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1.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, there are ongoing efforts to shift the gastric cancer prevention and control policy priorities from barium-based screening to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-oriented primary prevention. A comprehensive summary of the evidence regarding the effects of H. pylori eradication on the risk of gastric cancer could inform policy decisions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies evaluating the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication for the prevention of gastric cancer in otherwise healthy individuals (primary prevention) and early gastric cancer patients (tertiary prevention). RESULTS: In total, 19 studies were included. Three moderate-quality observational cohort studies showed that H. pylori eradication may be associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic Japanese people. There is moderate certainty regarding the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in patients with gastrointestinal diseases, such as peptic ulcers. A meta-analysis of 10 observational studies with otherwise healthy individuals (mainly peptic ulcer patients) yielded an overall odds ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.25-0.46). Regarding tertiary prevention, the overall odds ratio for developing metachronous gastric cancer was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35-0.51) in the eradication group in a meta-analysis of nine studies involving early gastric cancer patients who underwent endoscopic resection. CONCLUSION: H. pylori eradication is effective in preventing gastric cancer in the Japanese population, regardless of symptoms. Well-designed, large cohort studies are warranted to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of H. pylori eradication in the context of reducing the gastric cancer burden through population-based screening and treatment.

2.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer treatment is evolving, but few studies have examined a nationwide trend in the treatment patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify real-world treatment patterns for pancreatic cancer in Japan. METHODS: This retrospective study examined the treatment patterns among 68 479 patients, who had pancreatic cancer diagnosis in Medical Data Vision claims database from 2010 to 2018. We extracted relevant data on treatment options, including chemotherapy, surgery and their combination. For patients who had undergone chemotherapy, we sought to analyse the use of different chemotherapy regimens. In addition, we examined the trend in treatment patterns by age group (<59, 60-69, 70-79, ≥80). RESULTS: The trend in treatment options of pancreatic cancer remained stable from 2010 to 2018, with chemotherapy being the most common therapeutic option and surgery performed in approximately half that of chemotherapy. On the other hand, the use of chemotherapy regimen had changed during the same period. Although gemcitabine was the most commonly administrated single-agent regimen in 2010, gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel was the most frequently used therapeutic agent in 2018. In the older age groups (age ≥80), the majority of patients was untreated (supposedly received supportive care), and the use of conventional regimens such as gemcitabine or S-1 was common among those undergoing chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although chemotherapy has been the main treatment option for pancreatic cancer, the regimens of choice have increased significantly during the last decade. With accumulating evidence on combination chemotherapy, treatment options may further evolve in the future.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916842

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to further examine the relationship between milk intake and stroke mortality among the Japanese population. We used data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study (total number of participants = 110,585, age range: 40-79) to estimate the posterior acceleration factors (AF) as well as the hazard ratios (HR) comparing individuals with different milk intake frequencies against those who never consumed milk at the study baseline. These estimations were computed through a series of Bayesian survival models that employed a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation process. In total, 100,000 posterior samples were generated separately through four independent chains after model convergency was confirmed. Posterior probabilites that daily milk consumers had lower hazard or delayed mortality from strokes compared to non-consumers was 99.0% and 78.0% for men and women, respectively. Accordingly, the estimated posterior means of AF and HR for daily milk consumers were 0.88 (95% Credible Interval, CrI: 0.81, 0.96) and 0.80 (95% CrI: 0.69, 0.93) for men and 0.97 (95% CrI: 0.88, 1.10) and 0.95 (95% CrI: 0.80, 1.17) for women. In conclusion, data from the JACC study provided strong evidence that daily milk intake among Japanese men was associated with delayed and lower risk of mortality from stroke especially cerebral infarction.

4.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978845

RESUMO

Chemical carcinogenesis is focused on the formation of DNA adducts, a form of DNA damage caused by covalent binding of a chemical moiety to DNA. The detection of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human tissues, along with demonstration of mutagenicity/carcinogenicity in experimental systems, and validation of adducts as biomarkers of environmental exposure and indicators of cancer risk in molecular epidemiological studies suggests a pivotal role of DNA adducts in cancer development. However, accurate measurement of DNA adducts in varied biological samples is challenging. Advances in mass spectrometry have prompted the development of DNA adductome analysis, an emerging method that simultaneously screens for multiple DNA adducts and provides relevant structural information. In this review, we summarize the basic principle and applications of DNA adductome analysis that would contribute to the elucidation of the environmental causes of cancer. Based on parallel developments in several fields, including next-generation sequencing, we describe a new approach used to explore cancer etiology, which integrates analyses of DNA adductome data and mutational signatures derived from whole-genome/exome sequencing.

5.
Clin Drug Investig ; 40(11): 1071-1084, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment recommend different therapies including pharmacotherapy, and several analgesic options are available for pain management. In Japan, research on hip and knee OA treatment trends is scarce and OA-related healthcare costs are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the treatment and healthcare cost trends among Japanese patients with hip or knee OA. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study held between 2013 and 2019, using a medical claims database. The demographic and treatment characteristics of hip or knee OA patients for each year were descriptively analyzed and the medians for healthcare utilization and all-cause healthcare costs were calculated. RESULTS: The yearly mean age of 59,218 hip OA and 270,722 knee OA patients ranged from 66.3 to 68.6 years and 71.1 to 73.1 years, respectively. The prevalence of comorbidities was higher in knee OA than hip OA. In both groups, > 70% of patients were female, and the most common treatment was pain-related medication. In hip OA, topical and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were mostly used throughout the study period (34.1-41.4% and 32.0-40.3%, respectively). Similarly, in knee OA, topical and systemic NSAIDs were used in 58.3-63.3% and 36.5-46.0% patients, respectively. Increase in the use of acetaminophens (10.9% in hip OA and 10.2% in the knee OA) and weak opioids (3.7%, and 3.4%, respectively) from 2013 to 2019 were observed. Most patients were treated as outpatients in both groups. The median all-cause healthcare costs were approximately 35,000 JPY for hip OA and 74,000 JPY for knee OA. CONCLUSIONS: Although a considerable change in total healthcare cost was not observed in our study, the contents of medical treatment and cost breakdown were greatly altered due to the treatment and cost for OA itself, and the treatment and cost for comorbidities. Similar studies to investigate such a trend may help predict necessary resources and social needs. Thus, further investigation utilizing other databases is needed.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3175, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581250

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. To identify risk loci, we perform a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies comprising 2,039 pancreatic cancer patients and 32,592 controls in the Japanese population. Here, we identify 3 (13q12.2, 13q22.1, and 16p12.3) genome-wide significant loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), of which 16p12.3 has not been reported in the Western population. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 16p12.3 is rs78193826 (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.66, P = 4.28 × 10-9), an Asian-specific, nonsynonymous glycoprotein 2 (GP2) gene variant. Associations between selected GP2 gene variants and pancreatic cancer are replicated in 10,822 additional cases and controls of East Asian origin. Functional analyses using cell lines provide supporting evidence of the effect of rs78193826 on KRAS activity. These findings suggest that GP2 gene variants are probably associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility in populations of East Asian ancestry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(4): 385-394, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996369

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a potent mitogen, but IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 inhibits IGF1. To elucidate the relationship between both IGF1 and IGFBP and the risk of tumorigenesis, the association between IGF1 and IGFBP3 serum levels and of malignant tumor incidence was investigated in a prospective case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. A baseline survey was started in 1988-1990, 110,585 subjects were enrolled, and 35% of participants donated blood samples. Those who had been diagnosed with malignant tumors by 1997 were considered cases. The analysis involved 1,349 cases and 4,012 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for cancer incidence associated with IGF-related molecules. After controlling for alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and smoking, participants with high total-IGFBP3 and free-IGFBP3, which is estimated by the molar difference of (IGFBP3 - IGF1), had a risk of future neoplasms (P trend = 0.014 and 0.009, respectively), but those with IGF1 did not. People in the second to fifth quintiles had a lower risk than those in the first quintile (ORs 0.676-0.736 and 0.657-0.870, respectively). Limiting subjects to those followed for 3 years weakened the negative associations of total- and free-IGFBP3, whereas a positive relationship of free-IGF1, which was estimated by the molar ratio of IGF1/IGFBP3, was seen (P trend = 0.004, 0.002, and 0.013, respectively). After controlling for alcohol intake, smoking, BMI, and diabetes mellitus, the results were confirmed. These findings suggest that serum IGF1 and IGFBP3 are related to future risk of malignant neoplasms.

9.
Compr Psychiatry ; 96: 152148, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) is a widely used semi-structured diagnostic interview in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, given the extensive use of the K-SADS-PL in clinical practice and research and its adaptation for use in many languages and cultures, validation studies of the instrument are scarce. This study was designed to examine the inter-rater reliability, criterion validity and construct validity of the updated instrument, the K-SADS-PL for DSM-5, in Japanese outpatients totaling 95 children and adolescents. METHOD: We translated and adapted the updated instrument into Japanese using a standard forward-backward translation procedure. Two of nine experienced clinicians independently made diagnoses using the interview for each patient in a conjoint session. Discrepancies in diagnosis between two clinicians were resolved by consensus, and the consensus diagnosis was compared with a "best-estimate" diagnosis made by five experienced clinicians using all available data sources for patients who were blinded to the diagnosis using the K-SADS-PL for DSM-5. The "best-estimate" diagnosis of ASD was also based on the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders. RESULTS: The inter-rater reliability was very good, as shown by κ ≥ 0.8 for all disorders examined: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, selective mutism, enuresis and encopresis. The criterion validity was good, as shown by κ ≥ 0.6 for all disorders examined, except for ASD (κ = 0.59). This study also revealed good construct validity of the instrument by confirming the expected associations with each scale from the Social Responsiveness Scale-2nd edition and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the K-SADS-PL for DSM-5 generates valid diagnoses in child and adolescent psychiatry.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções
10.
J Epidemiol ; 30(1): 30-36, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distributions of serum pepsinogen (PG) values were assessed in Helicobacter pylori-infected and non-infected junior high school students (aged 12-15 years) in Japan. METHODS: All junior high school students (1,225 in total) in Sasayama city, who were basically healthy, were asked to provide urine and serum samples, which were used to measure urine and serum H. pylori antibodies using ELISA kits and PG values. The subjects, whose urine and serum antibodies were both positive, were considered H. pylori infected. RESULTS: Of the 187 subjects who provided urine and blood samples, 8 were infected, 4 had discrepant results, 4 had negative serum antibody titers no less than 3.0 U/ml, and 171 were non-infected. In the H. pylori non-infected subjects, the median PG I and PG II values and PG I to PG II ratio (PG I/II) were 40.8 ng/mL, 9.5 ng/mL, and 4.4, respectively, whereas in the infected subjects, these values were 55.4 ng/mL, 17.0 ng/mL, and 3.3, respectively (each P < 0.01). In the non-infected subjects, PG I and PG II were significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The PG I and PG II values were higher, and the PG I/II was lower in H. pylori infected students than in non-infected students. In H. pylori non-infected students, males showed higher PG I and PG II values than females. The distributions of PG values in junior high school students differed from those in adults.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori , Pepsinogênio A/sangue , Pepsinogênio C/sangue , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/urina , Criança , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/sangue , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Distribuição por Sexo
11.
J Epidemiol ; 30(9): 420-425, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to precisely estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) stratified by sex and birth year in Japan. METHODS: Three large-scaled cohorts: first-time blood donors, periodic health check-up, and comprehensive health check-up with lifestyle education (Ningen dock) were used for pooled prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV using meta-regression. RESULTS: Trends of birth year-specific prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV among the three cohorts were similar to one another, while birth year-specific pooled prevalence of HBsAg peaked in the 1941-1950 birth cohort. Prevalence of anti-HCV showed a decreasing trend by birth year. CONCLUSION: We could estimate the pooled prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV based on nationwide data. The results can be used as reference data for various countermeasures for hepatitis eradication.

12.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3603-3614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482651

RESUMO

Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bovinos , Colo , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Carne/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 917-926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392470

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to assess the association between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight Japanese population-based cohort studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), derived from random effects models, were used to evaluate the associations between green tea consumption, based on self-report at baseline, and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. During a mean follow-up of 17.3 years, among 313,381 persons, 52,943 deaths occurred. Compared with individuals who consumed < 1 cup/day, those in the highest consumption category (≥ 5 cups/day) had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [the multivariate-adjusted HR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for men and 0.82 (0.74-0.90) for women]. A similar inverse association was observed for heart disease mortality [HR 0.82 (0.75-0.90) for men, and 0.75 (0.68-0.84) for women], and cerebrovascular disease mortality [HR 0.76 (0.68-0.85) for men, and 0.78 (0.68-0.89) for women]. Among women, green tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of total cancer mortality: 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for the 1-2 cups/day category and 0.91 (0.85-0.98) for the 3-4 cups/day category. Results for respiratory disease mortality were [HR 0.75 (0.61-0.94)] among 3-4 cup daily consumers and [HR 0.66 (0.55-0.79)] for ≥ 5 cups/day. Higher consumption of green tea is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality in Japanese, especially for heart and cerebrovascular disease. Moderate consumption decreased the risk of total cancer and respiratory disease mortality in women.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 32(8): 1515-1527, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286759

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is prevalent in Cixian, China, but the etiology of this disease remains largely unknown. Therefore, we explored this by conducting a DNA adductome analysis. Both tumorous and nontumorous tissues were collected from patients who underwent surgical procedures at Cixian Cancer Hospital and the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, which is in a low-incidence area. N2-(3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)deoxyguanosine (THP-dG) was the major adduct detected in samples from esophageal cancer patients in Cixian. The precursor of THP-dG, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), exhibited a strong mutagenic activity under metabolic activation in the Ames test and a significant dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency during an in vivo mutagenicity test with guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) delta rats. The NPIP-induced mutation was dominated by A:T to C:G transversions, followed by G:C to A:T and A:T to G:C transitions, in the liver and esophagus of animal samples. A similar mutational pattern was observed in the mutational signature of esophageal cancer patients that demonstrated weak correlation with THP-dG levels. These findings suggested that NPIP exposure is partly involved in the development of esophageal cancer in Cixian residents.


Assuntos
Adutos de DNA/análise , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Nitrosaminas/análise , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Esofágicas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrosaminas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
15.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(12): 2104-2111, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a potent mitogen and is inhibited by IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). High serum IGF1 and low IGFBP3 are associated with increased risk of several carcinomas. Here, we assessed the relationship of these peptides with the risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, in a prospective case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. METHODS: The analysis involved 916 cases who had been diagnosed as gastrointestinal malignancies (C15-25) and 2306 controls. To estimate odds ratios for incidence of malignancies associated with these levels, a conditional logistic model was used. RESULTS: Both higher total and free IGFBP3 were associated with a decreased risk of tumor (P for trend < 0.001 and = 0.003, respectively). People in the second to fifth quintiles had lower risk compared to the first quintile (odds ratios ranged 0.532-0.650 and 0.582-0.725, respectively). After adjustment for IGF1, body mass index, drinking, and smoking, total IGFBP3 was inversely correlated with cancer risk (P for trend = 0.031). After adjustment, free IGFBP3 was inversely associated with the risk (P for trend = 0.007). Although total IGF1 was inversely correlated with tumor risk, it was not after controlling for IGFBP3 (P for trend = 0.007 and 0.589, respectively). Free IGF1 was not associated with the risk (P for trend = 0.361). Limiting subjects to those followed for over 3 years reinforced the inverted relationships of total and free IGFBP3 with risk for tumors (P for trend = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both total and free IGFBP3 may be inversely associated with the incidence of gastrointestinal malignancies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/sangue , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1149: 107-120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037557

RESUMO

About one-third of all children worldwide is infected with H. pylori and its prevalence is low in developed and high in developing countries. H. pylori is mainly acquired during childhood and transmission of the bacterium commonly proceeds from person to person, especially among family members. The most frequent transmission route is from the mother to children. Various gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases are reported to be associated with H. pylori in children and adolescents, but the strongest recommendation for testing and treating is introduced only with children and adolescents having peptic ulcer disease. Iron deficiency anemia and chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura are also considered for testing and treating, but the effectiveness is somewhat controversial. Invasive diagnosis is recommended, whereas none of the available diagnostic tests have 100% accuracy for reliable diagnosis, and therefore at least two or more tests should be performed. Urea breath test is the most reliable among the non-invasive tests. Because the number of antibiotics-resistant H. pylori strains is increasing, it is desirable to conduct a drug susceptibility test before treatment and to select the corresponding regime. H. pylori has been proven to be a major cause of gastric cancer and 'screen-and-treat' strategies are recommended in communities at high risk of gastric cancer. However, the application to children and adolescents is controversial. An effective vaccine is desirable, but not yet available. Screen-and-treat for adolescents has started in a few areas in Japan, where conditions are well established. New prevention strategies for gastric cancer are awaited worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Japão , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Péptica/etiologia , Úlcera Péptica/microbiologia
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(8): 1370-1378, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed prospective evaluation of cigarette smoking associated with pancreatic cancer risk in large Asian populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine this association in a Japanese population, with a particular focus on evaluating sex differences. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. We calculated study-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then estimated summary HRs by pooling these estimates with a random effects model. RESULTS: During 4,695,593 person-years of follow-up in 354,154 participants, 1,779 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for current smoking compared with never smoking in both males [HR (95% CI), 1.59 (1.32-1.91)] and females [HR (95% CI), 1.81 (1.43-2.30)]. Significant risk elevations for former smoking and small cumulative dose of ≤20 pack-years (PY) were observed only among females, regardless of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Trend analysis indicated significant 6% and nonsignificant 6% increases in pancreatic cancer risk for every 10 PYs in males and females, respectively. Risk became comparable with never smokers after 5 years of smoking cessation in males. In females, however, we observed no risk attenuation by smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the well-known association between smoking and pancreatic cancer and indicates potential sex differences in a Japanese population. Quitting smoking would be beneficial for pancreatic cancer prevention, especially in males. IMPACT: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased with cumulative smoking exposure and decreased with smoking cessation, with potential sex differences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sexismo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/patologia
18.
Prev Med ; 123: 270-277, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951734

RESUMO

Coffee consumption is increasing globally. We aimed to assess the effect of coffee consumption on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan (Japan Cohort Consortium). Data came from eight Japanese cohort studies (144,750 men and 168,631 women). During a mean follow-up time of 17 years, 52,943 deaths occurred. More specifically, 19,495 cancer deaths, 7321 deaths due to heart disease, 6387 cerebrovascular, 3490 respiratory disease and 3382 injuries and accidents. A random effects model was applied to obtain pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). In both sexes, coffee consumption up to 5 cups/day was overall protective in relation to all-cause mortality, with the association attenuating in the highest category of coffee consumption (≥5 cups/day). In men, a similar inverse association was observed for major causes of mortality except cancer. In women, coffee consumption decreased the risk for mortality due to heart disease in the 1-2 cups/day category, but increased the risk in the ≥5 cups/day category. Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer in both sexes. Results were similar among male current smokers and female never-smokers. Based on available data, this pooled analysis suggests that coffee consumption under five cups per day may be beneficial for reducing the risk of mortality due to major causes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Café , Ingestão de Líquidos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/patologia , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(7): 526-530, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The secular trend in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among children and adolescents in Japan has not been well documented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed all relevant literature published between 1991 and 2017, focusing on the relationship between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and birth year. Our literature search covered all journal articles, conference proceedings and meeting abstracts that reported the prevalence of H. pylori infection in Japanese subjects under 20 years of age. RESULTS: We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection according to birth year on the basis of data points, which comprised 20,269 subjects of 81 groups. Three-coefficient logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the trend in H. pylori prevalence. The prevalence was approximately 10% in the individuals born in 1985, but it decreased to 3% in the individuals born in 2011. The plot of H. pylori prevalence against birth year clearly indicated a birth-cohort effect: the earlier the birth year, the higher the prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed a rapidly decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection among Japanese children and adolescents over the past three decades.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(10): 769-773, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody kits (LZ and LIA) using the latex agglutination immunoassay method are commercially available, but few studies have been performed to determine their diagnostic accuracy or to compare their results with those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (EP and EIA). METHODS: Sera were obtained from 213 hospital outpatients with dyspeptic symptoms. The serological results were compared with the result of the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) which seems to be reliable. RESULTS: Of the 213 subjects, 154 were diagnosed as positive for H. pylori infection according to the UBT. The sensitivities and specificities of these tests were 97.4% and 76.3%, 98.1% and 78.0%, 99.4% and 74.6%, and 98.1% and 71.2% for the EP, LZ, EIA and LIA tests, respectively. When the 13 subjects whose seropositive results of the four kits were completely opposite to the negative results of the UBT were excluded, the specificities of evaluated kits were all higher than 90%. The concordance rate between the EP and EIA tests was 98.1% (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.83) and that between the LZ and LIA tests was 97.1% (correlation coefficient = 0.91). The LZ gave higher antibody titer value than EP (p < 0.0001, Z = 9.82; Wilcoxon signed-rank test), and EIA gave higher value than LIA (p < 0.0001, Z = 6.43; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: The latex immunoassay method provided the same reliability to ELISA in terms of the diagnostic accuracy for current H. pylori infection, although we should take into account the titer value differences by each test method in practical use.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Fixação do Látex/instrumentação , Ureia/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Comércio , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/economia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/instrumentação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/sangue , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Humanos , Testes de Fixação do Látex/economia , Testes de Fixação do Látex/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ureia/química , Adulto Jovem
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