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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9914-9926, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) will lead to the aggravation of respiratory symptoms and accelerate the progression of the disease. So early pulmonary rehabilitation is essential for patients with AECOPD. We aimed to investigate the effect of sitting and lying Liuzijue in AECOPD patients with non-invasive ventilation. METHODS: A total of 80 AECOPD patients with non-invasive ventilation were randomly divided into two groups. The controlled group (CG) (n=40) received AECOPD conventional treatment and nursing, and the sitting and lying Liuzijue exercise group (LG) (n=40) received sitting and lying Liuzijue therapy. Participants in the LG were required to take this training for 3 months, 30 minutes once every morning and evening. Pulmonary function test, 6-minute walking test (6MWT), Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scales (mMRC), and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were evaluated before and after the intervention. Blood gas was measured before treatment, 3 days, and 5 days after treatment. In addition, the length of hospital stay, the duration of non-invasive ventilation, and the frequency of acute exacerbation within 6 months after the intervention were compared. RESULTS: Seventy patients completed the study. The pulmonary function, 6MWT, mMRC scores, SGRQ, and pH, were significantly improved in the LG. Meanwhile, the 6MWT of the CG was improved. The comparison between the groups showed that the improvement of the pulmonary function, 6MWD, mMRC scores, SGRQ, the duration of non-invasive ventilation, and the frequency of acute exacerbation within 6 months of the LG group differed significantly from the CG. CONCLUSIONS: Sitting and lying Liuzijue exercise methods significantly improved lung function, exercise endurance, and quality of life in AECOPD patients with non-invasive ventilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000034530.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Testes de Função Respiratória , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596239

RESUMO

The generation of degradation products (DPs) like ions and organo-metallic particles from corroding metallic implants is an important healthcare concern. These DPs generate local and systemic toxicity. The impact on local toxicity is well documented, however, little is known about systemic toxicity. This is mainly due to the limited scope of the current microtiter plate-based (static) toxicity assay techniques. These methods do not mimic the systemic (dynamic) conditions. In this study, it is hypothesized that DPs incubated with cells in static conditions might provide improper systemic toxicity results, as there is no movement mimicking the blood circulation around cells. This study reports the development of a three-chambered prototype microfluidic system connected to the operational hip implant simulator to test the cellular response induced by the DPs. This setup is called a dynamic microfluidic bioreactor-hip simulator system. We hypothesize that a dynamic microfluidic system will provide a realistic toxicology response induced by DPs than a static cell culture plate. To prove the hypothesis, Neuro2a (N2a) cells were used as representative cells to study systemic neurotoxicity by the implant DPs. The microfluidic bioreactor system was validated by comparing the cell toxicity against the traditional static system and using COMSOL modeling for media flow with DPs. The hip implant simulator used in this study was a state-of-the-art sliding hip simulator developed in our lab. The results suggested that static toxicity was significantly more compared to dynamic microfluidic-based toxicity. The newly developed DMBH system tested for in situ systemic toxicity on N2a cells and demonstrated very minimum toxicity level (5.23%) compared to static systems (31.16%). Thus, the new DMBH system is an efficient tool for in situ implant metal systemic toxicity testing.

3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338788, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482861

RESUMO

Phenol is a common pollutant found in wastewater, and its allowable discharge limit is 0.5 parts-per-million (ppm). Therefore, it is critical to monitor phenol in the sub-ppm range with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection. Herein, we report a quantitative method for detecting phenol in industrial wastewater through square wave voltammetry (SWV), in which phenol is oxidized to phenoxyl radicals and then became catechol and hydroquinone for detection. By using this method, phenol in the sub-ppm range can be detected reliably over a wide pH range. The sensitivity can be further improved by using a pre-concentration step for phenol before scanning. The method has a limit of detection of 0.1 ppb for phenol. Finally, three graphite electrodes were applied as working, counter and reference electrodes, respectively, in a millifluidic device for continuous detection of phenol in industrial wastewater flowing at 300 µL/min. Because of its simplicity, the sensor can be mass-produced and deployed on a large scale to monitor phenol in industrial wastewater.


Assuntos
Grafite , Fenol , Eletrodos , Fenol/análise , Fenóis , Águas Residuárias
4.
mSystems ; : e0081421, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519518

RESUMO

The symbiosis of endophytes and plants is universal in nature. However, how endophytes grow in plants is not entirely clear. Previously, we reported that a virus-infected fungal pathogen could grow in plants as an endophyte. In this study, we utilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain DT-8, a virus-mediated endophyte, to investigate the mechanism of symbiosis with rapeseed by dual unique molecular identifier-RNA sequencing (dual-UMI RNA-seq). We found that the expressions of genes encoding S. sclerotiorum amylase/glucoamylase, glucose transporters, and rapeseed sugars will eventually be exported transporter 11 (SWEET11) were upregulated. It suggested that strain DT-8 might utilize plant starch as a nutrient. The defense systems of rapeseed were also activated, such as production of reactive oxygen species, phenylpropanoids, and brassinin, to control the growth of strain DT-8, while strain DT-8 counteracted host suppression by producing effector-like proteins, detoxification enzymes, and antioxidant components. Moreover, rapeseed also upregulated pectate lyase and pectinesterase genes to facilitate the colonization by strain DT-8. Our findings provide novel insights into the interaction of virus-mediated endophytes and their hosts that warrant further study. IMPORTANCE Although endophytes are widespread in nature, the interactions between endophytes and their hosts are still not fully understood. Members of a unique class of endophytes, the virus-mediated endophytic fungi, are continuously being discovered and have received wide attention. In this study, we investigated the interaction between a mycovirus-mediated endophytic fungus and its host rapeseed by using dual-UMI RNA-seq. According to the dual-UMI RNA-seq results, an aerial view of symbiotic mechanism under balanced regulation was suggested. This research expands our understanding of the symbiotic mechanisms of virus-fungus-plant interactions and could establish a foundation for the further development of practical application with virus-mediated hypovirulent fungi.

5.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 97, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) demonstrates applications in the prevention of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is often characterized by fibrosis of the small airways. This study aims at investigating the physiological mechanisms by which NAC might mediate the pulmonary fibrosis in COPD. METHODS: A total of 10 non-smokers without COPD and 10 smokers with COPD were recruited in this study, and COPD rat models were established. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) cell models were constructed. The gain- or loss-of-function experiments were adopted to determine the expression of VWF and the extent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) in the serum of COPD rats and supernatant of alveolar epithelial cells and to detect cell invasion and migration and the ratio of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+T lymphocytes. RESULTS: Expression of VWF and the extent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation were increased in COPD. NAC inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation by reducing the VWF expression. NAC could inhibit cell migration and invasion, elevate E-cadherin expression, the ratio of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+T lymphocytes, and levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM, and reduce N-cadherin expression and levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in CSE cells and serum of COPD rats. NAC promoted immune response and suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) to relieve COPD-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the VWF/p38 MAPK axis. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, NAC could ameliorate COPD-induced pulmonary fibrosis by promoting immune response and inhibiting EMT process via the VWF/p38 MAPK axis, therefore providing us with a potential therapeutic target for treating COPD.

6.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article compares the clinical outcomes of clopidogrel and ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) without cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles and investigates whether clopidogrel could be an alternative P2Y12 inhibitor without increasing the risk of ischemic events. METHODS: Patients were divided into the clopidogrel-treated group and the ticagrelor-treated group. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) calculated by propensity scores was used to adjust confounding covariates. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) within 12 months. The secondary outcomes were MACCEs plus unstable angina, and clinically significant bleeding events. RESULTS: Finally, 2,199 patients were included. Of them, 1,606 were treated with clopidogrel, and 593 were treated with ticagrelor. The mean age of the original cohort was 59.92 ± 9.81 years. During the 12-month follow-up period, MACCEs occurred in 89 patients (4.0%). No significant differences were observed in MACCEs (IPTW-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.18), MACCEs plus unstable angina (IPTW-adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.91-1.59), or clinically significant bleeding events (IPTW-adjusted HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.53-1.23) between the clopidogrel- and ticagrelor-treated groups. CONCLUSION: In patients with ACS without CYP2C19 LOF alleles, clopidogrel was not associated with a higher risk of MACCEs when compared with ticagrelor. The main findings of this study support use of clopidogrel in CYP2C19 LOF noncarriers as an alternative P2Y12 inhibitor, which may reduce medical expenses and adverse reactions caused by more potent P2Y12 inhibitors in these patients.

7.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429227

RESUMO

Post-traumatic osteomyelitis (PTO) is a worldwide problem in the field of orthopaedic trauma. So far, there is no ideal treatment or consensus-based gold standard for its management. This paper reviews the representative literature focusing on PTO, mainly from the following four aspects: (1) the pathophysiological mechanism of PTO and the interaction mechanism between bacteria and the body, including fracture stress, different components of internal fixation devices, immune response, occurrence and development mechanisms of inflammation in PTO, as well as the occurrence and development mechanisms of PTO in skeletal system; (2) clinical classification, mainly the etiological classification, histological classification, anatomical classification and the newly proposed new classifications (a brief analysis of their scope and limitations); (3) imaging diagnosis, including non-invasive examination and invasive examination (this paper discusses their advantages and disadvantages respectively, and briefly compares the sensitivity and effectiveness of the current examinations); and (4) treatments, including antibiotic administration, surgical strategy and other treatment programs. Based on the above-mentioned four aspects, we try to put forward some noteworthy sections, in order to make the existing opinions more specific.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389947

RESUMO

The construction industry has been greatly developed in the past few decades, especially in the extensive use of underground space. The increasing amount of waste (e.g., soil, sludge, and rock) generated in the underground construction constitutes an important part of construction and demolition waste (CDW), but the related problems are rarely addressed in an independent quantitative study. In order to facilitate recycling of underground construction waste (UCW), quantitative methods for predicting UCW are proposed based on mass conservation in this study. Through on-site investigation and literature review, the source characteristics of UCW and corresponding recycling potential are firstly analyzed. Secondly, the corresponding quantitative method is proposed for predicting each type of UCW according to the principle of mass conservation. Finally, the proposed quantitative methods are applied in two real underground infrastructure projects to verify the accuracy. The results show that the accuracy of quantitative methods for predicting shield sludge and engineering soil is 82.03-95.79% and 94.49% respectively. The quantitative methods for predicting the amount of UCW proposed in this study is effective. In both cases, underground construction produced a large amount of construction waste with great recycling potential. UCW can theoretically reach 100% recycling, and full reuse and recycling of UCW will bring huge benefits and be conducive to the sustainable development of the construction industry.

9.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Taiwan government has provided population-based fluoride varnish application services for all preschool children since July 2004. This study investigated the association providing such services on dental caries experiences among schoolchildren. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on schoolchildren aged 8-9 years. A questionnaire collected information on sociodemographic background, parents' oral health status, children's oral health-related behavior, and dietary habits. Dental caries was recorded through standardized oral examinations. The number of services was retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Univariate, multivariable linear, and logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The study involved 1246 children. The mean dental caries indices were 3.97 for decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft) and 0.94 for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). After adjustments for confounding factors, it was revealed that children receiving services were not associated with significantly lower deft and DMFT indices (P > 0.05). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for untreated primary teeth of children receiving 3 or more services was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.44-0.95) compared with those who received no services (P = 0.025). However, subgroup analyses demonstrated that children in the low-risk group were mainly affected (adjusted OR = 0.36-0.89, P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that children receiving 3 or more services were associated with a 36% decreased risk of having untreated caries in primary dentition, but these children were mainly in the low-risk group. These results illustrate real data that provides dentists and policymakers with valuable information.

10.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362649

RESUMO

Prosthetic infection is one of the severe postoperative complications of arthroplasty. Mixed bacterial-fungal prosthetic infection is rare but can be disastrous. This case was a 76-year-old female suffered from prosthetic infection following total hip replacement due to femoral neck fracture and underwent multiple debridements. The culture of periprosthetic tissue was bacteriologically sterile following the first debridement, while the Staphylococcus hominis was identified in the second debridement in the previous hospitalization where fungal infection had not been considered. Thus the pathogen spectrum of anti-infection therapy failed to contain fungus. Ultimately, the culture result of our sampled periprosthetic tissue during the third debridement was Candida albicans without bacterium in our hospital. The fungal prosthetic infection was successfully treated by a two-stage revision with antifungal drugs. Accurate diagnosis and standardized treatment is the key to the therapy of infection after hip arthroplasty, especially for mixed bacterial-fungal prosthetic infection.

11.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(8): e1009823, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428260

RESUMO

Mycoviruses are an important component of the virosphere, but our current knowledge of their genome organization diversity and evolution remains rudimentary. In this study, the mycovirus composition in a hypovirulent strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was molecularly characterized. Nine mycoviruses were identified and assigned into eight potential families. Of them, six were close relatives of known mycoviruses, while the other three had unique genome organizations and evolutionary positions. A deltaflexivirus with a tripartite genome has evolved via arrangement and horizontal gene transfer events, which could be an evolutionary connection from unsegmented to segmented RNA viruses. Two mycoviruses had acquired a second helicase gene by two different evolutionary mechanisms. A rhabdovirus representing an independent viral evolutionary branch was the first to be confirmed to occur naturally in fungi. The major hypovirulence-associated factor, an endornavirus, was finally corroborated. Our study expands the diversity of mycoviruses and potential virocontrol agents, and also provides new insights into virus evolutionary modes including virus genome segmentation.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149270, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340065

RESUMO

Zn is an essential nutrient for humans, with crucial biological functions. However, Zn concentration in rice grains is generally low. Therefore, a cereal-based diet may lead to Zn deficiency in people, further leading to a series of health problems, such as immune and brain dysfunction. Previous studies seldom focused on the accumulation of Zn in rice grains based on large-scale field research. In the present study, a large-scale field survey of paddy (n = 40,853) and paired soil-rice samples (n = 1332) was conducted in Guangxi, China. Zn concentration in soil and rice grains was determined, and the associations of its spatial distributions with lithology, soil properties, and Mn nodules were investigated. According to the daily rice intake of different age and sex groups and the values of recommended Zn intake and tolerable Zn upper intake level recommended by National Health Commission of China, the Zn threshold value of the rice grain is 15.47-24.49 mg·kg-1. Moreover, a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model was used to predict the Zn bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of rice grains with high accuracy. Soil Zn concentration, Mn concentration, pH, and total organic carbon derived from Pearson's correlation analysis were used as input variables in the BPNN model. Compared with the multiple linear regression model, the developed BPNN model using the training (1198 samples) and testing (134 samples) datasets showed better performance in estimating rice Zn BAF, with R2 = 0.93, normalized mean error of 0.009, normalized root mean square error of 0.21. When the BPNN model was applied to the 40,853 paddy soil samples, 85.7% of the agriculture lands were within the rice threshold values. These findings further our understanding of the development and utilization of Zn-rich rice and soil.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , China , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215494

RESUMO

The study aimed at introducing a digital method of locating the osteotomy position of the zygomatic arch during surgery and analyze the accuracy of this method. Patients with a prominent zygomatic bone who underwent zygomatic arch osteotomy and reduction in the orthognathic surgery department of our hospital were selected. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) data of the patients were imported into modeling and analysis software Mimics 23.0 in DICOM format to construct 3D models of the zygomatic bone and zygomatic arch region. The data were obtained by locating the simulated osteotomy position of the zygomatic arch before the surgery, applying the digitally modeled osteotomy position of the zygomatic arch during the surgery, and locating the actual osteotomy position of the zygomatic arch after the surgery. The accuracy of the experimental method was verified by matching the preoperative simulation data with the postoperative osteotomy data. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to compare the 20 cases' osteotomy positions obtained by preoperative simulation with the actual postoperative position. There was no significant difference in zygomatic arch osteotomy position between the preoperative simulation and the real postoperative position (Z=-1.867, P=0.062). The digital method to locate the zygomatic arch osteotomy seems to show an acceptable accuracy to achieve the proper osteotomy position and, therefore, should adopted whenever appropriate.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200838

RESUMO

Frailty is one of the most important geriatric syndromes, which can be associated with increased risk for incident disability and hospitalization. Developing a real-time classification model of elderly frailty level could be beneficial for designing a clinical predictive assessment tool. Hence, the objective of this study was to predict the elderly frailty level utilizing the machine learning approach on skeleton data acquired from a Kinect sensor. Seven hundred and eighty-seven community elderly were recruited in this study. The Kinect data were acquired from the elderly performing different functional assessment exercises including: (1) 30-s arm curl; (2) 30-s chair sit-to-stand; (3) 2-min step; and (4) gait analysis tests. The proposed methodology was successfully validated by gender classification with accuracies up to 84 percent. Regarding frailty level evaluation and prediction, the results indicated that support vector classifier (SVC) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) are the most successful estimators in prediction of the Fried's frailty level with median accuracies up to 97.5 percent. The high level of accuracy achieved with the proposed methodology indicates that ML modeling can identify the risk of frailty in elderly individuals based on evaluating the real-time skeletal movements using the Kinect sensor.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Esqueleto
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206315

RESUMO

Person re-identification (ReID) plays an important role in intelligent surveillance and receives widespread attention from academics and the industry. Due to extreme changes in viewing angles, some discriminative local regions are suppressed. In addition, the data with similar backgrounds collected by a fixed viewing angle camera will also affect the model's ability to distinguish a person. Therefore, we need to discover more fine-grained information to form the overall characteristics of each identity. The proposed self-erasing network structure composed of three branches benefits the extraction of global information, the suppression of background noise and the mining of local information. The two self-erasing strategies that we proposed encourage the network to focus on foreground information and strengthen the model's ability to encode weak features so as to form more effective and richer visual cues of a person. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method is competitive with the advanced methods and achieves state-of-the-art performance on DukeMTMC-ReID and CUHK-03(D) datasets. Furthermore, it can be seen from the activation map that the proposed method is beneficial to spread the attention to the whole body. Both metrics and the activation map validate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease, and a sugary diet can generate an acidic plaque environment that advances its development. However, the specific effect of sugary drinks on the subsequent oral health of schoolchildren with mixed dentition is unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between the consumption of sugary drinks and 1 year incidence rate of caries in permanent teeth among Taiwanese schoolchildren with mixed dentition. METHODS: A longitudinal 1 year follow-up study was conducted among Taiwanese schoolchildren aged 8-9 years. A questionnaire collected information regarding the parents' oral health status and their children's demographic background, oral health-related behaviours and consumption habits of sugary drinks, including handmade drinks (specifically bubble tea and pearl milk tea) and carbonated drinks. Dental caries was recorded through standardized oral examinations. The number of dental services received was retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to estimate the association between the consumption of sugary drinks and the incidence rate of caries in permanent teeth after 1 year. RESULTS: The study involved 494 children. During the 1 year follow-up period, 117 children developed new dental caries in their permanent teeth, yielding a caries incidence rate of 0.183 per person-year. After adjustments for confounding factors, children who preferred having sugar-rich beverages were associated with having a 4.3 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-15.7) risk of developing caries than did those who preferred nonsugary drinks (P < .05). Additionally, children who often consumed handmade drinks were associated with having a 1.7 times higher (95% CI = 1.1-2.9) risk of developing caries than those who seldom consumed (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the consumption of sugary drinks during the mixed dentition stage might be a major etiological factor for caries in permanent teeth. These findings could be valuable to paediatricians, dentists, nutritionists and policymakers.

17.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2859-2863, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291341

RESUMO

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ourmiavirus 17 (SsOV17) was isolated from the hypovirulent strain GF3 of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The genome of SsOV17 is 2,802 nt in length and contains a single long open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a short structured 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) (28 nt) and a long 3'-UTR (788 nt), respectively. The ORF encodes a protein with 663 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of 75.0 kDa. A BLASTp search indicated that the protein encoded by SsOV17 is closely related to the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ourmiavirus 13 (71% identity). A multiple sequence alignment indicated that eight conserved amino acid motifs were present in the RdRp conserved region of SsOV17. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SsOV17 clustered with members of the genus Botoulivirus.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/virologia , Micovírus/classificação , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Micovírus/genética , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Regiões não Traduzidas/genética
18.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265153

RESUMO

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are typical necrotrophic pathogens that can attack more than 700 and 3000 plant species, respectively, and cause huge economic losses across numerous crops. In particular, the absence of resistant cultivars makes the stem rot because of S. sclerotiorum the major threat of rapeseed (Brassica napus) worldwide along with Botrytis. Previously, we identified an effector-like protein (SsSSVP1) from S. sclerotiorum and a homologue of SsSSVP1 on B. cinerea genome and found that SsSSVP1 could interact with BnQCR8 of rapeseed, a subunit of the cytochrome b-c1 complex. In this study, we found that BnQCR8 has eight homologous copies in rapeseed cultivar Westar and reduced the copy number of BnQCR8 using CRISPR/Cas9 to improve rapeseed resistance against S. sclerotiorum. Mutants with one or more copies of BnQCR8 edited showed strong resistance against S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. BnQCR8-edited mutants did not show significant difference from Westar in terms of respiration and agronomic traits tested, including the plant shape, flowering time, silique size, seed number, thousand seed weight and seed oil content. These traits make it possible to use these mutants directly for commercial production. Our study highlights a common gene for breeding of rapeseed to unravel the key hindrance of rapeseed production caused by S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. In contrast to previously established methodologies, our findings provide a novel strategy to develop crops with high resistance against multiple pathogens by editing only a single gene that encodes the common target of pathogen effectors.

19.
J Food Biochem ; 45(7): e13806, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080212

RESUMO

Investigation on potentiation of existing drugs with natural compounds to enhance efficacy and reduce toxic effect of the drugs has been increasing in recent years. This paper reports cytotoxic effect (apoptosis-related and oxidative stress-related effect) of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), cisplatin (DDP), and their combination (C3G-DDP) on cervical cancer HeLa cells. Concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by employing fluorescent marker 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. On the other hand, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentration, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were quantitated by commercially available assay kits. C3G-DDP significantly inhibited the activity of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px. Simultaneously, C3G-DDP reduced GSH concentration while increased the concentration of ROS and MDA. Moreover, Western blot analysis suggested that C3G-DDP significantly reduced the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2 target proteins: heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1). In contrast, C3G-DDP increased the expression of Keap1. Furthermore, C3G-DDP significantly upregulated and downregulated the mRNA expressions of bax and bcl-2, respectively, thereby increasing bax/bcl-2 mRNA expression ratio. Overall, our findings propose that potentiation of DDP with C3G improves cancer cell susceptibility, specifically cervical cancer cells, to DDP. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Cisplatin is recommended by most medical oncologists worldwide to treat cancer. Despite its neoplastic efficacy, it has undesirable side effects including nausea, vomiting, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Natural biologically active food ingredients are suggested to be used as antioxidants along with DDP therapy to prevent cisplatin-induced toxicity. C3G-DDP protected HeLa cells from oxidative stress by reducing NQO1 and HO-1 levels and regulated the Nrf2 signaling pathway. In addition, C3G-DDP protected HeLa cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by increasing bcl-2 levels and decreasing bax levels. These results expanded our understanding of the role of C3G in a cervical cancer cell model, and provided a potential new treatment strategy for this cancer, as well as a theoretical basis for the development of new drugs in the future.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Cisplatino , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
20.
Oncogene ; 40(28): 4675-4685, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140643

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) play crucial roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the specific functions of lncRNAs in alternative splicing (AS) and the metastatic cascade in liver cancer remain largely unclear. In this study, we identified a novel lncRNA, LINC01348, which was significantly downregulated in HCC and correlated with survival functions in HCC patients. Ectopic expression of LINC01348 induced marked inhibition of cell growth, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, these phenotypes were reversed upon knockdown of LINC01348. Mechanistically, LINC01348 complexed with splicing factor 3b subunit 3 (SF3B3) acted as a modulator of EZH2 pre-mRNA AS, and induced alterations in JNK/c-Jun activity and expression of Snail. Notably, C-terminal truncated HBx (Ct-HBx) negatively regulated LINC01348 through c-Jun signaling. Our data collectively highlight those novel regulatory associations involving LINC01348/SF3B3/EZH2/JNK/c-Jun/Snail are an important determinant of metastasis in HCC cells and support the potential utility of targeting LINC01348 as a therapeutic strategy for HCC.

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