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3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502359

RESUMO

Under metabolic stress conditions such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation, an increase in the AMP:ATP ratio activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, resulting in the modulation of cellular metabolism. Metformin, which is widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, regulates blood sugar by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis and promoting insulin sensitivity to facilitate glucose uptake by cells. At the molecular level, the most well-known mechanism of metformin-mediated cytoprotection is AMPK pathway activation, which modulates metabolism and protects cells from degradation or pathogenic changes, such as those related to aging and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Recently, it has been revealed that metformin acts via AMPK- and non-AMPK-mediated pathways to exert effects beyond those related to diabetes treatment that might prevent aging and ameliorate DR. This review focuses on new insights into the anticancer effects of metformin and its potential modulation of several novel types of nonapoptotic cell death, including ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis. In addition, the antimetastatic and immunosuppressive effects of metformin and its hypothesized mechanism are also discussed, highlighting promising cancer prevention strategies for the future.

4.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; : e12487, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510765

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies demonstrated a trend of increasing common mental disorders among the Emergency Department (ED) visitors in Western countries. Little is known about the current conditions of the emergency psychiatric services in Asian countries. This study aims to survey the current epidemiology and the changing ecology of emergency psychiatry services in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 804 psychiatry consultations were initiated at the ED during the 1-year period from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015 in a medical center in northern Taiwan. Clinical data of gender, age, chief complaints, tentative diagnoses, dispositions, and ED staying hours were compared to a previous report in the same hospital in 1988. RESULTS: Psychiatry consultation was initiated in 0.72% of all ED visits (804/111,923). Among these visits, females were 1.73 times of the males. The most common chief complaints were psychosis/mania (33.5%) and suicide/self-harm (33.2%), followed by homicide/violence (12.8%) and anxiety/depression (10.3%). Top tentative diagnoses were schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders (31.3%), trauma- and stressor-related disorders (17.5%), bipolar disorders (15.9%), and depressive disorders (14.2%). Compared to 1988, there are three major changes: (1) over-representation of female patients, (2) an increase of "neurosis" patients, and (3) an increase of suicide/self-harm as chief problem. DISCUSSION: This study portrays the current epidemiology and changing ecology of psychiatric emergency in Taiwan. The increase of neurotic and suicide/self-harm patients requires more services and clinical training in managing common mental disorders and suicide in the ED.

5.
ANZ J Surg ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a significant cause of morbidity in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy (DP). The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and recombinant human albumin sealant gel applied to the transected pancreatic margin in DP may reduce POPF rates and was assessed. METHODS: A retrospective single centre cohort study of patient undergoing DP at an Australian high volume tertiary institution between January 2015 and January 2021. Rates of POPF in patients undergoing stapled pancreatic transection with PEG sealant were compared to other methods. RESULTS: A total of 54 cases were identified for analysis, with 16 undergoing stapled DP combined with staple line application of PEG (PEG group). Most patients in the control group had stapled DP 92% (35 of 38), with 47% (18 of 38) combined with a reinforcing buttress, with or without the use other glue types. Overall, 28 of 54 (52%) developed a POPF, with a significantly lower rate in the PEG group (3 of 16 vs. 25 of 38 in the Control group; p = 0.003). Clinically significant Grade B/C POPF was lower in the PEG group (0 of 16 vs. 9 of 28 in the Control group; p = 0.045), and patients in the PEG group had a shorter median (range) length of hospital stay (6 [4-14] days vs. 10 [6-41] days p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Stapled DP with the application of PEG and recombinant human albumin sealant to the transection line appears to be associated with a lower rate of clinically significant POPF.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499677

RESUMO

COVID-19 in humans is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that belongs to the beta family of coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory illness in 10-15% of infected individuals and mortality in 2-3%. Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent infection and to contain viral spread. Although several mRNA- and adenovirus-based vaccines are highly effective, their dependence on the "cold chain" transportation makes global vaccination a difficult task. In this context, a stable lyophilized vaccine may present certain advantages. Accordingly, establishing additional vaccine platforms remains vital to tackle SARS-CoV-2 and any future variants that may arise. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used to eradicate smallpox disease, and several attenuated viral strains with enhanced safety for human applications have been developed. We have generated two candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on two vaccinia viral strains, MVA and v-NY, that express full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Whereas MVA is growth-restricted in mammalian cells, the v-NY strain is replication-competent. We demonstrate that both candidate recombinant vaccines induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated according to prime-boost regimens. Furthermore, our vaccination regimens generated TH1-biased immune responses in mice. Most importantly, prime-boost vaccination of a Syrian hamster infection model with MVA-S and v-NY-S protected the hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 infection, supporting that these two vaccines are promising candidates for future development. Finally, our vaccination regimens generated neutralizing antibodies that partially cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/análise , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Feminino , Imunização Secundária , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
7.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: We investigated the protective efficacy of l-theanine (LT), the major amino acid components of green tea, on chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve-induced neuropathic pain (NP) development and neuronal functional changes in rats. METHODS: Rats with NP induced by CCI of the left sciatic nerve and sham-operated rats received LT or saline solution, with pain sensitive tests of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities were measured after surgery. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed; the sciatic nerve was excised, homogenized, prepared and subjected for estimation of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and caspase-3. RESULTS: CCI produced a significant increase in hyperalgesia and allodynia, an increase in SFI, a decrease in nerve conduction velocity, increases in NO, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, MPO, and caspase-3 levels, as well as reduction of GSH, SOD, and CAT in the rat sciatic nerve. LT treatment significantly and dose-dependently alleviated CCI-induced nociceptive pain thresholds and ameliorated abnormal nerve conduction and functional loss in rats with CCI. Moreover, LT treatment reduced NO and MDA levels, increased antioxidative strength, and markedly suppressed the levels of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic markers in injured sciatic nerves. CONCLUSION: This is the first report on the ameliorative effect of LT in CCI-induced NP in rats. This effect might be attributed to its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective, thus making it potentially useful as an adjuvant to conventional treatment.

8.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534069

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The applicability of sleep-related scale in frontline medical staff of COVID-19 epidemic has not been fully proved, so the sleep survey results lack credibility and accuracy, which brings difficulties to the guidance and treatment of frontline medical staff with sleep disorders, and is not conducive to the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. This study sought to analyze the reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among the frontline medical staff fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: A network questionnaire survey was used to investigate PSQI among frontline medical staff who fought against COVID-19 in Wuhan from March 19 to April 15, 2020. Combined with classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT), the content validity, internal consistency, construct validity and others of PSQI were evaluated. RESULTS: According to CTT, content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity of PSQI was good. But the internal consistency was better after the deletion of "daytime dysfunction" subscale. As for IRT, difficulty, differential item function and wright map performed well. CONCLUSIONS: The original PSQI showed acceptable applicability in frontline anti-epidemic medical staff, and its characteristics moderately improved after "daytime dysfunction" subscale was removed.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: RA damages the joints and increases the risks of total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR). However, the benefits of biologics in preventing TKR or THR remain unclear. METHODS: This retrospective nationwide study used the 2000-2013 claims-based National Health Insurance dataset. Biologics are reimbursed for refractory cases. The risks of TKR and THR in the biologic cohort were compared with those of age- and sex-matched csDMARD cohort. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to investigate the benefits of bDMARDs for TKR and THR. RESULTS: TKR was performed in 5979 biologic cases and 11,958 matched controls, of which 249(4.16%) and 871(7.28%) cases received TKR, respectively. THR was performed in 6245 biologic cases and 12,490 matched controls, of which 159(2.55%) and 516(4.13%) cases had THR, respectively. The biologic cohort had significantly lower incidence rates of TKR (11.73 vs. 16.33/1000 person-years, P < 0.001) and THR (7.09 vs. 9.16/1000 person-years, P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, the regular bDMARD subgroup (average dose >0.95 defined daily dose/day) had significantly lower risks of TKR (aHR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.81) and THR (aHR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.98). Those without methotrexate use, with steroid use, with biologic switch, and overlapping antiphospholipid syndrome had significantly higher risks of TKR and THR. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the csDMARD cohort, the risks of TKR and THR in the bDMARD cohort were the same as those in the low to moderate dose subgroups and significantly lower in those with regular bDMARD use.

10.
Theranostics ; 11(18): 8813-8835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522213

RESUMO

In recent decades, chemotherapies targeting apoptosis have emerged and demonstrated remarkable achievements. However, emerging evidence has shown that chemoresistance is mediated by impairing or bypassing apoptotic cell death. Several novel types of programmed cell death, such as ferroptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis, have recently been reported to play significant roles in the modulation of cancer progression and are considered a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Thus, the switch between apoptosis and pyroptosis is also discussed. Cancer immunotherapy has gained increasing attention due to breakthroughs in immune checkpoint inhibitors; moreover, ferroptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis are highly correlated with the modulation of immunity in the tumor microenvironment. Compared with necroptosis and ferroptosis, pyroptosis is the primary mechanism for host defense and is crucial for bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, recent evidence has demonstrated that pyroptosis exerts benefits on cancer immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T). Hence, in this review, we elucidate the role of pyroptosis in cancer progression and the modulation of immunity. We also summarize the potential small molecules and nanomaterials that target pyroptotic cell death mechanisms and their therapeutic effects on cancer.

11.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524226

RESUMO

Oral cancers are the seventh most common cancer globally. While progresses in oral cancer treatment has been made, not all patients respond to these therapies in the same way. To overcome this difficulty, numerous studies have been devoted to identifying biomarkers, which enable early identification of patients who may benefit from a particular treatment modality or at risk for poor prognosis. Biomarkers are protein molecules, gene expression, DNA variants, or metabolites that are derived from tumors, adjacent normal tissue or bodily fluids, which can be acquired prior to treatment and during follow-up, thus extending their use to the evaluation of cancer progression and prediction of treatment outcome. In this review, we employed a basic significance level (< 0.05) as the minimal requirement for candidate biomarkers. Effect sizes of the biomarkers in terms of odds ratio, hazard ratio and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were subsequently used to evaluate the potential of their clinical use. We identified the CCND1 from the tumor, human papillomavirus, HSP70, and IL-17 from the peripheral blood, and high density of CD45RO+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as the clinically relevant biomarkers for oral cancers.

12.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524227

RESUMO

Many treatments including antiviral and non-antiviral drugs, and critical care are considered for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Practice recommendations need to be updated and graded according to critical evaluation of rapidly emerging literature. In June 2020, Research Center for Epidemic Prevention - National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University formed a task group comprising infectious disease clinicians, pulmonologists, and intensivists with varied areas of expertise. The steering committee prioritized questions and outcomes. The keywords for the searches were COVID-19 and prone position, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), remdesivir, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HCQ/CQ), azithromycin, corticosteroid, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma therapy, and intravenous immunoglobin (IVIG). A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was performed by the consensus panel. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used in assessing the certainty of evidence and making recommendations. The effects of COVID-19 treatments on mortality and clinical improvement were summarized in 11 tables, and GRADE was presented to define the strength and quality of evidence for recommendation. The consensus recommended that prone position implanted in COVID-19 patients with hypoxic respiratory failure (IIC), careful selection for the support of ECMO (IIB), NIPPV being feasible but a risk of staff contamination (IIC), remdesivir generally administered in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients (IA), the use of dexamethasone in critically ill COVID-19 patients (IA), and the use of tociliziumab in hospitalized severe/critical COVID-19 patient with elevated markers of systemic inflammation (IA). The consensus recommended against the use of lopinavir/ritonavir (IB), HCQ/CQ (IA), azithromycin (IA), convalescent plasma therapy (IA), and IVIG (IA). The inception of the consensus and task group have provided much needed evidence of the efficacy and safety of various therapies for the management of COVID-19 patients, and make a description about the benefits and harms for most treatments.

13.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490471

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis has a substantial impact on work and activity impairment according to studies from Western communities. Prospective studies of work productivity and activity impairment in Asian patients with atopic dermatitis are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of atopic dermatitis on work productivity and activity impairment among Taiwanese patients, and to stratify the analyses by disease severity. One-third of employed participants reported missing work (absenteeism) in the preceding week due to atopic dermatitis, while 88.5% of the remaining two-thirds reported impaired work effectiveness (presenteeism). In addition, 92.5% of all participants reported impaired daily activities. Overall work impairment (aggregate productivity loss from absenteeism and presenteeism) was 1.8- and 2.6-fold greater in subjects with moderate and severe atopic dermatitis, respectively, compared with those with mild atopic dermatitis. Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, contributes to the majority of total work impairment in this cohort. Daily activity impairment was 1.5-fold greater in moderate atopic dermatitis, and 2.0-fold greater in severe atopic dermatitis, compared with mild atopic dermatitis. Both work and activity impairment showed significant positive correlations with atopic dermatitis severity scores (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis; SCORAD). In conclusion, work productivity and activity impairment is significantly correlated with disease severity in this Taiwanese atopic dermatitis cohort. In order to obtain a full picture of disease burden to patients and caregivers, patients with atopic dermatitis should be monitored for disease activity as well as corresponding impacts on quality of life.

14.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478487

RESUMO

The SCHOLAR-1 international retrospective study highlighted poor clinical outcomes and survival among patients with refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) treated with conventional chemotherapy. Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, demonstrated durable responses in patients with refractory LBCL in the pivotal phase 1/2 ZUMA-1 study (NCT02348216). Here, we compared SCHOLAR-1 with the 2 year outcomes of ZUMA-1. Prior to comparison of clinical outcomes, propensity scoring (based on a broad set of prognostic covariates) was used to create balance between ZUMA-1 and SCHOLAR-1 patients. In the pivotal phase 2 portion of ZUMA-1, 101 patients received axi-cel and were evaluable for response and survival. In SCHOLAR-1, 434 and 424 patients were evaluable for response and survival, respectively. ZUMA-1 patients were more heavily pretreated than SCHOLAR-1 patients. The median follow-up was 27.1 months in ZUMA-1. The objective response rate and complete response rate were 83% and 54% in ZUMA 1 vs 34% and 12% in SCHOLAR-1, respectively. The 2-year survival rate was 54% in ZUMA-1 and 20% in SCHOLAR-1, and a 73% reduction in the risk of death was observed in ZUMA-1 vs SCHOLAR-1. These results were consistent with those of an additional standardization analysis in which strata were limited to 2 prognostic factors (refractory categorization and presence/absence of stem cell transplant after refractoriness to chemotherapy) to conserve sample size. Despite the limitations of a nonrandomized analysis, these results indicate that axi-cel produces durable responses and a substantial survival benefit versus non-CAR T-cell salvage regimens for patients with refractory LBCL.

15.
Mol Ther ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478872

RESUMO

We and others have shown that MPM (micropeptide in mitochondria) regulates myogenic differentiation and muscle development. However, the roles of MPM in cancer development remain unknown. Here we revealed that MPM was significantly down-regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, and its decrease was associated with increased metastasis potential and HCC recurrence. Both in vitro and in vivo orthotopic xenograft models disclosed that the in vitro migration/invasion and in vivo liver/lung metastasis of hepatoma cells were repressed by restoring MPM expression and increased by silencing MPM. Mechanism investigations revealed that MPM interacted with NDUFA7. The mitochondrial complex I activity was inhibited by overexpressing MPM and enhanced by siMPM, and this effect of siMPM was attenuated by knocking down NDUFA7. Consistently, the NAD+/NADH ratio, which was regulated by complex I, was reduced by MPM but increased by siMPM. And treatment with NAD+ precursor nicotinamide abrogated the inhibitory effect of MPM on hepatoma cell migration. Further investigations showed that miR-17-5p bound to MPM and inhibited MPM expression. MiR-17-5p up-regulation was associated with MPM down-regulation in HCC tissues. These findings indicate that decrease of MPM expression may promote hepatoma metastasis by increasing mitochondrial complex I activity and NAD+/NADH ratio.

16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112703, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479021

RESUMO

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) has adverse biological effects on major living organs in the body, including lungs. The complex composition of PM2.5, including carbon black and heavy metals, cause toxic effects to the lung. Nonetheless, there exists considerable knowledge gaps regarding the impact of carbon black (CB) on environmental health and safety (EHS). Thus far, the synergistic effects of CB have not gained much attention in past decades. Here, we showed that combined exposure of CB and Cadmium (Cd) enhance the cytotoxicity by altering the state of cell membrane. Specially, CB caused cell membrane collapse and increased the permeability of cells, and remarkedly enhanced the metal Cd toxicity. Furthermore, upon pre-treatment sublethal-dose CB, the increased intracellular Cd brought about a significantly amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and high expression of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) in human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) cells, and ultimately resulted an increased cellular toxicity. The lung of mice exposed CBs and Cd presented remarkably inflammation than Cd alone. Mechanistic exploration deciphered that CB pre-treatment triggered cell damage via apoptosis due to Cd exposure. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel path for understanding the impact of CB on EHS with its synergistic effects, through which nanomaterials might exert detrimental effects on organisms.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar , Fuligem , Animais , Apoptose , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carbono , Pulmão , Camundongos , Fuligem/toxicidade
17.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131282, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467952

RESUMO

Carbon materials have been used to activate peroxydisulfate (PDS) for the degradation of organic pollutants. The mechanism involved, especially whether radicals are formed in these processes, is still under debate. In this research, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was employed to activate PDS for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The effects of solution pH, PDS concentration, 2,4-DCP concentration, and MWCNT loading on the degradation of 2,4-DCP were investigated. The mechanism was explored via radical scavenging experiments, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and MWCNT surface characterization. The results showed that the rate of 2,4-DCP degradation increased with the increasing solution pH, PDS concentration and MWCNT loading. The presence of OH and SO4- signals in EPR studies, no inhibitory effect in radical scavenging experiments, and the chlorination of MWCNT observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that surface reactions involving both surface-bound radicals and direct electron transfer were responsible for 2,4-DCP degradation. Reusability tests showed that the surface sites responsible for surface-bound radical formation were poisoned after PDS activation, while those responsible for direct electron transfer remained active after five cycles. This research provided the first in-depth insights for the dual roles of MWCNT in the PDS activation process.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis , Nanotubos de Carbono , Elétrons , Oxirredução
18.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21915, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496088

RESUMO

During development, erythroid cells are generated by two waves of hematopoiesis. In zebrafish, primitive erythropoiesis takes place in the intermediate cell mass region, and definitive erythropoiesis arises from the aorta-gonad mesonephros. TALE-homeoproteins Meis1 and Pbx1 function upstream of GATA1 to specify the erythroid lineage. Embryos lacking Meis1 or Pbx1 have weak gata1 expression and fail to produce primitive erythrocytes. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of how Meis1 and Pbx1 mediate gata1 transcription in erythrocytes remains unclear. Here we show that Hif1α acts downstream of Meis1 to mediate gata1 expression in zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Meis1 expression resulted in suppression of hif1a expression and abrogated primitive erythropoiesis, while injection with in vitro-synthesized hif1α mRNA rescued gata1 transcription in Meis1 morphants and recovered their erythropoiesis. Ablation of Hif1α expression either by morpholino knockdown or Crispr-Cas9 knockout suppressed gata1 transcription and abrogated primitive erythropoiesis. Results of chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Hif1α associates with hypoxia-response elements located in the 3'-flanking region of gata1 during development, suggesting that Hif1α regulates gata1 expression in vivo. Together, our results indicate that Meis1, Hif1α, and GATA1 indeed comprise a hierarchical regulatory network in which Hif1α acts downstream of Meis1 to activate gata1 transcription through direct interactions with its cis-acting elements in primitive erythrocytes.

20.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; : 1-19, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469179

RESUMO

Purpose This study aimed to examine the Stroop effects of verbal and nonverbal cues and their relative impacts on gender differences in unisensory and multisensory emotion perception. Method Experiment 1 investigated how well 88 normal Chinese adults (43 women and 45 men) could identify emotions conveyed through face, prosody and semantics as three independent channels. Experiments 2 and 3 further explored gender differences during multisensory integration of emotion through a cross-channel (prosody-semantics) and a cross-modal (face-prosody-semantics) Stroop task, respectively, in which 78 participants (41 women and 37 men) were asked to selectively attend to one of the two or three communication channels. Results The integration of accuracy and reaction time data indicated that paralinguistic cues (i.e., face and prosody) of emotions were consistently more salient than linguistic ones (i.e., semantics) throughout the study. Additionally, women demonstrated advantages in processing all three types of emotional signals in the unisensory task, but only preserved their strengths in paralinguistic processing and showed greater Stroop effects of nonverbal cues on verbal ones during multisensory perception. Conclusions These findings demonstrate clear gender differences in verbal and nonverbal emotion perception that are modulated by sensory channels, which have important theoretical and practical implications. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16435599.

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