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1.
J Environ Manage ; 332: 117354, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724597

RESUMO

As electric vehicles (EVs) are developing at a rapid pace, the foreseeable "scrap tide" of EV batteries poses a severe challenge to ecological protection. This article investigates a dual-recycle channel closed-loop supply chain and provides regulatory solutions to retired EV batteries' recycling. Specifically, we construct four supervision scenarios: S1 no policy intervention, S2 reward-penalty scheme, S3 deposit-refund scheme, and S4 dual scheme combining S2 and S3. Based on the Stackelberg game and empirical data, all scenarios' recycling performance is evaluated and compared with a view to "society, economy, and environment". The results revealed: (1) Compared with S1, the recycling rate and carbon reduction rate in S2∼S4 increase by 2.6049%/0.0092%, 4.0379%/0.0285%, and 6.6660%/0.0379%, respectively; (2) The difference between S2 and S3 in recycling performance depends on regulatory intensities, yet the latter places greater burdens on consumers and firms. The S4 presents optimal environmental performance but at the expense of socioeconomic development; (3) As regulatory intensity increases, social welfare rises driven by environmental benefits, then falls due to overburdened supply chain profits, consumer surplus, and policy expenditures; (4) Carbon trading prices and EVs' potential market sizes affect regulatory schemes' operations. Our results contribute to policy-making and managerial practices for EV battery recycling.

2.
J Virol ; 97(1): e0138122, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625579

RESUMO

Although segmented negative-sense RNA viruses (SNSRVs) have been frequently discovered in various fungi, most SNSRVs reported only the large segments. In this study, we investigated the diversity of the mycoviruses in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium asiaticum using the metatranscriptomic technique. We identified 17 fungal single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses including nine viruses within Mitoviridae, one each in Narnaviridae, Botourmiaviridae, Hypoviridae, Fusariviridae, and Narliviridae, two in Mymonaviridae, and one trisegmented virus temporarily named Fusarium asiaticum mycobunyavirus 1 (FaMBV1). The FaMBV1 genome comprises three RNA segments, large (L), medium (M), and small (S) with 6,468, 2,639, and 1,420 nucleotides, respectively. These L, M, and S segments putatively encode the L protein, glycoprotein, and nucleocapsid, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the L protein showed that FaMBV1 is phylogenetically clustered with Alternaria tenuissima negative-stranded RNA virus 2 (AtNSRV2) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 5 (SsNSRV5) but distantly related to the members of the family Phenuiviridae. FaMBV1 could be vertically transmitted by asexual spores with lower efficiency (16.7%, 2/42). Comparison between FaMBV1-free and -infected fungal strains revealed that FaMBV1 has little effect on hyphal growth, pathogenicity, and conidium production, and its M segment is dispensable for viral replication and lost during subculture and asexual conidiation. The M and S segments of AtNSRV2 and SsNSRV5 were found using bioinformatics methods, indicating that the two fungal NSRVs harbor trisegmented genomes. Our results provide a new example of the existence and evolution of the segmented negative-sense RNA viruses in fungi. IMPORTANCE Fungal segmented negative-sense RNA viruses (SNSRVs) have been frequently found. Only the large segment encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has been reported in most fungal SNSRVs, except for a few fungal SNSRVs reported to encode nucleocapsids, nonstructural proteins, or movement proteins. Virome analysis of the Fusarium spp. that cause Fusarium head blight discovered a novel virus, Fusarium asiaticum mycobunyavirus 1 (FaMBV1), representing a novel lineage of the family Phenuiviridae. FaMBV1 harbors a trisegmented genome that putatively encodes RdRp, glycoproteins, and nucleocapsids. The putative glycoprotein was first described in fungal SNSRVs and shared homology with glycoprotein of animal phenuivirus but was dispensable for its replication in F. asiaticum. Two other trisegmented fungal SNSRVs that also encode glycoproteins were discovered, implying that three-segment bunyavirus infections may be common in fungi. These findings provide new insights into the ecology and evolution of SNSRVs, particularly those infecting fungi.


Assuntos
Micovírus , Vírus de RNA , Micovírus/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675198

RESUMO

Sorafenib is currently a targeted agent widely used in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC). However, to date there is still a lack of a reliable marker capable of predicting sorafenib therapeutic responses. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism outcome predictors in aHCC patients. A total of 74 real-world sorafenib-treated aHCC patients were enrolled for GWAS and outcome analysis. GWAS showed that rs1010816 (p = 2.2 × 10-7) was associated with sorafenib therapeutic response in aHCC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the "TT" genotype was significantly associated with a favorable therapeutic response but not significantly associated with overall survival (OS). Univariate followed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that ascites, main portal vein thrombosis, lower platelet count, lower total sorafenib doses, higher PALBI score in model A and higher ALBI grade in model B were significantly associated with a shorter OS. Subgroup analysis showed that only in alcoholic aHCC patients treated by sorafenib, rs1010816 "TT" genotype was significantly associated with longer OS (p = 0.021). Sorafenib had a favorable therapeutic outcome in alcoholic aHCC patients carrying rs1010816 "TT" genotype.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico
4.
J Digit Imaging ; 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658377

RESUMO

Acute epiglottitis (AE) is a life-threatening condition and needs to be recognized timely. Diagnosis of AE with a lateral neck radiograph yields poor reliability and sensitivity. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are powerful tools to assist the analysis of medical images. This study aimed to develop an artificial intelligence model using CNN-based transfer learning to identify AE in lateral neck radiographs. All cases in this study are from two hospitals, a medical center, and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. In this retrospective study, we collected 251 lateral neck radiographs of patients with AE and 936 individuals without AE. Neck radiographs obtained from patients without and with AE were used as the input for model transfer learning in a pre-trained CNN including Inception V3, Densenet201, Resnet101, VGG19, and Inception V2 to select the optimal model. We used five-fold cross-validation to estimate the performance of the selected model. The confusion matrix of the final model was analyzed. We found that Inception V3 yielded the best results as the optimal model among all pre-train models. Based on the average value of the fivefold cross-validation, the confusion metrics were obtained: accuracy = 0.92, precision = 0.94, recall = 0.90, and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96. Using the Inception V3-based model can provide an excellent performance to identify AE based on radiographic images. We suggest using the CNN-based model which can offer a non-invasive, accurate, and fast diagnostic method for AE in the future.

5.
Acta Biomater ; 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642338

RESUMO

Ferroptosis has received increasing attentions in cancer therapy owing to its unique advantages over apoptosis. However, ferroptosis is governed by the efficiency of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the tumor cell antioxidant microenvironment that compromises therapeutic efficacy of ferroptosis. It is of great significance to develop a strategy that can both achieve high-efficiency ROS production and modulate tumor cell antioxidant microenvironment to amplify ferroptosis. However, until now, such a strategy has rarely been realized. Here, we, for the first time, reported a radiotherapy -mediated redox homeostasis-controllable nanomedicine for amplifying ferroptosis sensitivity in tumor therapy. The nanomedicine is constructed by co-assembling a ferroptosis inducer hemin and a thioredoxin 1 (Trx-1) inhibitor 1-methylpropyl 2-imidazolyl disulfide (PX-12) with human serum albumin. For our nanomedicine, hemin converts H2O2 to ROS via Fenton reaction to induce ferroptosis while PX-12 effectively inhibits the activity of antioxidant Trx-1 to suppress ROS depletion, resulting in amplified ferroptosis. Particularly, combining radiotherapy with the nanomedicine, radiotherapy depletes the other key antioxidant glutathione and generates additional radiotherapy-induced ROS, further boosting the ferroptosis effect. Therefore, our strategy can simultaneously ensure efficient ROS production and regulation of tumor cell antioxidant microenvironment, thereby enhancing efficacy of ferroptosis in tumor therapy. Our work offers an innovative approach to amplify ferroptosis sensitivity against tumors by simultaneously promoting ROS production and regulating redox homeostasis. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The antioxidants such as thioredoxin 1 (Trx-1) and glutathione (GSH) in tumor cells, are significantly upregulated by the innate cancer cellular redox homeostasis, severely restricting the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based therapy and compromising the effect of Fenton reaction-induced ferroptosis against tumors. It is urgent to develop a strategy to simultaneously achieve Fenton reaction-induced ferroptosis and regulate the cancer cellular redox homeostasis against upregulated levels of Trx-1 and GSH. A radiotherapy-mediated redox homeostasis-regulatable nanomedicine was designed for amplifying ferroptosis sensitivity in tumor therapy, where the therapeutic efficacy of ferroptosis against tumors can be significantly amplified by integrating Fenton reaction-induced and radiotherapy-induced ferroptosis as well as PX-12-enabled inhibition of antioxidant Trx-1 and radiotherapy-induced downregulation of antioxidant GSH levels.

6.
JCI Insight ; 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692963

RESUMO

Most circulating endothelial cells are apoptotic, but rare circulating endothelial colony forming cells (C-ECFCs, also known as blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs)) with proliferative and vasculogenic activity can be cultured; the origin and naïve function of these C-ECFCs remains obscure. Herein, detailed lineage tracing reveals murine C-ECFCs emerge in the early postnatal period, display high vasculogenic potential, with enriched frequency of clonal proliferative cells compared to tissue-resident ECFCs, and are not committed to or derived from the bone marrow hematopoietic system but from tissue-resident ECFCs. In human subjects, C-ECFCs are present in the CD34bright cord blood mononuclear subset, possess proliferative potential and in vivo vasculogenic function in a naïve or cultured state, and display a single cell transcriptome sharing some umbilical venous endothelial cell features like, higher Protein C Receptor and extracellular matrix gene expression. This study provides an advance for the field by identifying the origin, naïve function, and antigens to prospectively isolate C-ECFCs for translational studies.

7.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 44, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) and medication-related problems (MRP) among the Chinese population with chronic diseases and polypharmacy is insufficient. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIM and MRP among older Chinese hospitalized patients with chronic diseases and polypharmacy and analyze the associated factors. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in five tertiary hospitals in Beijing. Patients aged ≥ 65 years with at least one chronic disease and taking at least five or more medications were included. Data were extracted from the hospitals' electronic medical record systems. PIM was evaluated according to the 2015 Beers criteria and the 2014 Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria. MRPs were assessed and classified according to the Helper-Strand classification system. The prevalence of PIM and MRP and related factors were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 852 cases were included. The prevalence of PIM was 85.3% and 59.7% based on the Beers criteria and the STOPP criteria. A total of 456 MRPs occurred in 247 patients. The most prevalent MRP categories were dosages that were too low and unnecessary medication therapies. Hyperpolypharmacy (taking ≥ 10 drugs) (odds ratio OR 3.736, 95% confidence interval CI 1.541-9.058, P = 0.004) and suffering from coronary heart disease (OR 2.620, 95%CI 1.090-6.297, P = 0.031) were the influencing factors of inappropriate prescribing (the presence of either PIM or MRP in a patient). CONCLUSION: PIM and MRP were prevalent in older patients with chronic disease and polypharmacy in Chinese hospitals. More interventions are urgently needed to reduce PIM use and improve the quality of drug therapies.


Assuntos
Polimedicação , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prescrição Inadequada/efeitos adversos , Prescrições , Doença Crônica , Centros de Atenção Terciária
8.
Nat Immunol ; 24(2): 225-238, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624165

RESUMO

Skin is exposed to various environmental assaults and undergoes morphological changes immediately after birth. Proper localization and function of immune cells in the skin is crucial for protection and establishment of skin tissue homeostasis. Here we report the discovery of a developmentally programmed process that directs preferential localization of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells to the skin for early local homeostatic regulation. We show that iNKT cells are programmed predominantly with a CCR10+ skin-homing phenotype during thymic development in infant and young mice. Early skin localization of iNKT cells is critical for proper commensal bacterial colonization and tissue development. Mechanistically, skin iNKT cells provide a local source of transferrin that regulates iron metabolism in hair follicle progenitor cells and helps hair follicle development. These findings provide molecular insights into the establishment and physiological functions of iNKT cells in the skin during early life.


Assuntos
Células T Matadoras Naturais , Camundongos , Animais , Pele , Homeostase , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
9.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 115443, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720353

RESUMO

Several clinical trials observed that enzastaurin prolonged QT interval in cancer patients. However, the mechanism of enzastaurin is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effect and mechanism of enzastaurin on QT interval and cardiac function. The Langendorff and Ion-Optix MyoCam systems were used to assess the effects of enzastaurin on QT interval, cardiac systolic function and intracellular Ca2+ transient in guinea pig hearts and ventricular myocytes. The effects of enzastaurin on the rapid delayed rectifier (IKr), the slow delayed rectifier K+ current (IKs), transient outward potassium current (Ito), action potentials, Ryanodine Receptor 2 (RyR2) and The sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) expression and activity in HEK 293 cell system and primary cardiomyocytes were investigated using whole-cell recording technique and western blotting. We found that enzastaurin significantly prolonged QT interval in guinea pig hearts and increased the action potential duration (APD) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Enzastaurin potently inhibited IKr by binding to the human Ether-à-go-go-Related gene (hERG) channel in both open and closed states and hERG mutant channels including S636A, S631A, and F656V attenuated the inhibitory effect of enzastaurin. Enzastaurin also moderately decreased IKs. Additionally, enzastaurin also induced negative chronotropic action. Moreover, enzastaurin impaired cardiac systolic function and reduced intracellular Ca2+ transient via inhibition of RyR2 phosphorylation. Taken together, we found that enzastaurin prolongs QT, reduces heart rate and impairs cardiac systolic function. Therefore, we recommend that electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac function should be continuously monitored when enzastaurin is administered to cancer patients.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2023: 8753309, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36644580

RESUMO

Radiotherapy (RT) is currently only used in children with high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) due to concerns of long-term side effects as well as lack of effective adjuvant. Calreticulin (CALR) has served distinct physiological roles in cancer malignancies; nonetheless, impact of radiation on chaperones and molecular roles they play remains largely unknown. In present study, we systemically analyzed correlation between CALR and NB cells of different malignancies to investigate potential role of CALR in mediating radioresistance of NB. Our data revealed that more malignant NB cells are correlated to lower CALR expression, greater radioresistance, and elevated stemness as indicated by colony- and neurospheroid-forming abilities and vice versa. Of note, manipulating CALR expression in NB cells of varying endogenous CALR expression manifested changes in not only stemness but also radioresistant properties of those NB cells. Further, CALR overexpression resulted in greatly enhanced ROS and led to increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, growth of NB tumors was significantly hampered by CALR overexpression and was synergistically ablated when RT was also administered. Collectively, our current study unraveled a new notion of utilizing CALR expression in malignant NB to diminish cancer stemness and mitigate radioresistance to achieve favorable therapeutic outcome for NB.


Assuntos
Calreticulina , Neuroblastoma , Criança , Humanos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Calreticulina/genética , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Neuroblastoma/radioterapia , Tolerância a Radiação
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 25(4): 2742-2746, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36644939

RESUMO

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) suffer from carrier imbalance under high temperatures. We improved their thermal stability by using space interlayers adjacent to the charge transport layers. The current efficiency of the optimized OLEDs increased under high temperature, with an increase of over one order of magnitude of the electron mobility.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 14(4): 846-853, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656720

RESUMO

Li-O2 batteries have an extremely high theoretical specific energy; however, the large charge overpotential and highly reactive singlet oxygen (1O2) are two major obstacles. Porphyrin as a special kind of macrocyclic conjugated aromatic system exhibits excellent redox activity, which can be optimized by introducing a center metal atom. Herein, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)-porphyrin (TAPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)-porphyrin-Co(II) (Co-TAP) are applied as effective redox mediators for Li-O2 batteries. The synergistic effects of a center metal atom and organic ligand make Co-TAP more favorable for oxygen reduction and evolution. To understand the fundamental reaction mechanisms with or without TAPP or Co-TAP, the discharge/charge processes and the parasitic reactions have been comprehensively studied. The results reveal that TAPP affects the formation mechanism of Li2O2, while Co-TAP transforms the main discharge product into LiOH without adding extra water. Co-TAP-containing batteries operated via LiOH chemistry completely eradicate 1O2 and significantly alleviate the parasitic reactions associated with 1O2.

13.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 86(2): 135-137, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524941

RESUMO

The Omicron variant BA.2 is the dominant form of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in many countries, including those that have already implemented the strictest quarantine mandates that effectively contained the spread of the previous variants. Although many individuals were partially or fully vaccinated, confirmed Omicron infections have far surpassed all other variants combined in just a couple of months since the Omicron variant emerged. The ChAdOx1-S (AstraZeneca), BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines offer protection against the severe illness of SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, these currently available vaccines are less effective in terms of preventing Omicron infections. As a result, a booster dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 is recommended for individuals >12 years old who had received their second dose of the approved vaccines for >5 months. Herein, we review the studies that assessed the clinical benefits of the booster dose of vaccines against Omicron infections. We also analyzed public data to address whether early booster vaccination effectively prevented the surge of the Omicron infections. Finally, we discuss the consideration of a fourth dose of vaccine as a way to prevent possible upcoming infections.


Assuntos
Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV , COVID-19 , Humanos , Criança , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Hum Kinet ; 84: 32-42, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457478

RESUMO

Prolonged overactivity of the upper trapezius muscle with myofascial trigger points might cause muscle fatigue and subsequently change scapular kinematics and associated muscular activities. Scapular kinematics and associated muscular activities were investigated in 17 overhead athletes with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points and 17 controls before and after a fatigue task. Participants performed a fatigue task requiring sustained isometric scapular elevation. The outcomes included scapular kinematics (upward/downward rotation, external/internal rotation, posterior/anterior tilt) that were tracked by the Polhemus FASTRAK (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT, USA) system with Motion Monitor software and muscular activities (upper trapezius, lower trapezius and serratus anterior) that were collected at 1000 Hz per channel using a 16-bit analog-to-digital converter (Model MP 150, Biopac systems Inc., CA, USA) with pairs of silver chloride circular surface electrodes (The Ludlow Company LP, Chocopee, MA) during arm elevation. Mixed ANOVAs were conducted to characterize the outcomes with and without a fatigue task in participants with myofascial trigger points. Decreased scapular posterior tipping during 90 degrees of arm raising/lowering (effect sizes of 0.51 and 0.59) was likely to be elicited by the scapular elevation fatigue task in the presence of myofascial trigger points. Activity of the lower trapezius was higher in the myofascial trigger point group (6.2%, p = 0.036) than in the control group. Following the fatigue task, both groups showed increased activity in the upper trapezius (9.0%, p = 0.009) during arm lowering and in the lower trapezius (2.7%, p < 0.01) during arm raising and lowering. Decreased scapular posterior tipping during 90 degrees of arm raising/lowering after a fatigue task may lead to impingement. We found that the presence of upper trapezius myofascial trigger points in amateur overhead athletes was related to impaired scapular kinematics and associated muscular activities during arm elevation after a fatigue task, especially the decreased scapular tipping during 90 degrees of raising/lowering.

15.
Front Nutr ; 9: 1035912, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451737

RESUMO

Fermentation represents an efficient biotechnological approach to increase the nutritional and functional potential of traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum was used to ferment traditional Chinese medicine Astragalus, the differential metabolites in the fermented Astragalus (FA) were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS), and the ameliorating effect of FA on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice were further explored. The results showed that 11 differential metabolites such as raffinose, progesterone and uridine were identified in FA, which may help improve the ability of FA to alleviate colitis. Prophylactic FA supplementation effectively improved DAI score, colon length and histopathological lesion in DSS-treated mice. The abnormal activation of the intestinal immune barrier in mice was controlled after FA supplementation, the contents of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and IgE were reduced and the contents of IgA were increased. The intestinal pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-17 were down-regulated and the anti-inflammatory factors IL-10 and TGF-ß were up-regulated, suggesting that FA can intervene in inflammatory status by regulating the balance of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg related cytokines. In addition, FA supplementation modified the structure of the intestinal microbiota and enriched the abundance of Akkermansia and Alistipes, which were positively associated with the production of short-chain fatty acids. These microbes and their metabolites induced by FA also be involved in maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier integrity by affecting mucosal immunity. We observed that intestinal tight junction protein and mucous secreting protein ZO-1, occludin, and MUC2 genes expression were more pronounced in mice supplemented with FA compared to unfermented Astragalus, along with modulation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) apoptosis, verifying the intestinal mucosal barrier repaired by FA. This study is the first to suggest that FA as a potential modulator can more effectively regulate the inflammatory status and gut microbiota to repair the intestinal barrier damage caused by colitis.

16.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 1046518, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466167

RESUMO

Background: There were limited studies that directly compare the outcomes of various mind-body exercise (MBE) therapies on chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP). Objectives: To compare the efficacy of the four most popular MBE modes [Pilates, Yoga, Tai Chi (TC), and Qigong] in clinically CNLBP patients, we conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods: We searched databases for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (from origin to July 2022). RCTs were eligible if they included adults with CNLBP, and implemented one or more MBE intervention arms using Pilates, yoga, TC, and qigong. In addition, pain intensity and physical function were evaluated using validated questionnaires. Results: NMA was carried out on 36 eligible RCTs involving 3,050 participants. The effect of exercise therapy on pain was in the following rankings: Pilates [Surface under cumulative ranking (SUCRA) = 86.6%], TC (SUCRA = 77.2%), yoga (SUCRA = 67.6%), and qigong (SUCRA = 64.6%). The effect of exercise therapy on function: Pilates (SUCRA = 98.4%), qigong (SUCRA = 61.6%,), TC (SUCRA = 59.5%) and yoga (SUCRA = 59.0%). Conclusion: Our NMA shows that Pilates might be the best MBE therapy for CNLBP in pain intensity and physical function. TC is second only to Pilates in improving pain in patients with CNLBP and has the value of promotion. In the future, we need more high-quality, long-term follow-up RCTs to confirm our findings. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=306905, identifier: CRD42022306905.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 952332, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467099

RESUMO

Ginsenosides are the most important pharmacological active ingredient of ginseng, with multiple biological therapeutic targets, mild action and no side effects. It is having shown beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo models of AD. In this review, we analyze large literature, summarize the inhibition of ginsenosides fibrous extracellular deposition of ß-amyloid (Aß) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of possible mechanisms, and explain the effects of ginsenosides on AD neuroprotection from the aspects of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptosis, prove the potential of ginsenosides as a new class of drugs for the treatment of AD. In addition, according to the current clinical application status of natural drugs, this paper analysis the delivery route and delivery mode of ginsenosides from the perspective of pharmacokinetics, providing a deeper insight into the clinical application of ginsenosides in the treatment of AD.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579838

RESUMO

The problems with plastic materials and the good film-forming properties of polysaccharides motivated research in the development of polysaccharide-based films. In the last 5 years, there has been an explosion of publications on using green solvents, including ionic liquids (ILs), and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as candidates to substitute the conventional solvents/plasticizers for preparations of desired polysaccharide-based films. This review summarizes related properties and recovery of ILs and DESs, a series of green preparation strategies (including pretreatment solvents/reaction media, ILs/DESs as components, extraction solvents of bioactive compounds added into films), and inherent properties of polysaccharide-based films with/without ILs and DESs. Major reported advantages of these new solvents are high dissolving capacity of certain ILs/DESs for polysaccharides (i.e., up to 30 wt% for cellulose) and better plasticizing ability than traditional plasticizers. In addition, they frequently display intrinsic antioxidant and antibacterial activities that facilitate ILs/DESs applications in the processing of polysaccharide-based films (especially active food packaging films). ILs/DESs in the film could also be further recycled by water or ethanol/methanol treatment followed by drying/evaporation. One particularly promising approach is to use bioactive cholinium-based ILs and DESs with good safety and plasticizing ability to improve the functional properties of prepared films. Whole extracts by ILs/DESs from various byproducts can also be directly used in films without separation/polishing of compounds from the extracting agents. Scaling-up, including costs and environmental footprint, as well as the safety and applications in real foods of polysaccharide-based film with ILs/DESs (extracts) deserves more studies.

19.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495036

RESUMO

CSPCHA115 is a highly selective and potent antagonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2). This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PKs), safety, and tolerability of single and multiple ascending doses of CSPCHA115 in Chinese healthy subjects. Two phase I studies both adopted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, and ascending-dose design. In the single ascending dose (SAD) study, subjects were randomly allocated to receive a single dose of CSPCHA115 (25-1000 mg) or a placebo. In the multiple ascending dose (MAD) study, 100, 200, 400, or 600 mg of CSPCHA115 or placebo were given to subjects once daily for 7 days. PK parameters were estimated by noncompartmental analysis. Safety was assessed by monitoring treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), clinical laboratory tests, electrocardiograms, vital signs, and physical examinations throughout the study period. Forty-eight healthy subjects were enrolled in the SAD study, and 40 healthy subjects were in the MAD study. Following single and multiple administrations, CSPCHA115 was rapidly absorbed with a median time to maximum concentration of ~0.5-3.5 h; and the systemic exposure of CSPCHA115 generally increased dose-proportionally within the dose range studied. Steady-state was approximately achieved by day 5, and <1.5-fold accumulation was observed following multiple doses. Mean terminal half-life was ~8.16-16.43 h after a single dose. CSPCHA115 was well-tolerated in both studies, with a low overall incidence of TEAEs. The most common TEAE related to CSPCHA115 was hypertriglyceridemia. No significant safety concerns were identified in healthy subjects.

20.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 15: 1056966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533133

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain is often accompanied by emotional dysfunction. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used for reducing pain, depressive and anxiety symptoms in chronic pain patients, but its therapeutic effect remains unknown. Objectives: To ascertain the treatment effect of tDCS on pain, depression, and anxiety symptoms of patients suffering from chronic pain, and potential factors that modulate the effectiveness of tDCS. Methods: Literature search was performed on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from inception to July 2022. Randomized controlled trials that reported the effects of tDCS on pain and depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with chronic pain were included. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in this review. Overall pooled results indicated that the use of tDCS can effectively alleviate short-term pain intensity [standard mean difference (SMD): -0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.75 to -0.12, P = 0.007] and depressive symptoms (SMD: -0.31, 95% CI, -0.47 to -0.14, P < 0.001), middle-term depressive symptoms (SMD: -0.35, 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.11, P = 0.004), long-term depressive symptoms (ES: -0.38, 95% CI: -0.64 to -0.13, P = 0.003) and anxiety symptoms (SMD: -0.26, 95% CI: -0.51 to -0.02, P = 0.03) compared with the control group. Conclusion: tDCS may be an effective short-term treatment for the improvement of pain intensity and concomitant depression and anxiety symptoms in chronic pain patients. Stimulation site, stimulation frequency, and type of chronic pain were significant influence factors for the therapeutic effect of tDCS. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=297693, identifier: CRD42022297693.

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