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1.
Curr Otorhinolaryngol Rep ; : 1-7, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721660

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a novel treatment approach with disease-modifying and preventative benefits that are not shared with other strategies for treating allergic illnesses. It has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in children. This review provides the most recent information on AIT in children as well as any pertinent updates. Recent Findings: Although there is not a standard way to begin AIT, there are clear indications for AIT. Each case needs to be evaluated on its own by weighing the pros and downsides. AIT has been proven to significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in children with allergic illness, reduce medication use, stop the development of new allergen sensitizations, and stop the progression of allergic rhinitis to asthma. Novel approaches are under investigation to overcome some known AIT disadvantages. Summary: This review provides a thorough summary of the most recent research and updates on AIT in children.

2.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 82: 103480, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a mood dysregulation characterized by recurrent symptoms and episodes of mania, hypomania, depression, and mixed mood. The complexity of treating patients with bipolar disorder prompted the Taiwanese Society of Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (TSBPN) to publish the first Taiwan consensus on pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorders in 2012. This paper presents the updated consensus, with changes in diagnostic criteria (i.e., mixed features) and emerging pharmacological evidence published up to April 2022. METHODS: Our working group systemically reviewed the clinical research evidence and international guidelines and determined the levels of evidence for each pharmacological treatment on the basis of the most recent World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry grading system. Four clinical-specific issues were proposed. The current TSBPN Bipolar Taskforce then discussed research evidence and clinical experience related to each treatment option in terms of efficacy and acceptability and then appraised final recommendation grades through anonymous voting. RESULTS: In the updated consensus, we include the pharmacological recommendations for bipolar disorder with mixed features considering its high prevalence, the severe clinical prognosis, and the absence of approved medications. Cariprazine, lurasidone, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and ketamine are incorporated as treatment options. In the maintenance phase, the application of long-acting injectable antipsychotics is emphasized, and the hazards of using antidepressants and conventional antipsychotics are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: This updated Taiwan consensus on pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder provides concise evidence-based and empirical recommendations for clinical psychiatric practice. It may facilitate treatment outcome improvement in patients with bipolar disorder.

3.
Biol Reprod ; 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721997

RESUMO

Increasing evidences showed ovulatory dysfunction, possibly caused by luteinized unruptured follicular follicle syndrome(LUFS), is one of the reasons for endometriosis-related infertility. The present study was conducted to explore the potential effect of elevated progesterone in follicular fluid (FF) on ovulation in endometriosis. A prospective study including 50 ovarian endometriosis patients and 50 control patients with matched pairs design was conducted with alterations in FF and peritoneal fluid (PF) components identified by metabolomics analyses and differentially expressed genes in granulosa cells (GCs) identified by transcriptome analysis. Patients with endometriosis exhibited a significantly higher progesterone level in serum, FF and PF. GCs from endometriosis patients revealed decreased expression of HPGD, COX-2 and suppressed NF-кB signaling. Similarly, progesterone treatment in vitro down-regulated HPGD and COX2 expression and suppressed NF-кB signaling in granulosa tumor-like cell line KGN (Bena culture collection, China) and primarily cultured GCs, as manifested by decreased expressions of IL1R1, IRAK3, reduced pIкBα/IкBα ratio and nucleus translocation of p65. On the contrary, TNF-α treatment increased expression of IL1R1, IRAK3, pIкBα, p65 and HPGD in GCs. One potential p65 binding site was identified in the promoter region of HPGD by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In conclusion, we found intrafollicular progesterone might down-regulate HPGD and COX-2 in GCs via suppressing the NF-кB signaling pathway, shedding light on the mechanism underlying the endometriosis related ovulatory dysfunction.

6.
JHEP Rep ; 5(3): 100634, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36686591

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Tenofovir is recommended as part of the first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat people living with HIV (PLWH) with HBV coinfection. However, the effects of tenofovir-containing ART on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk among PLWH with/without chronic hepatitis virus infections remain unclear. Methods: This study included 23,838 PLWH. All of them were males aged ≥20 years and followed prospectively during 2000-2017. Four major nationwide registries - the Human Immunodeficiency Virus surveillance database, Taiwan Cancer Registry, Death Certification System, and National Health Insurance Database - were applied to define ART and comorbidities and ascertain newly diagnosed HCC. Tenofovir-containing ART was identified through prescription records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association of tenofovir use with HCC incidence. Results: HCC incidence was lower among ever users of tenofovir than among never users (24.2 and 85.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). Ever users had significantly reduced HCC risk (adjusted hazard ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.31). The effect of tenofovir use on reduced risk for HCC consistently favored never users across many prespecified subgroups, including HBV or HCV coinfection (p <0.05). The findings were consistent in subgroups of PLWH diagnosed with HIV before tenofovir's approval and in those born before the nationwide roll-out of neonatal HBV vaccination. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the need for randomized controlled trials of tenofovir in combination with long-acting injectable ART regimens to assess its safety and efficacy in PLWH, particularly in those with HBV or HCV coinfection. Impact and implications: Tenofovir's effect on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among people living with HIV with hepatitis B or C coinfection remains under investigated. This nationwide prospective cohort study, comprising 23,838 men living with HIV, showed that tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy was associated with reduced risk of HCC (adjusted relative risk: 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.31), which was consistently observed across many prespecified subgroups. The effect of tenofovir use on HCC risk should be further investigated in PLWH, particularly following the development of long-acting injectable ART regimens.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 116: 109648, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706595

RESUMO

Colonic injury causes severe inflammation during systemic infections in patients with endotoxemia. The prevention of colonic injury could effectively reduce the progression of endotoxemia. We investigated the protective effects and detailed mechanisms of the TRPV4 inhibitor HC067047 in the treatment of colonic injury caused by endotoxemia. An LPS-induced endotoxemia colonic injury model was used to assess the in vivo effects of HC067047. Colon slices were detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunofluorescence assays. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the levels of MDA, calcium, GSH, and GSSG. Alterations in oxidative stress/mitophagy/inflammatory pyroptosis-related markers were evaluated by Q-PCR and western blot assays. HC067047 reduced the body weight loss and spleen weight index of endotoxemic mice and partly recovered the normal morphology of the colonic mucous layer. As an inhibitor of the calcium permeant cation channel, HC067047 suppressed the phosphorylation of the CAMKIIɑ protein and levels of MDA and calcium, upregulated the ratio of GSH/GSSG, shortened the expression of oxidative stress-related proteins, and enhanced the expression of the anti-oxidative protein CAT in damaged colon tissues. Additionally, HC067047 maintained normal mitochondrial functions in endotoxemia colons by promoting mitochondrial fusion and biosynthesis and suppressing mitochondrial fission and the PINK/Parkin/mitophagy pathway. HC067047 potently blocked inflammatory pyroptosis and protected the colonic tight junction barrier. HC067047 restores endotoxemia colons against oxidative stress, mitophagy, inflammatory pyroptosis, and colonic barrier dysfunction. Hence, HC067047 therapy may be potentially useful in the treatment of colonic injury in endotoxemia.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In lung transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with mitochondrial damage can lead to graft rejection. Intact, exogenous mitochondria provide a unique treatment option to salvage damaged cells within lung tissue. METHODS: We developed a novel method to freeze and store allogeneic mitochondria isolated from porcine heart tissue. Stored mitochondria were injected into a model of induced ischemia-reperfusion injury using porcine ex-vivo lung perfusion. Treatment benefits to immune modulation, antioxidant defense, and cellular salvage were evaluated. These findings were corroborated in human lungs undergoing ex-vivo lung perfusion. Lung tissue homogenate and primary lung endothelial cells were then used to address underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Following cold ischemia, mitochondrial transplant reduced lung pulmonary vascular resistance and tissue pro-inflammatory signaling and cytokine secretion. Further, exogenous mitochondria reduced reactive oxygen species by-products and promoted glutathione synthesis, thereby salvaging cell viability. These results were confirmed in a human model of ex-vivo lung perfusion wherein transplanted mitochondria decreased tissue oxidative and inflammatory signaling, improving lung function. We demonstrate that transplanted mitochondria induce autophagy and suggest that bolstered autophagy may act upstream of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits. Importantly, chemical inhibitors of the MEK autophagy pathway blunted the favorable effects of mitochondrial transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide direct evidence that mitochondrial transplant improves cellular health and lung function when administered during ex-vivo lung perfusion and suggest the mechanism of action may be through promotion of cellular autophagy. Data herein contribute new insights into the therapeutic potential of mitochondrial transplant to abate ischemia-reperfusion injury during lung transplant, and thus reduce graft rejection.

9.
Immunology ; 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708143

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a crucial role in innate immunity and is involved in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. Glycolysis regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. However, how lactic acid fermentation and pyruvate oxidation controlled by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) affect NLRP3 inflammasome activation and autoinflammatory disease remains elusive. We found that inactivation of MPC with genetic depletion or pharmacological inhibitors, MSDC-0160 or pioglitazone, increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1ß secretion in macrophages. Glycolytic reprogramming induced by MPC inhibition skewed mitochondrial ATP-associated oxygen consumption into cytosolic lactate production, which enhanced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. As pioglitazone is an insulin sensitizer used for diabetes, its MPC inhibitory effect in diabetic individuals was investigated. The results showed that MPC inhibition exacerbated MSU-induced peritonitis in diabetic mice and increased the risk of gout in patients with diabetes. Altogether, we found that glycolysis controlled by MPC regulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and gout development. Accordingly, prescriptions for medications targeting MPC should consider the increased risk of NLRP3-related autoinflammatory diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and abundant NET-associated proteins are frequently found in the inflamed colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) activation is essential for the generation of NET and NET-mediated pathogenesis. However, the role of PAD4-dependent NET formation in murine inflammatory bowel disease models and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the altered gut barrier function are unknown. METHODS: Wild-type and Pad4 knockout (Pad4-/-) mice were administrated 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water. Caco-2 monolayers were used to test the effect of NETs on intestinal barrier function and cytotoxicity. Histones were intrarectally administrated to wild-type mice to determine their effects on intestinal barrier function and cytotoxicity in vivo. RESULTS: PAD4 deficiency reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis with decreased intestinal NET formation and enhanced gut barrier function and integrity in mice. NETs disrupted the barrier function in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers through their protein, rather than DNA, components. Pretreatment of NETs with histone inhibitors abrogated the effects on epithelial permeability. Consistent with these observations, adding purified histone proteins to Caco-2 monolayers significantly damaged epithelial barrier function, which was associated with the abnormal distribution and integrity of tight junctions as well as with increased cell death. Furthermore, intrarectal administration of histones damaged the intestinal barrier integrity and induced cytotoxicity in the mouse colon epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: PAD4-mediated NET formation has a detrimental role in acute colitis. NET-associated histones directly inhibit intestinal barrier function, resulting in cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.


Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4­dependent neutrophil extracellular trap formation is detrimental to intestinal barrier function in acute colitis. Neutrophil extracellular trap­associated histones altered the integrity of tight junction and adherens junction proteins as well as induced intestinal epithelial cell death that resulted in increased gut epithelium permeability.

11.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the most notorious pests of many crops worldwide. Most Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis show very low toxicity to M. persicae; however, a study showed that Cry41-related toxin had moderate toxic activity against M. persicae. In our previous work, potential Cry41-related toxin-binding proteins in M. persicae were identified, including cathepsin B, calcium-transporting ATPase, and Buchnera-derived ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase (PFKA). Buchnera is an endosymbiont present in almost all aphids and it provides necessary nutrients for aphid growth. This study investigated the role of Buchnera-derived PFKA in Cry41-related toxicity against M. persicae. RESULTS: In this study, recombinant PFKA was expressed and purified, and in vitro assays revealed that PFKA bound to Cry41-related toxin, and Cry41-related toxin at 25 µg ml-1 significantly inhibited the activity of PFKA. In addition, when M. persicae was treated with 30 µg ml-1 of Cry41-related toxin for 24 h, the expression of dnak, a single-copy gene in Buchnera, was significantly decreased, indicating a decrease in the number of Buchnera. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Cry41-related toxin interacts with Buchnera-derived PFKA to inhibit its enzymatic activity and likely impair cell viability, resulting in a decrease in the number of Buchnera, and finally leading to M. persicae death. These findings open up new perspectives in our understanding of the mode of action of Cry toxins and are useful in helping improve Cry toxicity for aphid control. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

12.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 3(1): 100133, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594045

RESUMO

Although real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) remains as a golden standard for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, it can not be easily expanded to large-scaled screening during outbreaks, and the positive results do not necessarily correlate with infectious status of the identified subjects. In this study, the performance of Vstrip® RV2 COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test (RAT) and its correlation with virus infectivity was examined by virus culture using 163 sequential respiratory specimens collected from 26 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. When the presence of cytopathic effects (CPE) in cell culture was used as a reference method for virus infectivity, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Vstrip® RV2 COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test was 96.43%, 89.63%, and 90.8%, respectively. The highest Ct value was 27.7 for RdRp gene and 25.79 for E gene within CPE-positive samples, and the highest Ct value was 31.9 for RdRp gene and 29.1 for E gene within RAT positive samples. When the Ct values of specimens were below 25, the CPE and RAT results had high degree of consistency. We concluded that the RAT could be a great alternative method for determining the infectious potential of individuals with high viral load.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719898

RESUMO

Achieving large-area organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules with reasonable cost and performance is an important step toward commercialization. In this work, solution-processed conventional and inverted OPV modules with an area of 216 cm2 were fabricated by the blade coating method. Film uniformity was controlled by adjusting the fabrication parameters of the blade coating procedure. The influence of the concentration of the solutions of the interfacial materials on OPV module performance was investigated. For OPV modules based on the PM6:Y6 photoactive layer, a certificated power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.10% was achieved for the conventional OPV modules based on the TASiW-12 interfacial layer while a certificated PCE of 11.27% was achieved for the inverted OPV modules based on the polyethylenimine (PEI) interfacial layer. As for OPV modules based on a commercially available photoactive layer, PV-X Plus, a PCE of 8.52% was achieved in the inverted OPV modules. A halogen-free solvent, o-xylene, was used as the solvent for PV-X Plus, which makes the industrial production much more environmentally friendly.

14.
J Control Release ; 354: 354-367, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641121

RESUMO

Methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) is attached to many proteins, peptides, nucleic acids and nanomedicines to improve their biocompatibility. Antibodies that bind PEG are present in many individuals and can be generated upon administration of pegylated therapeutics. Anti-PEG antibodies that bind to the PEG "backbone" can accelerate drug clearance and detrimentally affect drug activity and safety, but no studies have examined how anti-methoxy PEG (mPEG) antibodies, which selectively bind the terminus of mPEG, affect pegylated drugs. Here, we investigated how defined IgG and IgM monoclonal antibodies specific to the PEG backbone (anti-PEG) or terminal methoxy group (anti-mPEG) affect pegylated liposomes or proteins with a single PEG chain, a single branched PEG chain, or multiple PEG chains. Large immune complexes can be formed between all pegylated compounds and anti-PEG antibodies but only pegylated liposomes formed large immune complexes with anti-mPEG antibodies. Both anti-PEG IgG and IgM antibodies accelerated the clearance of all pegylated compounds but anti-mPEG antibodies did not accelerate clearance of proteins with a single or branched PEG molecule. Pegylated liposomes were primarily taken up by Kupffer cells in the liver, but both anti-PEG and anti-mPEG antibodies directed uptake of a heavily pegylated protein to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Our results demonstrate that in contrast to anti-PEG antibodies, immune complex formation and drug clearance induced by anti-mPEG antibodies depends on pegylation architecture; compounds with a single or branched PEG molecule are unaffected by anti-mPEG antibodies but are increasingly affected as the number of PEG chain in a structure increases.

15.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(1): 1-11, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213090

RESUMO

Background: Evidence indicates beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on motor learning performance, which might be caused by the impact of aerobic exercise on cortical excitability. It is thus suggested that physiological effects of aerobic exercise on cortical excitability determine the effects of aerobic exercise on motor learning. Nevertheless, respective results usually come from independent studies, and a prove of the causal relationship between neurophysiological and motor learning effects is still missing. This study aims to explore the impact of a single bout of aerobic exercise on brain physiology and motor learning, and the association between these phenomena in humans Method: The study was conducted in a cross-over design. In twenty healthy subjects, cortical excitability and motor learning were assessed before and after a single bout of aerobic exercise or a control intervention Results: The results show that aerobic exercise improved motor sequence learning and enhanced cortical excitability in humans. Furthermore, a correlation between the exercise-dependent alteration of cortical excitability (short intracortical inhibition, which is determined primarily by the GABAergic system) and improvement of motor learning has been found Discussion: The study found motor learning performance-improving effects of aerobic exercise, and these results might be explained by an exercised-caused alteration of cortical excitability, especially a reduction of GABA activity. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Atividade Motora , Exercício Físico , Excitabilidade Cortical , Estudos Cross-Over , GABAérgicos , não Fumantes
16.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reprogramming of metabolism is strongly associated with the development of cancer. However, the role of metabolic reprogramming in the remodeling of pre-metastatic niche (PMN), a key step in metastasis, is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the metabolic alternation during lung PMN formation in breast cancer. METHODS: We assessed the transcriptomes and lipidomics of lung of MMTV-PyVT mice by microarray and liquid chromatography-tandem mass mass spectrometry before lung metastasis. The validation of gene or protein expressions was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or immunoblot and immunohistochemistry respectively. The lung fibroblasts were isolated from mice and then co-cultured with breast cancer to identify the influence of cancer on the change of lung fibroblasts in PMN. RESULTS: We demonstrated changes in the lipid profile and several lipid metabolism genes in the lungs of breast cancer-bearing MMTV-PyVT mice before cancer spreading. The expression of ACACA (acetyl-CoA carboxylase α) was downregulated in the lung fibroblasts, which contributed to changes in acetylation of protein's lysine residues and the synthesis of fatty acid. The downregulation of ACACA in lung fibroblasts triggered a senescent and inflammatory phenotypic shift of lung fibroblasts in both in vivo and in vitro models. The senescence-associated secretory phenotype of lung fibroblasts enabled the recruitment of immunosuppressive granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells into the lungs through the production of CXCL1 in the lungs. Knock-in of ACACA prevented lung metastasis in the MMTV-PyVT mouse model, further supporting that ACACA was involved in the remodeling of the lung PMN. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data revealed a mechanism by which ACACA downregulation directed the formation of an immunosuppressive lung PMN in breast cancer.

17.
J Med Virol ; 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609964

RESUMO

Patients with severe COVID-19 often suffer from lymphopenia, which is linked to T cell sequestration, cytokine storm and mortality. However, it remains largely unknown how SARS-CoV-2 induces lymphopenia. Here, we studied the transcriptomic profile and epigenomic alterations involved in cytokine production by SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. We adopted a reverse time-order gene coexpression network (TO-GCN) approach to analyze time-series RNA-sequencing data, revealing epigenetic modifications at the late stage of viral egress. Furthermore, we identified SARS-CoV-2-activated NF-κB and IRF1 pathways contributing to viral infection and COVID-19 severity through epigenetic analysis of H3K4me3 ChIP-sequencing. Cross-referencing our transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets revealed that coupling NF-κB and IRF1 pathways mediate PD-L1 immunosuppressive programs. Interestingly, we observed higher PD-L1 expression in Omicron-infected cells than SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Blocking PD-L1 at an early stage of virally-infected AAV-hACE2 mice significantly recovered lymphocyte counts and lowered inflammatory cytokine levels. Our findings indicate that targeting the SARS-CoV-2-mediated NF-κB and IRF1-PD-L1 axis may represent an alternative strategy to reduce COVID-19 severity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614220

RESUMO

Current literature has indicated that Peyronie's disease (PD) could be initiated by microtrauma and the subsequent inflammation episodes that follow. PD could be sorted into acute or chronic status, and it can differ when selecting the clinical therapeutics. PD would cause pain and penile deformity to diseased men and impair their erectile function. Occasionally, surgical revision of the penis might be needed to correct the penile curvature. We find that there are limited effective options of intra-lesion injections for the PD plaques. By searching the databases and screening the literature with the PRISMA 2020 guideline, we observed that several preclinical studies that applied stem cell therapy in treating PD were fruitful in the acute phase. Although in the chronic phase of PD, erectile parameters were not significantly improved, and therefore, future studies might be better elevated in certain aspects, such as the sites selected for harvesting stem cells or changing the centrifugation forces. In this review, we concluded the contemporary understanding of inflammatory microenvironments in PD, the stem cell therapy in PD, and our perspectives on future studies. We concluded that there may be great potential in stem cell therapy for treating both acute and chronic phases PD.


Assuntos
Induração Peniana , Masculino , Humanos , Induração Peniana/tratamento farmacológico , Pênis , Ereção Peniana , Injeções , Células-Tronco
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