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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 10, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current studies on the COVID-19 depicted a general incubation period distribution and did not examine whether the incubation period distribution varies across patients living in different geographical locations with varying environmental attributes. Profiling the incubation distributions geographically help to determine the appropriate quarantine duration for different regions. METHODS: This retrospective study mainly applied big data analytics and methodology, using the publicly accessible clinical report for patients (n = 543) confirmed as infected in Shenzhen and Hefei, China. Based on 217 patients on whom the incubation period could be identified by the epidemiological method. Statistical and econometric methods were employed to investigate how the incubation distributions varied between infected cases reported in Shenzhen and Hefei. RESULTS: The median incubation period of the COVID-19 for all the 217 infected patients was 8 days (95% CI 7 to 9), while median values were 9 days in Shenzhen and 4 days in Hefei. The incubation period probably has an inverse U-shaped association with the meteorological temperature. The warmer condition in the winter of Shenzhen, average environmental temperature between 10 °C to 15 °C, may decrease viral virulence and result in more extended incubation periods. CONCLUSION: Case studies of the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen and Hefei indicated that the incubation period of COVID-19 had exhibited evident geographical disparities, although the pathological causality between meteorological conditions and incubation period deserves further investigation. Methodologies based on big data released by local public health authorities are applicable for identifying incubation period and relevant epidemiological research.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Org Lett ; 23(2): 279-284, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352055

RESUMO

An efficient divergent approach of Pd-catalyzed C-H oxygenation of polyaromatic rings is described. Reversible directing groups enable regiospecific peri- and ortho-oxygenation to readily access a wide array of polyaromatic phenols without pre- and postmanipulation of directing groups. The systematic mechanistic investigation, including deuterium-labeling experiments, palladacycle trapping, and DFT calculations, reveals that the tunable ligand-assisted C-H bond cleavage played a crucial role during the reaction process.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344883

RESUMO

Cycling is a green, sustainable, and healthy choice for transportation that has been widely advocated worldwide in recent years. It can also encourage the use of public transit by solving the "last-mile" issue, because transit passengers can cycle to and from transit stations to achieve a combination of speed and flexibility. Cycling as a transfer mode has been shown to be affected by various built environment characteristics, such as the urban density, land-use mix, and destination accessibility, that is, the ease with which cyclists can reach their destinations. However, cycling destination accessibility is loosely defined in the literature and the methods of assessing cycling accessibility is often assumed to be equivalent to walking accessibility using the same decay curves, such as the negative exponential function, which ignores the competitive relationship between cycling and walking within a short distance range around transit stations. In this study, we aim to fill the above gap by measuring the cycling destination accessibility of metro station areas using data from more than three million bicycle-metro transfer trips from a dockless bicycle-sharing program in Shenzhen, China. We found that the frequency of bicycle-metro trips has a positive association with a trip distance of 500 m or less and a negative association with a trip distance beyond 500 m. A new cycling accessibility metric with a lognormal distribution decay curve was developed by considering the distance decay characteristics and cycling's competition with walking. The new accessibility model outperformed the traditional model with an exponential decay function, or that without a distance decay function, in predicting the frequency of bicycle-metro trips. Hence, to promote bicycle-metro integration, urban planners and government agencies should carefully consider the destination accessibility of metro station areas.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Planejamento Ambiental , Transportes , Caminhada , Big Data , China , Humanos
4.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 65(2): 64-74, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ideology of recovery addresses the autonomy of patients with mental illness and their ability to reconstruct a normal life. Empirical knowledge of this process of recovery and related factors remains unclear. PURPOSE: To assess the process of recovery and related factors in patients with mental illness. METHODS: This cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted on a convenience sample in a psychiatric hospital. Two-hundred and fifty patients with mental illness were recruited and were assessed using 3 instruments: Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR), Perceived Psychiatric Stigma Scale (PPSS), and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2, analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Most of the participants were male, middle-aged, unmarried, educated to the senior high school level, employed, receiving home-care treatment, and diagnosed with schizophrenia. Those who were unemployed, living in a community rehabilitative house, and living in the community, respectively, earned relatively higher recovery scores (p < .05). The total scores of QPR and the 3 subscales were negatively correlated with PPSS (p < .01) and positively correlated with PSPS (p < .01; p < .05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors of education, employment, having received community rehabilitative models, and stigma, respectively, significantly explained the recovery capacity of patients with mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: Community psychiatric nurses should provide care to help employed patients adapt to stresses in the workplace, strengthen their stigma-coping strategies, and promote public awareness of mental health issues by increasing public knowledge and acceptance of mental illness in order to minimize patient-perceived stigma and facilitate their recovery.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 626: 546-554, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353793

RESUMO

China is confronted with serious PM2.5 pollution, especially in the capital city of Beijing. Exposure to PM2.5 could lead to various negative health impacts including premature mortality. As people spend most of their time indoors, the indoor exposure to PM2.5 from both indoor and outdoor origins constitutes the majority of personal exposure to PM2.5 pollution. Different building interventions have been introduced to mitigate indoor PM2.5 exposure, but always at the cost of energy expenditure. In this study, the health and economic benefits of different ventilation intervention strategies for reducing indoor PM2.5 exposure are modeled using a representative urban residence in Beijing, with consideration of different indoor PM2.5 emission strengths and outdoor pollution. Our modeling results show that the increase of envelope air-tightness can achieve significant economic benefits when indoor PM2.5 emissions are absent; however, if an indoor PM2.5 source is present, the benefits only increase slightly in mechanically ventilated buildings, but may show negative benefit without mechanical ventilation. Installing mechanical ventilation in Beijing can achieve annual economic benefits ranging from 200yuan/capita to 800yuan/capita if indoor PM2.5 sources exist. If there is no indoor emission, the annual benefits above 200yuan/capita can be achieved only when the PM2.5 filtration efficiency is no <90% and the envelope air-tightness is above Chinese National Standard Level 7. Introducing mechanical ventilation with low PM2.5 filtration efficiency to current residences in urban Beijing will increase the indoor PM2.5 exposure and result in excess costs to the residents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/análise , Ventilação , Pequim , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula
7.
J Clin Nurs ; 18(24): 3409-20, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19686320

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of brokered brides who have attempted suicide in Taiwan. BACKGROUND: There has been a significant rise in number of brokered brides since the 1970s in Western world and since the 1990s in several Asian countries. However, there is a great lack of research on brokered brides' suicide around the world. DESIGN: A descriptive phenomenological study was used to explore the lived experiences of brokered brides who have attempted suicide. METHODS: Purposive sampling, one-on-one, in-depth with semi-structural interviews were conducted to collect data. Narratives were analysed by Colaizzi's (1978) seven-step method. RESULTS: Data saturation was achieved after interviewing 12 brokered brides. The study group was comprised of females whose average age was 33. Three themes and the sub-themes were: being a chrysalis (loss of support, loneliness, suffering abused experience, loss of self-esteem), death of a chrysalis (loss of hope and seeking salvation) and birth of a chrysalis (regaining hope and sense of self-worth). CONCLUSIONS: These brokered brides suffered from numerous pressures and difficulties in life. Their hopelessness led to suicidal behaviours as a way to get out of trouble. Hence, the need to provide brokered brides with substantial assistance and support in their lives is an issue that cannot be neglected. The results of this study could be used as a reference to provide professionals and the public with a deeper understanding of suicide in this vulnerable group, and provide more appropriate help and care. Relevance to clinical practice. The suffering may be alleviated by giving brokered brides a reliable support system that they so obviously need. Several recommendations have been made, including amendments in terms of policy, society and the services offered by healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Divórcio/prevenção & controle , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Países em Desenvolvimento , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Entrevistas como Assunto , Casamento/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 51(5): 88-94, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15614669

RESUMO

Cultural maladjustment of foreign brides is an important social problem. In order to elucidate effective community nursing intervention, a 27 year-old Indonesian bride who had attempted suicide was adopted as a subject presented. In four months of community nursing care, the client's cooperation was won the client's and family's knowledge of suicide was improved, the client's coping skills were improved, communication between the couple was improved and the client's social interaction was improved, and religious tension with the family was moderated. The client's attitude was changed from rejecting to accepting. There was no suicide attempt in the subsequent 6 months and the client's ability to use social resources was significantly improved.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Emigração e Imigração , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/etnologia , Cônjuges , Taiwan
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