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1.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901200

RESUMO

Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been reported to increase the risk of acute and chronic renal disease. However, the data is unclear in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis (AKI-D) who are often candidates for PPI. To investigate this important issue, we identified 26,052 patients from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database weaning dialysis from AKI-D. During a mean follow-up period of 3.52 years, the PPI users had a higher incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than the PPI non-users (P<.001). After propensity score matching and treating mortality as a competing risk factor, the PPIs users had a higher risk in ESRD (sHR 1.40; 95% CI 1.31-1.50) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE, sHR1.53; 95 %CI 1.37-1.71) compared to the PPI non-users with AKI-D survivors. In conclusion, the use of PPIs was associated with a higher risk of ESRD and MACE, compared to the PPI non-users in AKI-D patients.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(2): e013036, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910780

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. Heart rhythm complexity analysis has been shown to be useful in predicting outcomes in various diseases; however, data on patients with end-stage renal disease are limited. In this study, we analyzed the association between heart rhythm complexity and long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving peritoneal dialysis. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 133 patients receiving peritoneal dialysis and analyzed linear heart rate variability and heart rhythm complexity variables including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality, and the secondary outcome was the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events. After a median of 6.37 years of follow-up, 21 patients (22%) died from cardiovascular causes. These patients had a significantly lower low-frequency band of heart rate variability, low/high-frequency band ratio, total power band of heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence slope, deceleration capacity, short-term DFA (DFAα1); and multiscale entropy slopes 1 to 5, scale 5, area 1 to 5, and area 6 to 20 compared with the patients who did not die from cardiovascular causes. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that DFAα1 had the greatest discriminatory power for cardiovascular mortality (area under the curve: 0.763) and major adverse cardiovascular events (area under the curve: 0.730). The best cutoff value for DFAα1 was 0.98 to predict both cardiovascular mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that DFAα1 (hazard ratio: 0.076; 95% CI, 0.016-0.366; P=0.001) and area 1 to 5 (hazard ratio: 0.645; 95% CI, 0.447-0.930; P=0.019) were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Heart rhythm complexity appears to be a promising noninvasive tool to predict long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis.

3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(3): 165627, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785407

RESUMO

Macrophages play an important role in aldosterone-induced myocardial fibrosis, in which the first key steps are macrophage recruitment and infiltration. We hypothesized that IL-6 may be a key mediator of aldosterone-induced macrophage recruitment and infiltration. To test this hypothesis, we designed cell studies with a human monocytic cell line THP-1 that with monocyte/macrophage functions to explore the signaling pathway of aldosterone-induced macrophage infiltration, and further investigated the phenomenon and consequent pathway in aldosterone-infused mice studies. The results showed that aldosterone induced the expression of IL-6 via mineralocorticoid receptors, and enhanced THP-1 cell migration and infiltration. Further experiments using a protease array and siRNA revealed that expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-9 were associated with aldosterone-induced macrophage infiltration. In addition, aldosterone-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9 expressions were mediated via cyclooxygenase-II and prostaglandin E2/EP-2 and EP-4 receptors. In aldosterone-infused mice, mRNA expressions of MMP-1, MMP-9 and COX-2 in peripheral blood monocytic cells were significantly increased. Moreover, the number of mouse macrophage-restricted F4/80 protein-positive cells in the myocardium was significantly higher in the aldosterone-infused mice compared with control mice. The increase in F4/80-positive cells in the myocardium was suppressed in the aldosterone-infused mice with the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone or anti-IL-6 antibody treatment. In conclusion, interleukin-6 played an important role in aldosterone-induced macrophage recruitment and infiltration in the myocardium.

4.
Surgery ; 167(2): 367-377, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension with hyperaldosteronism could be associated with stroke attributable to endothelial injury. Whether the detrimental effect of aldosterone on stroke among primary aldosteronism patients could be mitigated by administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist or by reduction of aldosterone level via adrenalectomy is still inconclusive. METHODS: Primary aldosteronism and essential hypertensive patients were enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance from 1997 to 2009. We used a validated algorithm to enroll primary aldosteronism patients. We conducted a competing risk analysis, using a time-varying Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: We enrolled 3,167 primary aldosteronism patients with a subgroup of 1,047 aldosterone-producing adenoma patients, and matched these with essential hypertensive controls in a 1:4 ratio. The risk of incident stroke, both ischemic and hemorrhagic, was statistically higher in primary aldosteronism patients than in their essential hypertensive control. The differences in stroke incidences between primary aldosteronism and essential hypertensive patients significantly increased as the hypertensive period lengthened. Primary aldosteronism patients who received mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment had higher risk of all stroke (competing hazard ratio = 1.83, P < .001) compared with their essential hypertensive controls. In light of this, aldosterone-producing adenoma patients had a lower risk of incident stroke after adrenalectomy (competing for hazard ratio = 0.75), but a higher cumulative risk of incident stroke after mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist only (competing for hazard ratio = 1.76) than their matched essential hypertensive patients. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased stroke risk among primary aldosteronism patients than among their matched essential hypertensive controls. A prolonged duration of hypertension was proportionate to the raised risk of stroke. Our findings emphasize the importance of aldosterone-producing adenoma benefitting from adrenalectomy in attenuating the cerebrovascular event.

5.
J Investig Med ; 68(2): 371-377, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630138

RESUMO

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is an important topic in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). However, the relationship between left ventricular structure and eGFR is unclear. We conducted a prospective, observational, and cross-sectional study to analyze 168 patients with PA and 168 propensity score-matched patients with essential hypertension (EH) as the control group, matched by age, gender, and systolic blood pressure. In the patients with PA, the eGFR was not correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI; r=-0.065, p=0.404), while in the patients with EH, the eGFR was negatively correlated with LVMI (r=-0.309, p<0.001). To test whether eGFR had a non-linear relationship with LVMI among the patients with PA, we stratified the patients with PA according to the tertile of eGFR (low, medium, and high tertile). The medium tertile of patients had a significantly lower LVMI than those in the other two tertiles (LVMI: 143.5±41.6, 120.5±40.5, and 133.1±34.3 g/m2, from the lowest to highest tertile of eGFR; analysis of covariance p=0.032). The medium tertile of eGFR is associated with lowest LVMI. Patients with PA with high and low eGFR were associated with higher LVMI. The findings implied that the reasons for an increased LVMI in patients with PA may be different to those in patients with EH.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(24): e012410, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801414

RESUMO

Background Previous studies show that patients with primary aldosteronism are associated with higher risk of congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the effect of target treatment to the incidental CHF has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the risk of new-onset CHF in patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) and explore the effect of adrenalectomy on new onset of CHF. Methods and Results From 1997 to 2009, 688 APA were identified and matched with essential hypertension controls. The risks of developing incidental CHF (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.75; P=0.001) and mortality (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.20-0.44; P<0.001) were significantly lower in the APA group after targeted treatment. A total of 605 patients with APAs who underwent adrenalectomy lowered the risks of CHF (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90; P=0.017) and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.44; P<0.001) compared with essential hypertension controls. Conclusions In conclusion, for patients with APAs, adrenalectomy can be associated with lower risk of incidental CHF and all-cause mortality in a long-term follow-up.

7.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between hyperaldosteronism and autoimmune disorders has been postulated. However, long-term incidence of a variety of new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOAD) among patients with primary aldosteronism has not been well investigated. METHODS: From Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database with a 23-million population insurance registry, the identification of primary aldosteronism, essential hypertension and NOAD as well as all-cause mortality were ascertained by a validated algorithm. RESULTS: From 1997 to 2009, 2319 primary aldosteronism patients without previously autoimmune disease were identified and propensity score-matched with 9276 patients with essential hypertension. Among those primary aldosteronism patients, 806 patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) were identified and matched with 3224 essential hypertension controls. NOAD incidence is augmented in primary aldosteronism patients compared with its matched essential hypertension (hazard ratio 3.82, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension). Furthermore, NOAD incidence is also higher in APA patients compared with its matched essential hypertension (hazard ratio = 2.96, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension). However, after a mean 8.9 years of follow-up, primary aldosteronism patients who underwent adrenalectomy (hazard ratio = 3.10, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension) and took mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) still had increased NOAD incidence (hazard ratio = 4.04, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension). CONCLUSION: Primary aldosteronism patients had an augmented risk for a variety of incident NOAD and all-cause of mortality, compared with matched essential hypertension controls. Notably, the risk of incident NOAD remained increased in patients treated by adrenalectomy or MRA compared with matched essential hypertension controls. This observation supports the theory of primary aldosteronism being associated with a higher risk of multiple autoimmune diseases.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e013263, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718437

RESUMO

Background Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, whether aldosterone excess is responsible for left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is unknown. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 129 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma and 120 patients with essential hypertension, and analyzed their clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic data, including tissue Doppler images. The patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma were reevaluated 1 year after adrenalectomy. After propensity score matching, there were 105 patients in each group. The patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had worse diastolic function than the patients with essential hypertension, as reflected by lower e' (P<0.001) and higher E/e' (P=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that LV diastolic function was significantly correlated with age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), body mass index (P=0.002), systolic blood pressure (P=0.004), creatinine (P=0.008), and log-transformed aldosterone-renin ratio (P=0.003). After adrenalectomy, the patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had significant improvements in LV diastolic function as reflected by an increase in e' (P=0.003) and decrease in E/e' (P=0.002). The change in E/e' was independently correlated with baseline E/e' (P<0.001) and change in LV mass index (P=0.006). Conclusions The patients with primary aldosteronism had worse LV diastolic function than the patients with essential hypertension after propensity score matching, and this could be reversed after adrenalectomy, suggesting that aldosterone excess may induce LV diastolic dysfunction.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640178

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal glands and is the most common and treatable cause of secondary hypertension. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone that participates in the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, and tissue remodeling. The excess of aldosterone caused by PA results in an increase in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and even arrhythmia and heart failure. Endothelial dysfunction is a well-established fundamental cause of cardiovascular diseases and also a predictor of worse clinical outcomes. Accumulating evidence indicates that aldosterone plays an important role in the initiation and progression of endothelial dysfunction. Several mechanisms have been shown to contribute to aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction, including aldosterone-mediated vascular tone dysfunction, aldosterone- and endothelium-mediated vascular inflammation, aldosterone-related atherosclerosis, and vascular remodeling. These mechanisms are activated by aldosterone through genomic and nongenomic pathways in mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent and independent manners. In addition, other cells have also been shown to participate in these mechanisms. The complex interactions among endothelium, inflammatory cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts are crucial for aldosterone-mediated endothelial dysregulation. In this review, we discuss the association between aldosterone and endothelial function and the complex mechanisms from a molecular aspect. Furthermore, we also review current clinical research of endothelial dysfunction in patients with PA.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4475, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578327

RESUMO

Looking beyond energy harvesting, metal-halide perovskites offer great opportunities to revolutionise large-area photodetection technologies due to their high absorption coefficients, long diffusion lengths, low trap densities and simple processability. However, successful extraction of photocarriers from perovskites and their conversion to electrical signals remain challenging due to the interdependency of photogain and dark current density. Here we report hybrid hetero-phototransistors by integrating perovskites with organic semiconductor transistor channels to form either "straddling-gap" type-I or "staggered-gap" type-II heterojunctions. Our results show that gradual transforming from type-II to type-I heterojunctions leads to increasing and tuneable photoresponsivity with high photogain. Importantly, with a preferential edge-on molecular orientation, the type-I heterostructure results in efficient photocarrier cycling through the channel. Additionally, we propose the use of a photo-inverter circuitry to assess the phototransistors' functionality and amplification. Our study provides important insights into photocarrier dynamics and can help realise advanced device designs with "on-demand" optoelectronic properties.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510052

RESUMO

Patients with a relapse of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome have significantly increased levels of serum complement component 5a (C5a), and proteinuria has been noted in mice treated with C5a via changes in permeability of kidney endothelial cells (KECs) in established animal models. However, the apoptosis of KECs treated with high concentrations of C5a has also been observed. As mitochondrial damage is known to be important in cell apoptosis, the aim of this study was to examine the association between C5a-induced mouse KEC apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Mouse KECs were isolated and treated with different concentrations of C5a. Cell viability assays showed that a high-concentration mouse recombinant protein C5a (rmC5a) treatment reduced mouse KEC growth. Cell cycle phase analysis, including apoptosis (sub-G1 phase) showed an increased percentage of the subG1 phase with a high-concentration rmC5a treatment. Cytochrome c and caspase 3/9 activities were significantly induced in the mouse KECs after a high-dose rmC5a (50 ng/mL) treatment, and this was rescued by pretreatment with the C5a receptor (C5aR) inhibitor (W-54011) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in C5a-treated mouse KECs; however, W-54011 or NAC pretreatment inhibited high-dose rmC5a-induced ROS formation and also reduced cytochrome c release, apoptotic cell formation, and apoptotic DNA fragmentation. These factors determined the apoptosis of mouse KECs treated with high-dose C5a through C5aR and subsequently led to apoptosis via ROS regeneration and cytochrome c release. The results showed that high concentrations of C5a induced mouse KEC apoptosis via a C5aR/ROS/mitochondria-dependent pathway. These findings may shed light on the potential mechanism of glomerular sclerosis, a process in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome causing renal function impairment.

12.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 623-629, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352825

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is hemodynamically independently associated with arterial wall stiffness as assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) compared with essential hypertension. Arterial wave reflection parameters derived from pulse wave analysis, such as forward and backward wave amplitudes (Pf and Pb), are promising vascular markers to predict cardiovascular outcomes in addition to PWV. These vascular parameters have never been studied in patients with PA before. In study part A, we prospectively enrolled 67 patients with PA and 132 patients with essential hypertension. In study part B, another 54 patients with PA were enrolled. Heart-carotid PWV was measured, and carotid pressure waveforms were recorded to calculate Pf, Pb, and augmentation index at baseline (part A and B) and 6 months after treatment (part B). The results showed that the patients with PA had significantly higher Pf (P=0.001), Pb (P=0.01), and PWV (P=0.021) than the patients with essential hypertension. In univariate correlation analysis, both log Pf and Pb were significantly correlated with age, office blood pressure, serum potassium level, log PWV, and the presence of PA. However, only Pb was significantly correlated with log plasma renin activity and log aldosterone to renin ratio. In multivariate analysis, log Pf was significantly correlated with the presence of PA (P=0.001), male sex, age, and mean arterial blood pressure. Pb was significantly correlated with the presence of PA (P=0.031), age, and mean arterial pressure. Six months after treatment, Pf and Pb decreased significantly. In conclusion, the patients with PA had significantly increased wave reflections compared with the patients with essential hypertension. Our results provide clinical evidence of aldosterone-related extensive vascular dysfunction of the arterial system.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Essencial/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperaldosteronismo/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Aldosterona/sangue , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10710, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341216

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension is a fatal disease, however reliable prognostic tools are lacking. Heart rhythm complexity analysis is derived from non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and has shown excellent performance in predicting clinical outcomes in several cardiovascular diseases. However, heart rhythm complexity has not previously been studied in pulmonary hypertension patients. We prospectively analyzed 57 patients with pulmonary hypertension (31 with pulmonary arterial hypertension and 26 with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) and compared them to 57 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Heart rhythm complexity including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) and linear HRV parameters were analyzed. The patients with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower mean RR, SDRR, pNN20, VLF, LF, LF/HF ratio, DFAα1, MSE slope 5, scale 5, area 1-5 and area 6-20 compared to the controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that heart rhythm complexity parameters were better than traditional HRV parameters to predict pulmonary hypertension. Among all parameters, scale 5 had the greatest power to differentiate the pulmonary hypertension patients from controls (AUC: 0.845, P < 0.001). Furthermore, adding heart rhythm complexity parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of the traditional HRV parameters in both net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement models. In conclusion, the patients with pulmonary hypertension had worse heart rhythm complexity. MSE parameters, especially scale 5, had excellent single discriminatory power to predict whether or not patients had pulmonary hypertension.

14.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(11): 1066-1074, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The saline infusion test (SIT) and the captopril test (CT) are widely used as confirmatory tests for primary aldosteronism (PA). We hypothesized that post-SIT and post-CT plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC) indicate the severity of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and might predict clinical outcome. METHODS: We recruited 216 patients with APA in the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation (TAIPAI) registry who received both seated SIT and CT as confirmatory tests. The data of 143 patients who underwent adrenalectomy with complete follow-up after diagnosis were included in the final analysis. We determined the proportion of patients achieving clinical success in accordance with the Primary Aldosteronism Surgical Outcome consensus. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify preoperative factors associated with cure of hypertension. RESULTS: Complete clinical success was achieved in 48 (33.6%) patients and partial clinical success in 59 (41.2%) patients; absent clinical success was seen in 36 (25.2%) of 143 patients. Post-SIT PAC but not post-CT PAC was independently associated with clinical outcome. Higher levels of post-SIT PAC had a higher likelihood of clinical benefit (complete plus partial clinical success; odds ratio = 1.04 per ng/dl increase, 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.06; P = 0.004). Patients with post-SIT PAC > 25 ng/dl were more likely to have a favorable clinical outcome after adrenalectomy. This cutoff value translated into a positive predictive value of 86.0%. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that post-SIT PAC is a better predictor than post-CT PAC for clinical success in PA post adrenalectomy.

15.
Surgery ; 166(3): 362-368, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The saline infusion test is widely used as a confirmatory test for primary aldosteronism, and we hypothesized that post-saline-infusion test aldosterone levels might predict the clinical outcomes in primary aldosteronism patients after adrenalectomy. METHODS: An observational cohort study was performed. We included primary aldosteronism patients who had undergone adrenalectomy from the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation database between 1995 and 2017. The patients were divided into the following 2 groups: the clinical success group and the resist hypertension group, according to the criteria from the Primary Aldosteronism Surgery Outcome consensus. RESULTS: We enrolled 236 patients with primary aldosteronism (male, 41.1%; mean age, 49.8 years). A total of 79.7% patients achieved clinical success after adrenalectomy after 12-month follow-up. The clinical success group had higher mean blood pressure, higher aldosterone-to-renin ratio, lower potassium, and lower renin levels than that of the resist hypertension group. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, post saline-infusion test aldosterone levels higher than 48 ng/dL (odds ratio, 2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-6.06; P = .040), body mass index less than 25 kg/m2 (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.40; P = .023) and mean blood pressure higher than 115 mmHg (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-5.68; P = .005) could predict better clinical success rates after adrenalectomy in primary aldosteronism patients. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the post-saline-infusion test aldosterone level could not only confirm primary aldosteronism but also forecast clinical outcomes in primary aldosteronism patients after adrenalectomy.


Assuntos
Adrenalectomia , Aldosterona/sangue , Biomarcadores , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia/efeitos adversos , Adrenalectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Acta Cardiol Sin ; 35(3): 199-230, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249454

RESUMO

Sympathetic overactivity, an essential mechanism of hypertension, in driving sustained hypertension derives mostly from its effects on renal function. Percutaneous renal denervation (RDN) is designed to disrupt renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerves to achieve sustained blood pressure (BP) reduction. Since 2017 onward, all three proof-of-concept, sham-controlled RDN trials demonstrated that RDN achieved consistent and clinically meaningful BP reductions [approximately 10 mmHg in office systolic BP (SBP) and 6-9 mmHg in 24-hour SBP] compared to sham operation in patients with mild to moderate or uncontrolled hypertension. There were no serious adverse events. The registry data in Taiwan showed similar 24-hour BP reductions at 12 months following RDN. The Task Force considers RDN as a legitimate alternative antihypertensive strategy and recommends 1) RDN should be performed in the context of registry and clinical studies (Class I, Level C) and 2) RDN should not be performed routinely, without detailed evaluation of various causes of secondary hypertension and renal artery anatomy (Class III, Level C). RDN could be performed in patients who fulfill either of the following BP criteria: 1) office BP ≥ 150/90 mmHg and daytime ambulatory SBP ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥ 85 mmHg, irrespective of use of antihypertensive agents (Class IIa, Level B), or 2) 24-hour ambulatory SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and DBP ≥ 80 mmHg, irrespective of use of antihypertensive agents (Class IIa, Level B), with eligible renal artery anatomy and estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Five subgroups of hypertensive patients are deemed preferred candidates for RDN and dubbed "RDN i2": Resistant hypertension, patients with hypertension-mediated organ Damage, Non-adherent to antihypertensive medications, intolerant to antihypertensive medications, and patients with secondary (2ndary) causes being treated for ≥ 3 months but BP still uncontrolled. The Task Force recommends assessment of three aspects, dubbed "RAS" (R for renal, A for ambulatory, S for secondary), beforehand to ascertain whether RDN could be performed appropriately: 1) Renal artery anatomy eligibility assessed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance renal angiography if not contraindicated, 2) genuine uncontrolled BP confirmed by 24-hour Ambulatory BP monitoring, and 3) Secondary hypertension identified and properly treated. After the procedure, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, together with the dose and dosing interval of all BP-lowering drugs, should be obtained 6 months following RDN. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance renal angiography should be obtained 12 months following RDN, given that renal artery stenosis might not be clinically evident.

17.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(4): 471-479, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients, there is little evidence to guide the use of antiplatelet agents in dialysis patients. METHOD: A nationwide database (Registry for Catastrophic Illnesses) for Taiwan, which has data from nearly all patients who received dialysis therapy from 1995 to 2008, was used. This is a population-based cohort study with time to event analyses to estimate the relation between antiplatelet agent use and outcomes. Hazard ratios were calculated to evaluate the effect of antiplatelet agent use on the risk of major CV events and mortality. Baseline characteristics were matched by propensity score (PS). RESULTS: A total of 71,835 were included, and 10,595 (14.7%) patients received an anti-platelet agent. The median value of follow-up days was 61.6 months. After PS-based matching, 9598 patients who used an antiplatelet agent and 23,794 non-users were included in the analysis. After PS matching, there was no difference between patients using an antiplatelet agent or not in CV events (p = 0.672) and total mortality (p = 0.529). A subgroup analysis of different usage periods of antiplatelet agents indicated that CV events and total mortality were similar in those who used antiplatelet agents for short or long durations. In subgroup analysis, there was also no difference between patients with a different modality of dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), different antiplatelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel, and/or ticlopidine) or patients with/without previous cardiovascular disease in CV events and total mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Antiplatelet agent usage does not reduce CV events and total mortality in dialysis patients.

18.
J Endocr Soc ; 3(6): 1110-1126, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086833

RESUMO

Objective: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common cause of secondary hypertension, and the long-term effect of excess aldosterone on kidney function is unknown. Patients and Methods: We used a longitudinal population database from the Taiwan National Health Insurance system and applied a validated algorithm to identify patients with PA diagnosed between 1997 and 2009. Results: There were 2699 patients with PA recruited, of whom 761 patients with an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) were identified. The incidence rate of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 3% in patients with PA after targeted treatments and 5.2 years of follow-up, which was comparable to the rate in controls with essential hypertension (EH). However, after taking mortality as a competing risk, we found a significantly lower incidence of ESRD when comparing patients with PA vs EH [subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR), 0.38; P = 0.007] and patients with APA vs EH (sHR 0.55; P = 0.021) after adrenalectomy; however, we did not see similar results in groups with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA)‒treated PA vs EH. There was also a significantly lower incidence of mortality in groups with PA and APA who underwent adrenalectomy than among EH controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Regarding incident ESRD, patients with PA were comparable to their EH counterparts after treatment. After adrenalectomy, patients with APA had better long-term outcomes regarding progression to ESRD and mortality than hypertensive controls, but MRA treatments did not significantly affect outcome.

20.
Surgery ; 165(3): 622-628, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An elevated plasma aldosterone level has been reported as an independent risk factor for severe erectile dysfunction in men. The aim of this study was to explore whether primary hyperaldosteronism patients experience erectile dysfunction after targeted treatment. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of men with newly identified primary hyperaldosteronism/aldosterone-producing adenoma from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2009. Men with essential hypertension and normotension were matched to the primary hyperaldosteronism group according to propensity score matching. RESULTS: We identified 1,067 men with primary hyperaldosteronism (mean age, 46.7 ± 12.8 years) and matched them with the same number of men with essential hypertension or normotension. During the mean follow-up interval of 5.4 years, the incident rates of total erectile dysfunction were 5.7, 3.9, and 3.1 per 1,000 person-years for the primary hyperaldosteronism, essential hypertension, and normotension groups, respectively. Men with primary hyperaldosteronism exhibited a higher risk of erectile dysfunction compared with men with normotension (competing risks hazard ratio, 1.83), and no difference was seen in comparison with men who have essential hypertension. After adrenalectomy, men who have primary hyperaldosteronism had a higher risk of exhibiting severe erectile dysfunction compared with men who have essential hypertension (competing risks hazard ratio, 2.44) or normotension (competing risks hazard ratio, 2.90). CONCLUSION: Men with primary hyperaldosteronism reported a higher incidence of severe erectile dysfunction than normotension controls despite targeted treatment. The risk of severe erectile dysfunction increased after men who have primary hyperaldosteronism underwent adrenalectomy. This result raises the possibility of severe erectile dysfunction after adrenalectomy and calls for a prospective large-scale study of men who have aldosterone-producing adenoma regarding their erectile function both before and after adrenalectomy.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/complicações , Vigilância da População , Pontuação de Propensão , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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