar spine and plays an important role in lumbar movement and maintaining lumbar curvature. PURPOSE: To analyze morphological changes of PM and its relation with the severity of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on patients with AIS (age range = 10-18 years) with primary lumbar scoliosis. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the PM at the L1-L5 levels were measured. The CSA of the PM in patients with AIS was compared with the average CSA of the PM in age-matched controls. The difference in PM at the apical vertebrae level was compared with the Cobb angle to determine the association between PM imbalance and severity of scoliosis. RESULTS: The CSA of the PM was larger on the concave side than the convex side at the apical vertebrae level and other lumber levels. Patients with a larger Cobb angle had statistically higher PM imbalance at the apical vertebrae level. The CSA of the PM on both the concave and convex sides of patients with AIS were larger than the average CSA of controls aged 16-18 years; however, there was no significant difference between patients with AIS and controls aged 10-15 years. CONCLUSION: There is a significant PM imbalance in patients with AIS before skeletal maturity, and the imbalance is related to the severity of scoliosis. The morphology of PM changed with the progression of scoliosis.

12.
J Clin Nurs ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909361

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To observe the psychological status of pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic, and to test a hypothetical model that estimates the influence of psychological response to COVID-19 and security sense on pregnancy stress. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 advanced rapidly and then spread worldwide. Pregnant women were more susceptible to the COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, it is not clear whether this infection will increase the risk of congenital monstrosity, foetal growth restriction, premature delivery or cause other long-term adverse effects. DESIGN: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey. METHODS: A total of 331 pregnant women participated in this study. And this research adhered to the STROBE guideline. The psychological questionnaire for emergent events of public health, pregnancy stress scale and security questionnaire were used to collect data. The hypothetical path model was tested using the SPSS version 25.0 software and AMOS version 26.0 software. RESULTS: Fear and depression were the most common psychological responses among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The hypothesis model of this study fitted the data well, and the results showed that psychological response positively affected pregnancy stress, while security sense negatively affected pregnancy stress; security sense mediated between psychological response and pregnancy stress. CONCLUSION: Nurses and midwives can help reduce the stress in pregnant women by alleviating their psychological response to the COVID-19 pandemic and by improving their security sense. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: It is essential for the health staff to build trust with pregnant women and their families, and communicate accurate information to them. Nurses should promptly conduct a psychological response evaluation and psychological guidance for pregnant women to alleviate their fears and hypochondria related to COVID-19.

13.
Adipocyte ; 9(1): 523-534, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876525

RESUMO

Adipose tissue inflammation plays an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipids metabolism. It is unknown whether Ursolic acid (UA) could regulate adipose tissue inflammation, though it can regulate inflammation in many other tissues. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DIO mice and lean mice were treated with UA or vehicle. Gene expression of inflammatory factors, chemokines and immune markers in adipocytes and adipose tissue, cytokines in cell culture medium and serum, and inflammation regulatory pathways in adipocytes were detected. Results showed that UA increased the expression of interleukins and chemokines, but not TNFα, in both adipocytes and adipose tissue. IL6 and MCP1 levels in the cell culture medium and mouse serum were induced by UA treatment. Cd14 expression level and number of CD14+ monocytes were higher in UA treated adipose tissue than those in the control group. Glucose tolerance test was impaired by UA treatment in DIO mice. Mechanistically, UA induced the expression of Tlr4 and the phosphorylation levels of ERK and NFκB in adipocytes. In conclusion, our study indicated that short-term UA administration could induce CD14+ monocytes infiltration by increasing the production of interleukins and chemokines in mouse adipose tissue, which might further impair glucose tolerance test.

14.
Oncol Rep ; 44(4): 1747-1757, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945501

RESUMO

The main active compound of Garcinia hanburyi (referred to as gamboge) is gambogic acid (GA), which has long been a Chinese herbal medicine for treating several types of cancer. However, the potential therapeutic role and mechanisms of GA in T­cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T­ALL) remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of GA on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy in T­ALL cell lines were investigated. The possible mechanisms underlying GA activity were also examined. The results showed that GA inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and activated autophagy in T­ALL cell lines (Jurkat and Molt­4 cells). Findings confirmed that GA has an antileukemia effect against peripheral blood lymphocyte cells in patients with ALL. GA inhibited phospho­GSK3ß S9 (p­GSK3ß S9) protein levels to inactivate Wnt signaling and suppress ß­catenin protein levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of GA on T­ALL was reversed by overexpression of ß­catenin. Thus, GA can inhibit the growth and survival of T­ALL cells. GA also had antileukemic activity, at least in part, through the downregulation of the Wnt/ß­catenin signaling pathway.

15.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating the quality and readability of online information about breast cancer written in Chinese. METHODS: An Internet search was conducted for "breast cancer" in Chinese using the Baidu search engine. Website quality was evaluated using the DISCERN instrument, and readability was evaluated using the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Higher DISCERN score indicated higher quality of websites, while higher CRIE score indicated lower readability of the content of the websites. We also investigated the effects of website producer category, and the associations of search engine ranking with DISCERN and CRIE scores. RESULTS: A total of 49 websites were included. The mean overall DISCERN score was 50.27 ± 4.14, and the mean CRIE score was 6.78 ± 0.16. Websites produced by non-profit organizations had the highest overall DISCERN scores, while those produced by private individuals had the lowest CRIE scores. Search engine ranking had no significant correlation with website quality or readability. CONCLUSIONS: The quality and readability of breast cancer websites in Chinese were not satisfactory, and they varied among different website producer categories. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Website producers should seek to provide more accurate, comprehensive, and easy-to-understand information to better meet the needs of breast cancer patients. In addition, search engines should revise algorithms to promote websites with higher quality and accessibility.

16.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920960

RESUMO

It is well known that different racial groups have significantly different incidence and mortality rates for certain cancers. It has been suggested that biological factors play a major role in these cancer racial disparities. Previous studies on the biological factors contributing to cancer racial disparity have generated a very large number of candidate factors, although there is modest agreement among the results of the different studies. Here, we performed an integrative analysis using genomic data of 21 cancer types from TCGA, GTEx, and the 1000 Genomes Project to identify biological factors contributing to racial disparity in cancer. We also built a companion website with additional results for cancer researchers to freely mine. Our study identified genes, gene families, and pathways displaying similar differential expression patterns between different racial groups across multiple cancer types. Among them, XKR9 gene expression was found to be significantly associated with overall survival for all cancers combined as well as for several individual cancers. Our results point to the interesting hypothesis that XKR9 could be a novel drug target for cancer immunotherapy. Bayesian network modeling showed that XKR9 is linked to important cancer-related genes, including FOXM1, cyclin B1, and RB1CC1 (RB1 regulator). In addition, metabolic pathways, neural signaling pathways, and several cancer-related gene families were found to be significantly associated with cancer racial disparities for multiple cancer types. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered through integrating data from the TCGA, GTEx, and 1000 Genomes databases provide biologists the opportunity to test highly promising, targeted hypotheses to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic drivers of cancer racial disparity and cancer biology in general.

17.
J Phys Chem B ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931275

RESUMO

Self-assembled vesicles with structured (tetrahedral order with strong hydrogen bonds) interstitial water are reported. The vesicles, known as MCsome, are assembled from metal carbonyl compounds, FpR (Fp = (Cp)Fe(PPh3)(CO)(CO-), Cp = cyclopentadiene, R = C3Bithiophene, C6Pyrene or C6) with the Fp heads exposed to water. The R groups are surrounded by the interstitial water with the hydrogen bonding strength variable depending on the hydrophobicity of R groups. The structure of the interstitial water is responsible for the integrity of the membrane and swelling behavior of the vesicles. This constructional role of water opens new concepts for the creation of aqueous assemblies with water-mediated functions.

18.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962614

RESUMO

Incorporating nanotechnology into fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promising potentials for accurate diagnosis of cancer at earlier stage than the conventional imaging modalities. Molecular imaging (MI) aims to quantitatively characterize, visualize, and measure the biological processes or living cells at molecular and genetic levels. MI modalities have been exploited in different applications including noninvasive determination and visualization of diseased tissues, cell trafficking visualization, early detection, treatment response monitoring, and in vivo visualization of living cells. High affinity molecular probe and imaging modality to detect the probe are the two main requirements of MI. Recent advances in nanotechnology and allied modalities, have facilitated the use of nanoparticles (NPs) as MI probes. Within the extensive group of NPs, fluorescent NPs play a prominent role in optical molecular imaging. The fluorescent NPs used in molecular and cellular imaging can be categorized into three main groups including quantum dots (QDs), upconversion, and dye-doped NPs. Fluorescent NPs have great potentials in targeted theranostics including cancer imaging, immunoassay based cells, proteins and bacteria detections, imaging-guided surgery and therapy. Fluorescent NPs have shown promising potentials for drug and gene delivery, detection of the chromosomal abnormalities, labeling of DNA, and visualizing DNA replication dynamics. Multifunctional NPs have been successfully used in a single theranostic modality integrating diagnosis and therapy. The unique characteristics of multifunctional NPs make them potential theranostic agents that can be utilized concurrently for diagnosis and therapy. This review provides state of the art of the nanotechnological applications for early cancer diagnosis focusing on fluorescent NPs, their synthesis methods and perspectives in clinical theranostics.

19.
Oncol Lett ; 20(5): 200, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963606

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that the combination of high preoperative fibrinogen levels and high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with poor outcomes in various types of cancer. The present study assessed the prognostic value of a scoring system based on the combination of fibrinogen concentration and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (F-NLR) in untreated patients with resectable breast cancer (BC). The present study retrospectively analyzed 906 patients who received surgery for resectable BC. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the association between the F-NLR score and survival status. The cut-off values for fibrinogen and NLR determined via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were 3.21 g/l and 2.20, respectively. On the basis of these cut-off values, the whole cohort was divided into three groups according to their F-NLR score: Score 2, fibrinogen ≥3.21 g/l and NLR ≥2.20; score 1, fibrinogen ≥3.21 g/l or NLR ≥2.20; and score 0, fibrinogen <3.21 g/l and NLR <2.20. The F-NLR score was significantly associated with age (≤50 years vs. >50 years; P<0.001), tumor size (≤2 cm vs. >2 cm; P=0.001), lymph node status (P=0.029), TNM stage (I vs. II vs. III; P=0.002) and lymphovascular invasion (P<0.001). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates in the patients with F-NLR scores of 0, 1 and 2 were 95.7, 87.5 and 74.0%, respectively (P<0.001), and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.8, 90.9 and 79.9%, respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the F-NLR score independently predicted DFS [hazard ratio (HR), 2.279; 95% CI, 1.758-2.954; P<0.001] and OS (HR, 2.414; 95% CI, 1.738-3.353; P<0.001). In conclusion, the preoperative F-NLR score was an independent prognostic indicator for untreated patients with resectable BC.

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