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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125439, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499287

RESUMO

Compared to the control longans, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated longans exhibited higher index of pulp breakdown, higher fruit respiration rate, higher activities of pulp phosphohexose isomerase (PGI), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), but lower activity of pulp nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinase (NADK). H2O2-treated longans also exhibited lower total activities of pulp glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), lower levels of pulp NADP(H), but higher levels of pulp NAD(H). These data indicated that H2O2-stimulated longan pulp breakdown was owing to a decreased proportion of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), the increased proportions of Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and cytochrome pathway (CCP) in total respiratory pathways. These findings further revealed that H2O2 could enhance respiration rate, and thus accelerate pulp breakdown occurrence and shorten the shelf life of longan fruit.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2843, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253792

RESUMO

Nature is capable of storing solar energy in chemical bonds via photosynthesis through a series of C-C, C-O and C-N bond-forming reactions starting from CO2 and light. Direct capture of solar energy for organic synthesis is a promising approach. Lead (Pb)-halide perovskite solar cells reach 24.2% power conversion efficiency, rendering perovskite a unique type material for solar energy capture. We argue that photophysical properties of perovskites already proved for photovoltaics, also should be of interest in photoredox organic synthesis. Because the key aspects of these two applications are both relying on charge separation and transfer. Here we demonstrated that perovskites nanocrystals are exceptional candidates as photocatalysts for fundamental organic reactions, for example C-C, C-N and C-O bond-formations. Stability of CsPbBr3 in organic solvents and ease-of-tuning their bandedges garner perovskite a wider scope of organic substrate activations. Our low-cost, easy-to-process, highly-efficient, air-tolerant and bandedge-tunable perovskites may bring new breakthrough in organic chemistry.

3.
Food Chem ; 297: 124955, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253342

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on membrane lipids metabolism and its relation to pulp breakdown development of longan fruit during postharvest storage. Compared to the control longans, H2O2-treated longans showed higher pulp breakdown index, cell membrane permeability, and activities of phospholipase D (PLD), lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX). Moreover, H2O2-treated longans maintained higher levels of pulp phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, H2O2-treated longans exhibited lower levels of pulp phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), lower index of unsaturated fatty acids (IUFA), and lower ratio of USFA to SFA (U/S). These findings demonstrated that H2O2 caused the increased activities of enzymes involving in membrane lipids degradation and the accelerated decompositions of membrane USFA and phospholipids in longan pulp, which eventually triggered the destruction of the pulp cell membrane structure and the development of pulp breakdown in longans during storage.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/química , Enzimas/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Lipase/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoxigenase/química , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 217: 126-134, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079668

RESUMO

Longan pulp is an excellent source of polysaccharides and other nutrients that have many health benefits. However, longans is susceptible to pulp breakdown after harvest and loses its nutrition values. To solve this problem, this study aimed to study the effects of a novel chitosan, Kadozan, on pulp breakdown index, contents of pectin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, and activities of enzymes in longan pulp relating to disassembly of polysaccharides (XET, PE, PG, ß-Gal, and cellulase). The data illustrated that, compared to the control longans, chitosan-treated longans contained higher amounts of CWM, CSP, ISP, cellulose and hemicelluloses, but exhibited lower pulp breakdown index, lower activities of cell wall-disassembling enzymes, and contained lower WSP amount. These results suggested that Kadozan with a dilution of 1:500 (VKadozan: VKadozan + Water) could significantly decrease activities of disassembling-enzymes and depolymerization of polysaccharides in cell wall, and subsequently alleviate pulp breakdown and prolong storage-life of postharvest longans.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 275: 239-245, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724192

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff. & Maubl (L. theobromae) inoculation on the energy status and activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) during L. theobromae-induced disease development and pericarp browning of harvested 'Fuyan' longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv. Fuyan) fruit. The results showed that, compared to the control longans, L. theobromae-inoculated longans displayed higher indices of fruit disease and pericarp browning, lower pericarp ATP and ADP contents, higher AMP content, lower level of energy charge, as well as lower activities of Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and H+-ATPase in membranes of plasma, vacuole, and mitochondria. These results indicated that the infection of L. theobromae reduced energy status and ATPase activities, caused ions disorder, damaged the integrity and function of the cell and organelles including vacuole and mitochondria in pericarp of longan fruit, which contributed to L. theobromae-promoted disease development and pericarp browning of harvested longan fruit during storage.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/microbiologia , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo
6.
ChemSusChem ; 12(4): 898-907, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600932

RESUMO

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) has been widely explored as a photocatalyst for water splitting. The anodic water oxidation reaction (WOR) remains a major obstacle for such processes, with issues such as low surface area of g-C3 N4 , poor light absorption, and low charge-transfer efficiency. In this work, such longtime concerns have been partially addressed with band gap and surface engineering of nanostructured graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ). Specifically, surface area and charge-transfer efficiency are significantly enhanced through architecting g-C3 N4 on nanorod TiO2 to avoid aggregation of layered g-C3 N4 . Moreover, a simple phosphide gas treatment of TiO2 /g-C3 N4 configuration not only narrows the band gap of g-C3 N4 by 0.57 eV shifting it into visible range but also generates in situ a metal phosphide (M=Fe, Cu) water oxidation cocatalyst. This TiO2 /g-C3 N4 /FeP configuration significantly improves charge separation and transfer capability. As a result, our non-noble-metal photoelectrochemical system yields outstanding visible light (>420 nm) photocurrent: approximately 0.3 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V and 1.1 mA cm-2 at 2.0 V versus RHE, which is the highest for a g-C3 N4 -based photoanode. It is expected that the TiO2 /g-C3 N4 /FeP configuration synthesized by a simple phosphide gas treatment will provide new insight for producing robust g-C3 N4 for water oxidation.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(2): 733-738, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602111

RESUMO

Cost-effective and efficient photocatalysis are highly desirable in chemical synthesis. Here we demonstrate that readily prepared suspensions of APbBr3 (A = Cs or methylammonium (MA)) type perovskite colloids (ca. 2-100 nm) can selectively photocatalyze carbon-carbon bond formation reactions, i.e., α-alkylations. Specifically, we demonstrate α-alkylation of aldehydes with a turnover number (TON) of over 52,000 under visible light illumination. Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites are revolutionizing photovoltaic research and are now impacting other research fields, but their exploration in organic synthesis is rare. Our low-cost, easy-to-process, highly efficient and bandedge-tunable perovskite photocatalyst is expected to bring new insights in chemical synthesis.

8.
Food Chem ; 266: 299-308, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381189

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of a novel chitosan formulation (Kadozan) treatment on disease development, response of disease resistance, metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Peronophthora litchii-inoculated "Wuye" litchis. Compared with P. litchii-inoculated litchis, Kadozan-treated P. litchii-inoculated litchis exhibited lower fruit disease index, higher lignin content, higher activities of disease resistance-related enzymes (CHI, GLU and PAL), lower O2- generating rate and malondialdehyde content, higher activities of ROS scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX), higher contents of ascorbic acid and glutathione, and higher levels of reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity. These results suggest that Kadozan can be used to inhibit the growth of P. litchii in harvested litchis owning to the enhancement of disease resistance and ROS scavenging capacity, and decreases in O2- accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Kadozan treatment can be used as a facile and novel method for suppressing postharvest pathogenic disease of litchis.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403851

RESUMO

This study investigated the changes in metabolisms of membrane lipids and phenolics caused by Phomopsis longanae Chi infection in association with pericarp browning and fruit disease occurrence of postharvest longans. Compared with the uninoculated-longans, the longans inoculated by P. longanae exhibited higher cellular membrane permeability; higher PLD, lipase, and LOX activities; and higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and phosphatidic acid but lower levels of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, and unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs). Additionally, the longans inoculated by P. longanae showed higher activities of POD and PPO but a lower amount of total phenolics. These findings suggested that infection of P. longanae enhanced activities of PLD-, lipase-, and LOX- stimulated degradations of membrane lipids and USFAs, which destroyed the integrity of the cell membrane structure, resulting in enzymatic browning by contact of phenolics with POD and PPO, and resulting in reduction of resistance to pathogen infection and accordingly accelerated disease occurrence of postharvest longan fruit.

10.
Food Chem ; 269: 644-651, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100484

RESUMO

Compared to P. longanae-inoculated longan fruit, DNP-treated P. longanae-inoculated longans displayed higher fruit disease index, pericarp browning index and cell membrane permeability. Moreover, they exhibited higher activities of phospholipase D, lipase and lipoxygenase, lower amounts of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and USFA (unsaturated fatty acids) as well as higher amounts of phosphatidic acid and SFA (saturated fatty acids). Additionally, lower ratio of USFA to SFA and USFA index were shown in DNP-treated P. longanae-inoculated longans. However, ATP-treated P. longanae-inoculated longans exhibited the opposite results. These findings indicated that DNP stimulated longan pericarp browning and disease development caused by P. longanae resulted from the increases in activities of membrane lipids-degrading enzymes, promoting degradation of membrane phospholipids and USFA, and disruption of membrane structural integrity. Whereas, the opposite results observed in ATP-treated P. longanae-inoculated longans were due to the reduction in activities of membrane lipids-degrading enzymes and the maintenance of membrane structural integrity.

11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumors cells (CTCs) may be a promising prognostic marker for patients with malignant tumors. However, there are few reports regarding its value for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. AIMS: To investigate CTCs with epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes as a potential prognostic biomarker for HCC patients. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 165 HCC patients before radical surgery. CTCs were isolated via the CanPatrol CTC enrichment technique and classified using epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. The relationship of CTC phenotype with clinicopathological factors and HCC recurrence in patients was analyzed. RESULTS: CTC-positive status (count ≥ 2/5 mL) was found in 70.9% of the 165 HCC patients. Increased CTC number was more common in patients with higher AFP levels, multiple tumors, advanced TNM and BCLC staging, and presence of embolus or microembolus (P < 0.05). CTCs heterogeneity was noted using EMT markers. Mesenchymal CTCs were significantly correlated with high AFP levels, multiple tumors, advanced TNM and BCLC stage, presence of embolus or microembolus, and earlier recurrence (P < 0.05). The presence of mesenchymal CTCs predicted the shortest relapse-free survival, followed by mixed phenotypic CTCs, and then epithelial CTCs (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CTC phenotype may serve as a prognostic indicator for HCC patients. CTCs assessment should include phenotypic identification tailored to characterize cells based on epithelial and mesenchymal markers.

12.
Food Chem ; 264: 1-8, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853352

RESUMO

Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides accompanied with softening is very common in harvested fruits. To develop a facile postharvest approach, which can be used at ambient temperature, for suppressing softening and maintaining higher nutritive cell wall polysaccharides of Younai plums, influences of paper containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on firmness, activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes, and contents of cell wall polysaccharide in Younai plums during storage at 25 ±â€¯1 °C were investigated. As compared to the control plums, 1.2 µL·L-1 1-MCP-treated plums exhibited higher firmness, lower activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes (pectinesterase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and ß-galactosidase), higher contents of cell wall polysaccharides (sodium carbonate-soluble pectin, chelate-soluble pectin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses), and lower content of water-soluble pectin. The results suggested that paper containing 1-MCP, which was convenient to apply under ambient temperature, could significantly inhibit activities of cell wall degrading-enzymes and decrease disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides, and subsequently retard softening in Younai plums.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Prunus domestica/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus domestica/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Papel , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Prunus domestica/química
13.
Food Chem ; 252: 134-141, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478523

RESUMO

The effects of Kadozan (a novel chitosan formulation) treatment on physiological attribute, nutritional quality and storage behavior of harvested "Wuye" litchi fruit were studied. Compared with control litchis, Kadozan treatment significantly decreased fruit respiration rate, retarded the increase of pericarp cell membrane permeability, maintained higher contents of anthocyanins and flavonoids and higher values of L∗, a∗ and b∗ in litchi pericarp, and reduced the decreases of titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total soluble sugars, and vitamin C contents in litchi pulp, maintaining better quality of litchis. Furthermore, Kadozan treatment decreased browning index and disease index of litchis, kept higher rate of commercially acceptable fruit, and reduced fruit weight loss, showing better storage behavior of litchis under ambient temperature. The optimal Kadozan treatment for litchis was the 1:100 (VKadozan: VKadozan + Water) dilution, which might be a promising method for keeping quality and prolonging shelf-life of harvested "Wuye" litchi fruit.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Litchi/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Biomater Sci ; 6(5): 1007-1019, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485658

RESUMO

A barrier membrane is a major component of guided bone regeneration (GBR), which is traditionally viewed as a physical barrier. Due to its "foreign body" nature, the implantation of a barrier membrane would inevitably modulate immune response and subsequently affect bone dynamics, which has long been neglected. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigated the osteoimmunomodulatory effects of barrier collagen membranes. It is found that barrier collagen membranes elicit significant effects on modulating the osteoimmune response of macrophages, by upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-18) and osteogenic factors (BMP2/6, WNT10b, OSM). The modulated-osteoimmune environment was beneficial for the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, due to the activation of BMP, canonical WNT/ß-catenin, and OSM signalling pathways. The membrane-mediated osteoimmunomodulation was further modulated to show whether osteogenesis could be enhanced via manipulating the membrane-mediated osteoimmunomodulation. The membrane-mediated osteoimmune response was successfully tuned through coating the collagen membranes with nanometer-sized bioactive glass Ca2ZnSi2O7 by pulsed laser deposition, which is indicated from the change in the expression profile of inflammatory cytokines and the upregulated expression of osteogenic factors. The modulated osteoimmune environment enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, suggesting that collagen membranes with nanometer-sized Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating can be promising for GBR applications. These results collectively imply that barrier membranes are bioactive barriers with an osteoimmunomodulatory effect and not just physical barriers. New generation barrier membranes should be designed with a favourable osteoimmunomodulatory property.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Colágeno/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Vidro/química , Regeneração Tecidual Guiada/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/efeitos adversos , Colágeno/efeitos adversos , Citocinas/genética , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanoestruturas/efeitos adversos , Nanoestruturas/química , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 240: 863-869, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946353

RESUMO

Effects of propyl gallate on metabolisms of respiration and energy of harvested 'Fuyan' longans and its relationship to pericarp browning were investigated. Compared to control longans, propyl gallate could reduce ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) activity, lower cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) activity during early-storage and mid-storage, increase NADK activity, elevate contents of NADP and NADPH, decrease contents of NAD and NADH, in addition, lower the decreases of ATP content and energy charge (E.C.), increase activities of mitochondrial H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase during early-storage and mid-storage. Above results suggested that propyl gallate-retarded browning development in pericarp of harvested longans was resulted from decreases in activities of respiratory terminal oxidases like CCO and AAO, increase in proportion of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and maintenance of mitochondrial integrity via retaining higher levels of ATP content and energy charge, as well as higher activities of mitochondrial ATPase.


Assuntos
Sapindaceae , Frutas , Glicólise , Oxirredutases , Galato de Propila
16.
Food Chem ; 244: 93-101, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120810

RESUMO

Effects of Lasiodiplodia theobromae inoculation on disease development, pericarp browning and membrane lipids metabolism of harvested "Fuyan" longan fruit were studied. Compared with control fruit, L. theobromae-inoculated longans showed higher fruit disease index, pericarp browning index and cell membrane permeability, as well as higher activities of phospholipase D, lipase and lipoxygenase. Additionally, there were lower contents of membrane phospholipids but higher content of phosphatidic acid, and lower level of unsaturated fatty acids but higher level of saturated ones with lower ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid and lower index of unsaturated fatty acids in pericarp of L. theobromae-inoculated longans. These results suggested that L. theobromae-induced disease development and pericarp browning of harvested longans might be attributed to the damaged cellular membrane structural integrity, induced by the activated membrane lipids-degrading enzymes increasing the degradation of membrane phospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids in pericarp of harvested longan fruit.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sapindaceae/microbiologia , Spiroplasma/fisiologia , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
17.
ACS Nano ; 11(7): 7201-7214, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686414

RESUMO

In this paper, mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and capped with tumor-homing/-penetrating peptide tLyP-1-modified tungsten disulfide quantum dots (WS2-HP) was designed and applied as a stimuli-responsive "Cluster Bomb" for high-performance tumor suppression. The peptide tLyP-1 on the surface can both facilitate the homing of DOX@MSN-WS2-HP to 4T1 tumor and greatly enhance the penetration of WS2-HP in tumor. The benzoic-imine bonds as the linkers between "bomblets" and "dispenser" are stable under normal physical conditions and quite labile at pH 6.8. After arriving at the mild acidic tumor microenvironment, the nanoplatform can rapidly break into two parts: (1) electropositive DOX@MSN-NH2 for efficient chemotherapy on surface tumor cells and (2) small-sized WS2-HP with improved tumor penetrating ability for near-infrared (NIR)-light-triggered photothermal therapy (PTT) among deep-seated tumor cells. Having killed the tumor cells in different depths, DOX@MSN-WS2-HP exhibited significant antitumor effect, which will find great potential in clinical trials.

18.
Food Chem ; 231: 238-246, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450002

RESUMO

Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff. & Maubl. is a major pathogen causing decay of harvested longan fruit. The roles of energy status regulated by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in disease development regarding respiratory metabolism of L. theobromae-inoculated "Fuyan" longan fruit were studied. Compared with L. theobromae-inoculated longans, DNP treatment could promote the index of fruit disease, accelerate the decrease in energy charge, increase respiration rate and the activities of respiratory terminal oxidases like CCO, AAO and PPO, elevate contents of NAD and NADH, but decrease NAD kinase activity, as well as contents of NADP and NADPH; however, exogenous ATP supply acted contrarily. Above results suggested the different energy status caused by DNP and ATP treatments accelerated or delayed the disease development of L. theobromae-inoculated longans via regulating Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and activities of respiratory terminal oxidases.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Frutas , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Metabolismo Energético , Glicólise , Sapindaceae
19.
Food Chem ; 228: 497-505, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28317755

RESUMO

As compared with P. longanae-inoculated longans, DNP treatment for P. longanae-inoculated longans exhibited higher fruit disease index and pericarp browning index, lower ATP amount and energy charge level, lower activities of SOD, CAT and APX, lower amounts of AsA and GSH, lower levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power, higher O2- generating rate and MDA amount. However, supply of ATP for P. longanae-inoculated longans showed the contrary effects. These results gave convincing evidence that DNP treatment for accelerating pericarp browning and disease development of harvested longans caused by P. longanae was due to decreases of energy production and ROS scavenging capacity, and increases of O2- accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Whereas, supply of ATP for retarding pericarp browning and disease development of harvested longans caused by P. longanae was due to increases of energy production and ROS scavenging capacity, and reductions of O2- accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Frutas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
20.
Food Chem ; 225: 31-36, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193430

RESUMO

Energy metabolism of "Fuyan" longan fruit treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the most stable of the reactive oxygen, and its relationship to pericarp browning were investigated in this work. The results displayed that H2O2 significantly decreased contents of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It also inhibited activities of H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in membranes of plasma, vacuole and mitochondria during the early-storage and mid-storage (except for mitochondrial membrane Mg2+-ATPase). These results gave convincing evidence that the treatment of H2O2 accelerating pericarp browning in harvested longans was due to a decrease of ATPase activity and available ATP content. This might break the ion homeostasis and the integrity of mitochondria, which might reduce energy charge and destroy the function and compartmentalization of cell membrane. These together aggravated browning incidence in pericarp of harvested longan fruit.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/análise , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análise , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
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