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1.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(4): 385-394, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996369

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a potent mitogen, but IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 inhibits IGF1. To elucidate the relationship between both IGF1 and IGFBP and the risk of tumorigenesis, the association between IGF1 and IGFBP3 serum levels and of malignant tumor incidence was investigated in a prospective case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. A baseline survey was started in 1988-1990, 110,585 subjects were enrolled, and 35% of participants donated blood samples. Those who had been diagnosed with malignant tumors by 1997 were considered cases. The analysis involved 1,349 cases and 4,012 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for cancer incidence associated with IGF-related molecules. After controlling for alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and smoking, participants with high total-IGFBP3 and free-IGFBP3, which is estimated by the molar difference of (IGFBP3 - IGF1), had a risk of future neoplasms (P trend = 0.014 and 0.009, respectively), but those with IGF1 did not. People in the second to fifth quintiles had a lower risk than those in the first quintile (ORs 0.676-0.736 and 0.657-0.870, respectively). Limiting subjects to those followed for 3 years weakened the negative associations of total- and free-IGFBP3, whereas a positive relationship of free-IGF1, which was estimated by the molar ratio of IGF1/IGFBP3, was seen (P trend = 0.004, 0.002, and 0.013, respectively). After controlling for alcohol intake, smoking, BMI, and diabetes mellitus, the results were confirmed. These findings suggest that serum IGF1 and IGFBP3 are related to future risk of malignant neoplasms.

2.
Compr Psychiatry ; 96: 152148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) is a widely used semi-structured diagnostic interview in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, given the extensive use of the K-SADS-PL in clinical practice and research and its adaptation for use in many languages and cultures, validation studies of the instrument are scarce. This study was designed to examine the inter-rater reliability, criterion validity and construct validity of the updated instrument, the K-SADS-PL for DSM-5, in Japanese outpatients totaling 95 children and adolescents. METHOD: We translated and adapted the updated instrument into Japanese using a standard forward-backward translation procedure. Two of nine experienced clinicians independently made diagnoses using the interview for each patient in a conjoint session. Discrepancies in diagnosis between two clinicians were resolved by consensus, and the consensus diagnosis was compared with a "best-estimate" diagnosis made by five experienced clinicians using all available data sources for patients who were blinded to the diagnosis using the K-SADS-PL for DSM-5. The "best-estimate" diagnosis of ASD was also based on the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders. RESULTS: The inter-rater reliability was very good, as shown by κ ≥ 0.8 for all disorders examined: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, selective mutism, enuresis and encopresis. The criterion validity was good, as shown by κ ≥ 0.6 for all disorders examined, except for ASD (κ = 0.59). This study also revealed good construct validity of the instrument by confirming the expected associations with each scale from the Social Responsiveness Scale-2nd edition and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the K-SADS-PL for DSM-5 generates valid diagnoses in child and adolescent psychiatry.

3.
J Epidemiol ; 30(1): 30-36, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distributions of serum pepsinogen (PG) values were assessed in Helicobacter pylori-infected and non-infected junior high school students (aged 12-15 years) in Japan. METHODS: All junior high school students (1,225 in total) in Sasayama city, who were basically healthy, were asked to provide urine and serum samples, which were used to measure urine and serum H. pylori antibodies using ELISA kits and PG values. The subjects, whose urine and serum antibodies were both positive, were considered H. pylori infected. RESULTS: Of the 187 subjects who provided urine and blood samples, 8 were infected, 4 had discrepant results, 4 had negative serum antibody titers no less than 3.0 U/ml, and 171 were non-infected. In the H. pylori non-infected subjects, the median PG I and PG II values and PG I to PG II ratio (PG I/II) were 40.8 ng/mL, 9.5 ng/mL, and 4.4, respectively, whereas in the infected subjects, these values were 55.4 ng/mL, 17.0 ng/mL, and 3.3, respectively (each P < 0.01). In the non-infected subjects, PG I and PG II were significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The PG I and PG II values were higher, and the PG I/II was lower in H. pylori infected students than in non-infected students. In H. pylori non-infected students, males showed higher PG I and PG II values than females. The distributions of PG values in junior high school students differed from those in adults.

4.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3603-3614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482651

RESUMO

Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bovinos , Colo , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Carne/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos
5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 917-926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392470

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to assess the association between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight Japanese population-based cohort studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), derived from random effects models, were used to evaluate the associations between green tea consumption, based on self-report at baseline, and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. During a mean follow-up of 17.3 years, among 313,381 persons, 52,943 deaths occurred. Compared with individuals who consumed < 1 cup/day, those in the highest consumption category (≥ 5 cups/day) had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [the multivariate-adjusted HR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for men and 0.82 (0.74-0.90) for women]. A similar inverse association was observed for heart disease mortality [HR 0.82 (0.75-0.90) for men, and 0.75 (0.68-0.84) for women], and cerebrovascular disease mortality [HR 0.76 (0.68-0.85) for men, and 0.78 (0.68-0.89) for women]. Among women, green tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of total cancer mortality: 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for the 1-2 cups/day category and 0.91 (0.85-0.98) for the 3-4 cups/day category. Results for respiratory disease mortality were [HR 0.75 (0.61-0.94)] among 3-4 cup daily consumers and [HR 0.66 (0.55-0.79)] for ≥ 5 cups/day. Higher consumption of green tea is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality in Japanese, especially for heart and cerebrovascular disease. Moderate consumption decreased the risk of total cancer and respiratory disease mortality in women.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
6.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to estimate the more precise prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) stratified by sex and birth year in Japan. METHODS: Three large-scaled cohorts: first-time blood donors, periodical health check-up, and comprehensive health check-up with lifestyle education (Ningen dock) were used for pooled prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV by meta-regression. RESULTS: Trends of birth year-specific prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV among three cohorts were similar to one another while birth year-specific pooled prevalence of HBsAg peaked at 1941 - 1950 birth cohort. That of anti-HCV showed the decreasing trend by birth year. CONCLUSION: We could estimate the pooled prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV based on nationwide data. The result can be used reference data of various countermeasure for hepatitis eradication.

7.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 32(8): 1515-1527, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286759

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is prevalent in Cixian, China, but the etiology of this disease remains largely unknown. Therefore, we explored this by conducting a DNA adductome analysis. Both tumorous and nontumorous tissues were collected from patients who underwent surgical procedures at Cixian Cancer Hospital and the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, which is in a low-incidence area. N2-(3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)deoxyguanosine (THP-dG) was the major adduct detected in samples from esophageal cancer patients in Cixian. The precursor of THP-dG, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), exhibited a strong mutagenic activity under metabolic activation in the Ames test and a significant dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency during an in vivo mutagenicity test with guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) delta rats. The NPIP-induced mutation was dominated by A:T to C:G transversions, followed by G:C to A:T and A:T to G:C transitions, in the liver and esophagus of animal samples. A similar mutational pattern was observed in the mutational signature of esophageal cancer patients that demonstrated weak correlation with THP-dG levels. These findings suggested that NPIP exposure is partly involved in the development of esophageal cancer in Cixian residents.

8.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(12): 2104-2111, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a potent mitogen and is inhibited by IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). High serum IGF1 and low IGFBP3 are associated with increased risk of several carcinomas. Here, we assessed the relationship of these peptides with the risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, in a prospective case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. METHODS: The analysis involved 916 cases who had been diagnosed as gastrointestinal malignancies (C15-25) and 2306 controls. To estimate odds ratios for incidence of malignancies associated with these levels, a conditional logistic model was used. RESULTS: Both higher total and free IGFBP3 were associated with a decreased risk of tumor (P for trend < 0.001 and = 0.003, respectively). People in the second to fifth quintiles had lower risk compared to the first quintile (odds ratios ranged 0.532-0.650 and 0.582-0.725, respectively). After adjustment for IGF1, body mass index, drinking, and smoking, total IGFBP3 was inversely correlated with cancer risk (P for trend = 0.031). After adjustment, free IGFBP3 was inversely associated with the risk (P for trend = 0.007). Although total IGF1 was inversely correlated with tumor risk, it was not after controlling for IGFBP3 (P for trend = 0.007 and 0.589, respectively). Free IGF1 was not associated with the risk (P for trend = 0.361). Limiting subjects to those followed for over 3 years reinforced the inverted relationships of total and free IGFBP3 with risk for tumors (P for trend = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both total and free IGFBP3 may be inversely associated with the incidence of gastrointestinal malignancies.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(8): 1370-1378, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed prospective evaluation of cigarette smoking associated with pancreatic cancer risk in large Asian populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine this association in a Japanese population, with a particular focus on evaluating sex differences. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. We calculated study-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then estimated summary HRs by pooling these estimates with a random effects model. RESULTS: During 4,695,593 person-years of follow-up in 354,154 participants, 1,779 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for current smoking compared with never smoking in both males [HR (95% CI), 1.59 (1.32-1.91)] and females [HR (95% CI), 1.81 (1.43-2.30)]. Significant risk elevations for former smoking and small cumulative dose of ≤20 pack-years (PY) were observed only among females, regardless of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Trend analysis indicated significant 6% and nonsignificant 6% increases in pancreatic cancer risk for every 10 PYs in males and females, respectively. Risk became comparable with never smokers after 5 years of smoking cessation in males. In females, however, we observed no risk attenuation by smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the well-known association between smoking and pancreatic cancer and indicates potential sex differences in a Japanese population. Quitting smoking would be beneficial for pancreatic cancer prevention, especially in males. IMPACT: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased with cumulative smoking exposure and decreased with smoking cessation, with potential sex differences.

10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1149: 107-120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037557

RESUMO

About one-third of all children worldwide is infected with H. pylori and its prevalence is low in developed and high in developing countries. H. pylori is mainly acquired during childhood and transmission of the bacterium commonly proceeds from person to person, especially among family members. The most frequent transmission route is from the mother to children. Various gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases are reported to be associated with H. pylori in children and adolescents, but the strongest recommendation for testing and treating is introduced only with children and adolescents having peptic ulcer disease. Iron deficiency anemia and chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura are also considered for testing and treating, but the effectiveness is somewhat controversial. Invasive diagnosis is recommended, whereas none of the available diagnostic tests have 100% accuracy for reliable diagnosis, and therefore at least two or more tests should be performed. Urea breath test is the most reliable among the non-invasive tests. Because the number of antibiotics-resistant H. pylori strains is increasing, it is desirable to conduct a drug susceptibility test before treatment and to select the corresponding regime. H. pylori has been proven to be a major cause of gastric cancer and 'screen-and-treat' strategies are recommended in communities at high risk of gastric cancer. However, the application to children and adolescents is controversial. An effective vaccine is desirable, but not yet available. Screen-and-treat for adolescents has started in a few areas in Japan, where conditions are well established. New prevention strategies for gastric cancer are awaited worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Japão , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Péptica/etiologia , Úlcera Péptica/microbiologia
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(10): 769-773, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody kits (LZ and LIA) using the latex agglutination immunoassay method are commercially available, but few studies have been performed to determine their diagnostic accuracy or to compare their results with those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (EP and EIA). METHODS: Sera were obtained from 213 hospital outpatients with dyspeptic symptoms. The serological results were compared with the result of the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) which seems to be reliable. RESULTS: Of the 213 subjects, 154 were diagnosed as positive for H. pylori infection according to the UBT. The sensitivities and specificities of these tests were 97.4% and 76.3%, 98.1% and 78.0%, 99.4% and 74.6%, and 98.1% and 71.2% for the EP, LZ, EIA and LIA tests, respectively. When the 13 subjects whose seropositive results of the four kits were completely opposite to the negative results of the UBT were excluded, the specificities of evaluated kits were all higher than 90%. The concordance rate between the EP and EIA tests was 98.1% (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.83) and that between the LZ and LIA tests was 97.1% (correlation coefficient = 0.91). The LZ gave higher antibody titer value than EP (p < 0.0001, Z = 9.82; Wilcoxon signed-rank test), and EIA gave higher value than LIA (p < 0.0001, Z = 6.43; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: The latex immunoassay method provided the same reliability to ELISA in terms of the diagnostic accuracy for current H. pylori infection, although we should take into account the titer value differences by each test method in practical use.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Fixação do Látex/instrumentação , Ureia/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Comércio , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/economia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/instrumentação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/sangue , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Humanos , Testes de Fixação do Látex/economia , Testes de Fixação do Látex/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ureia/química , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(7): 526-530, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The secular trend in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among children and adolescents in Japan has not been well documented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed all relevant literature published between 1991 and 2017, focusing on the relationship between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and birth year. Our literature search covered all journal articles, conference proceedings and meeting abstracts that reported the prevalence of H. pylori infection in Japanese subjects under 20 years of age. RESULTS: We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection according to birth year on the basis of data points, which comprised 20,269 subjects of 81 groups. Three-coefficient logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the trend in H. pylori prevalence. The prevalence was approximately 10% in the individuals born in 1985, but it decreased to 3% in the individuals born in 2011. The plot of H. pylori prevalence against birth year clearly indicated a birth-cohort effect: the earlier the birth year, the higher the prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed a rapidly decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection among Japanese children and adolescents over the past three decades.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
13.
Prev Med ; 123: 270-277, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951734

RESUMO

Coffee consumption is increasing globally. We aimed to assess the effect of coffee consumption on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan (Japan Cohort Consortium). Data came from eight Japanese cohort studies (144,750 men and 168,631 women). During a mean follow-up time of 17 years, 52,943 deaths occurred. More specifically, 19,495 cancer deaths, 7321 deaths due to heart disease, 6387 cerebrovascular, 3490 respiratory disease and 3382 injuries and accidents. A random effects model was applied to obtain pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). In both sexes, coffee consumption up to 5 cups/day was overall protective in relation to all-cause mortality, with the association attenuating in the highest category of coffee consumption (≥5 cups/day). In men, a similar inverse association was observed for major causes of mortality except cancer. In women, coffee consumption decreased the risk for mortality due to heart disease in the 1-2 cups/day category, but increased the risk in the ≥5 cups/day category. Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer in both sexes. Results were similar among male current smokers and female never-smokers. Based on available data, this pooled analysis suggests that coffee consumption under five cups per day may be beneficial for reducing the risk of mortality due to major causes.

14.
Helicobacter ; 24(3): e12575, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metronidazole is an antiprotozoal drug used to treat a broad spectrum of infectious diseases, including Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infections. In Japan, metronidazole is approved for the eradication therapy of H pylori as a second-line regimen among adults, but it has not yet been approved for use among children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To perform this narrative review, we searched the relevant literature on important events in the history of the use of metronidazole, its mechanisms of action, its efficacy, and the adverse effects reported in clinical trials or cohort studies in Japan. RESULTS: At present, metronidazole resistance has not been a serious issue in Japan in large part due to its restricted use. Emerging evidence from randomized controlled trials demonstrates higher eradication rates for metronidazole than for clarithromycin, supporting its use in both first-line and second-line eradication therapies. Among the reported adverse effects, there has been lingering concern over the potential carcinogenicity of metronidazole in humans. However, the possibility of an increased cancer risk is not limited to metronidazole; the long-term use of antibiotics has been linked to increased risk for some site-specific cancers. However, recent prospective studies have suggested that short-term exposure to antibiotics is not associated with an increased cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Sensible use of metronidazole backed by research evidence could maximize the benefits associated with H pylori eradication in Japan.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão
15.
Pediatr Int ; 61(1): 80-86, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very limited data are available on childhood gastric cancer. Using a retrospective survey and literature review, we assessed the clinical features of gastric cancer in children and adolescents. METHODS: We collected information on childhood gastric cancer from pediatricians of 518 hospitals that issue the title of "certified board pediatrician" approved by Japan Pediatric Society, using a questionnaire on background, diagnosis year, onset symptoms, tumor location, histology, nodular gastritis, Helicobacter pylori testing, treatment, and prognosis. Studies were collected using PubMed and the NPO Japan Medical Abstracts Society database. Data for childhood gastric cancer were abstracted from the Japanese Vital Statistics database. RESULTS: Of the 518 hospitals, 349 returned the questionnaire, which identified four patients. Literature review identified 77 cases of gastric cancer, and we analyzed data for 80 children <16 years old. Most patients were >10 years old, and there were no sex differences. Onset symptoms ranged from abdominal pain to non-localized. Sixteen of 44 children had a family history of cancer; 10 had a family history of gastric cancer. Histologically, approximately 80% had undifferentiated-type carcinoma. Prognosis was extremely poor, and two of three tested children were positive for H. pylori infection. Childhood gastric cancer death has been declining. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood gastric cancer is rare in Japan, and information on H. pylori in childhood gastric cancer patients is limited. Declining childhood gastric cancer rates may reflect the decreasing prevalence of infection but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
16.
Helicobacter ; 24(2): e12559, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, we conducted an epidemiological study screening for Helicobacter pylori antibody positivity among Japanese junior high school students. In this study, we updated the epidemiological data and assessed the clinical features of H pylori antibody-positive junior high school students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed H pylori antibody-positive subjects who were identified between 2012 and 2015 at four junior high schools in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. H pylori infection was confirmed by urea breath test (UBT) or endoscopic examination. Endoscopy was performed after obtaining consent from the subject and their guardians. Eradication therapy consisted of triple therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC), and clarithromycin (CAM) or metronidazole (MNZ) for seven days. Eradication of H pylori was confirmed by UBT. We reviewed subjects' characteristics, endoscopic findings, histological findings, eradication regimes, outcomes, and adverse effects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori antibody positivity was 3.2% (42/1298). We assessed thirteen H pylori antibody-positive subjects. Eight subjects had a family history of H pylori infection. Six subjects had abdominal pain, and two subjects had iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Twelve subjects underwent endoscopy; one subject had duodenal ulcer, eleven subjects had antral nodular gastritis, and six subjects showed grade 2 closed type atrophic border according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification. All subjects received eradication therapy; CAM was used in five subjects with CAM susceptibility as well as in three subjects with unknown information on CAM susceptibility, and MNZ was used in five subjects with CAM resistance. Eradication was successful in twelve subjects (one unconfirmed). There were three mild adverse effects (abdominal pain or diarrhea). CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori test for junior high school students represents an opportunity to diagnose the peptic ulcer, iron deficiency anemia, and gastric atrophy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/urina , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , Endoscopia , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
17.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203386, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192808

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility. We sought to replicate the associations of 61 GWAS-identified SNPs at 42 loci with pancreatic cancer in Japanese and to develop a risk model for the identification of individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer development in the general Japanese population. The model was based on data including directly determined or imputed SNP genotypes for 664 pancreatic cancer case and 664 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Stepwise logistic regression uncovered five GWAS-identified SNPs at five loci that also showed significant associations in our case-control cohort. These five SNPs were included in the risk model and also applied to calculation of the polygenic risk score (PRS). The area under the curve determined with the leave-one-out cross-validation method was 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66) or 0.61 (0.58-0.64) for versions of the model that did or did not include cigarette smoking and family history of pancreatic cancer in addition to the five SNPs, respectively. Individuals in the lowest and highest quintiles for the PRS had odds ratios of 0.62 (0.42-0.91) and 1.98 (1.42-2.76), respectively, for pancreatic cancer development compared with those in the middle quintile. We have thus developed a risk model for pancreatic cancer that showed moderately good discriminatory ability with regard to differentiation of pancreatic cancer patients from control individuals. Our findings suggest the potential utility of a risk model that incorporates replicated GWAS-identified SNPs and established demographic or environmental factors for the identification of individuals at increased risk for pancreatic cancer development.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etnologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 287, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515585

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori is a causative pathogen of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Humans are known to be a natural host for H. pylori and tend to acquire the pathogen before the age of 5 years. The infection may then persist lifelong if eradication therapy is not applied. One of the modes of transmission of H. pylori is between family members, and therefore, the presence of infected family members is an important risk factor in children. However, other environmental factors have not been fully analyzed. The present study was performed to clarify whether and to what extent intestinal microbiota affect H. pylori intrafamilial infection. The fecal specimens from H. pylori-infected infants and H. pylori-infected and non-infected family members were collected in cohort studies conducted by Sasayama City, Hyogo Prefecture from 2010 to 2013. In total, 18 fecal DNA from 5 families were analyzed. Samples were amplified using 16S rRNA universal primers, and the amplicons were sequenced using the Ion PGM system. Principal-coordinate analysis demonstrated that there was no difference in intestinal microbiota between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. In intrafamilial comparison tests, the Manhattan distance of intestinal microbiota between the H. pylori-infected infant proband and H. pylori-negative mother was nearest in the family with low intestinal microbial diversity. However, in the family with the highest intestinal microbial diversity, the nearest Manhattan distance was shown between the H. pylori-infected infant proband and H. pylori-infected mother. The results in this study showed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was very similar between members of the same family, and as such, colonization with organisms highly similar to the infected parent(s) may be a risk factor for H. pylori infection in children.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/transmissão , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15491, 2017 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138514

RESUMO

Changing trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection in the general population over time are thought to be the main driving force behind the declining gastric cancer mortality in Japan. However, whether the prevalence of H. pylori infection itself shows a birth-cohort pattern needs to be corroborated. We performed a systematic review of studies that reported the prevalence of H. pylori infection among Japanese individuals. Meta-regression was conducted in the framework of a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) to account for heterogeneity in the prevalence of H. pylori infection as a function of birth year. The prevalence of H. pylori infection confirmed a clear birth cohort pattern: the predicted prevalence (%, 95% CI) was 60.9 (56.3-65.4), 65.9 (63.9-67.9), 67.4 (66.0-68.7), 64.1 (63.1-65.1), 59.1 (58.2-60.0), 49.1 (49.0-49.2), 34.9 (34.0-35.8), 24.6 (23.5-25.8), 15.6 (14.0-17.3), and 6.6 (4.8-8.9) among those who were born in the year 1910, 1920, 1930, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000, respectively. The present study demonstrated a clear birth-cohort pattern of H. pylori infection in the Japanese population. The decreased prevalence of H. pylori infection in successive generations should be weighed in future gastric cancer control programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Estômago
20.
Helicobacter ; 22(5)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, there have been approximately 50 000 deaths from gastric cancer annually for over 40 years with little variation. It has been reported that most gastric cancers in Japan are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori eradication therapy was approved for patients with chronic gastritis by the Japanese national health insurance scheme in February 2013 for patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of chronic gastritis is positive for H. pylori. We examined the effect on gastric cancer death rate 4 years after expansion of health insurance coverage. AIM: We conducted an epidemiological study and analyzed trends in prescription for H. pylori eradication therapy. We used the electronic medical claims database from Hokkaido, Japan to evaluate the impact of expansion of national health insurance coverage for H. pylori eradication therapy on deaths from gastric cancer. METHODS: Data on deaths from gastric cancer were obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Cancer Statistics in Japan (2015). Analysis of electronic claims records was performed using the National Database, mainly focusing on Hokkaido. Prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy and the number of patients treated for gastric cancer were also extracted from the Hokkaido database. RESULTS: Approximately 1.5 million prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy were written annually. Gastric cancer deaths fell each year: 48 427 in 2013, 47 903 in 2014, 46 659 in 2015, and 45 509 in 2016, showing a significant decrease after expansion of insurance coverage for H. pylori eradication therapy (P<.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy increased markedly after approval of the gastritis indication by the national health insurance scheme and was associated with a significant decrease in gastric cancer deaths.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Gastrite/complicações , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Gastrite/microbiologia , Política de Saúde , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
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