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1.
Acad Pediatr ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of adding a video and text messages to Reach Out and Read (ROR) on parent-reported literacy activities compared to the standard version. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a mixed methods hybrid type I effectiveness-implementation randomized trial in a community health center that serves low-income Latino families. We assessed shared reading frequency and the StimQ Reading subscale, at enrollment and 6-month follow up and the StimQ Parent Verbal Responsivity subscale, Parent Reading Belief Inventory, and Survey of Wellbeing of Young Children-Milestones at follow up. We randomized 160 parent-child dyads to ROR or ROR plus video and text messages (enhanced ROR). We collected process data on ROR and engagement with texts. We interviewed 15 enhanced ROR participants. We analyzed quantitative data using regression and qualitative data using immersion/crystallization. RESULTS: 137 parent-child dyads completed the study (87% Latino, mean child age 9 months). We found differences in the StimQ Reading subscale (B=0.32; p=0.034) and marginal differences in attitudes about reading favoring enhanced ROR. Between-group differences for shared reading frequency, verbal responsivity, and developmental delay were not significant. Qualitative themes provided insight into the enhanced ROR including how it encouraged parents, remaining barriers like competing priorities and lack of social support, and unanticipated benefits (i.e., parent appreciation for attention on their families' wellbeing). CONCLUSIONS: A video and text message enhancement to ROR resulted in modest improvements in the home literacy environment over ROR alone. Additional strategies are needed to overcome potent barriers faced by low-income families. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03242850.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23953, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will electronically search PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biomedical Literature Database, China Science Journal Database, and Wan-fang Database from their inception. Also, we will manually retrieve other resources, including reference lists of identified publications, conference articles, and grey literature. The clinical randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials related to acupuncture treating pediatric ADHD will be included in the study. The language is limited to Chinese and English. Research selection, data extraction, and research quality assessment will be independently completed by 2 researchers. Data were synthesized by using a fixed effect model or random effect model depend on the heterogeneity test. The scores of Revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R), Conners Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) will be the primary outcomes. Besides, the scores of the Conners Continuous Performance Test, Internal Restlessness Scale, and Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC), and the possible adverse events will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. RevMan V.5.3 statistical software will be used for meta-analysis, and the level of evidence will be assessed by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Continuous data will be expressed in the form of weighted mean difference or standardized mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while dichotomous data will be expressed in the form of relative risk with 95% CIs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol of this systematic review (SR) does not require ethical approval because it does not involve humans. We will publish this article in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: OSF Registries, DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/XVYP9 (https://osf.io/xvyp9).


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550510

RESUMO

Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) has a significant impact on quality of life and medical costs. However, data about ASBO after gastrectomy remain sparse. From January 2009 to December 2017, 3025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Clinicopathological materials were obtained retrospectively, and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors for ASBO. A nomogram for the prediction of ASBO was generated using the results of multivariable analyses. Bootstraps with 1000 resamples were performed for internal validation. The performance of the model was assessed with its discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness. A total of 330 (10.9%) patients experienced at least one ASBO episode with a median follow-up of 57.0 (interquartile range 31.0-85.0) months. Logistic regression analysis showed that independent risk factors for ASBO were previous abdominal surgery (odds ratio, OR = 2.03), open gastrectomy (OR = 3.12), non-Billroth-1 reconstruction (Billroth-2, OR = 2.61; Roux-en-Y, OR = 1.99; esophagogastrostomy, OR = 2.79), D2/D2 + lymphadenectomy (OR = 2.64), combined organ resection (OR = 2.76), and postoperative intraabdominal complication (OR = 2.73). The nomogram showed good discrimination, with a C-index of 0.702 and good calibration. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the nomogram was clinically useful. Several risk factors associated with ASBO after gastrectomy for gastric cancer were identified. Nomogram generated based on these factors could serve as a reliable tool to predict the probability of ASBO.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2002232, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: SEQUOIA compared efficacy and safety of adding pegilodecakin (PEG), a pegylated recombinant human interleukin (IL)-10, with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in patients following progression on first-line gemcitabine-containing therapy with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: SEQUOIA, a randomized, global phase III study, compared FOLFOX with PEG + FOLFOX as second line in gemcitabine-refractory PDAC. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 (PEG + FOLFOX:FOLFOX) and stratified by prior gemcitabine and region. Eligible patients had only one prior gemcitabine-containing treatment. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), response evaluation per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST) 1.1, and safety. Exploratory analyses included biomarkers related to immune activation. RESULTS: Between March 1, 2017, and September 9, 2019, 567 patients were randomly assigned PEG + FOLFOX (n = 283) or FOLFOX (n = 284). Most (94.7%) patients received prior gemcitabine plus nab paclitaxel. OS was similar comparing PEG + FOLFOX versus FOLFOX (median: 5.8 v 6.3 months; hazard ratio = 1.045; 95% CI, 0.863 to 1.265). Also, PFS (median 2.1 v 2.1 months; hazard ratio = 0.981; 95% CI, 0.808 to 1.190) and objective response rate (4.6% v 5.6%) were similar between the treatment arms. Most common (≥ 35%) treatment-emergent adverse events in PEG + FOLFOX versus FOLFOX were thrombocytopenia (55% v 20%), anemia (40% v 16%), fatigue (61% v 45%), neutropenia (39% v 28%), abdominal pain (37% v 29%), nausea (45% v 41%), neuropathy (37% v 38%), and decreased appetite (35% v 31%). Exploratory analyses revealed increases in total IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, and granzyme B and decreases in transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß with the addition of PEG. CONCLUSION: PEG added to FOLFOX did not improve efficacy in advanced gemcitabine-refractory PDAC. Safety findings were consistent as previously observed from PEG with chemotherapy; toxicity was manageable and tolerable. Exploratory pharmacodynamic results were consistent with immunostimulatory signals of the IL-10R pathway.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2798, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531614

RESUMO

The variability in rainfall amounts in India draws much attention because it strongly influences the country's ecological and social systems. Indian rainfall is associated with climate factors, including El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole. Here we identified the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the primary pattern of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere, as the ultimate forcing leading to decadal changes in Indian rainfall. Through statistical analyses using observational data covering the period from 1979 to 2015, we show an increase in the decadal rainfall amount in the early 1990s over the Indian region. Examining atmospheric environmental conditions, we demonstrate that conditions have become more favorable over the past few decades. Specifically, during the positive SAM phase since the early 1990s, changes in the atmospheric fields have evoked anomalous vertical motion over the continent and the Indian Ocean, enhancing the southerly cross-equatorial flow by increased land-sea thermal contrast, thereby increasing decadal rainfall in the region.

6.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-29, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602362

RESUMO

Ultra-processed foods provide the majority of calories in the American diet, yet little is known regarding consumption trends over time. We determined trends in diet processing level and diet quality from 1991-2008 within the prospective Framingham Offspring Cohort. Dietary intakes were collected by food frequency questionnaires quadrennially 1991-2008 (total of four examinations). The analytical sample included 2,893 adults with valid dietary data for ≥3 examinations (baseline mean age=54y). Based on the NOVA framework, we classified foods as: unprocessed/minimally processed foods; processed culinary ingredients (salt/sugar/fats/oils); processed foods; and ultra-processed foods. We evaluated diet quality using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI) 2010. Trends in consumption of foods within each processing level (servings/day) and diet quality over the four examinations were evaluated using mixed effects models with subject-specific random intercepts. Analyses were stratified by sex, BMI (<25kg/m2, 25-29.9kg/m2, ≥30kg/m2) and smoking status. Over 17 years of follow-up, ultra-processed food consumption decreased from 7.5 to 6.0 servings/day and minimally processed food consumption decreased from 11.9 to 11.3 servings/day (p-trend<0.001). Changes in intakes of processed foods, culinary ingredients, and culinary preparations were minimal. Trends were similar by sex, BMI, and smoking status. DGAI-2010 score increased from 60.1 to 61.5, p<0.001. The current study uniquely describes trends in diet processing level in an aging U.S. population, highlighting the longstanding presence of ultra-processed foods in the American diet. Given the poor nutritional quality of ultra-processed foods, public health efforts should be designed to limit their consumption.

7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(2): 157-168, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetes and hypertension are two common comorbidities that affect breast cancer patients, particularly Black women. Disruption of chronic disease management during cancer treatment has been speculated. Therefore, this study examined the implementation of clinical practice guidelines and health outcomes for these comorbidities before and during cancer treatment. METHODS: We used a population-based, prospective cohort of Black women diagnosed with breast cancer (2012-2016) in New Jersey (n = 563). Chronic disease management for diabetes and hypertension was examined 12 months before and after breast cancer diagnosis and compared using McNemar's test for matched paired and paired t tests. RESULTS: Among this cohort, 18.1% had a co-diagnosis of diabetes and 47.2% had a co-diagnosis of hypertension. Implementation of clinical practice guidelines and health outcomes that differed in the 12 months before and after cancer diagnosis included lipid screening (64.5% before versus 50.0% after diagnosis; p = 0.004), glucose screening (72.7% versus 90.7%; p < 0.001), and blood pressure control < 140/90 mmHg (57.6% versus 71.5%; p = 0.004) among patients with hypertension-only. For patients with diabetes, eye and foot care were low (< 35%) and optimal HbA1c < 8.0% was achieved for less than 50% of patients in both time periods. CONCLUSION: Chronic disease management continued during cancer treatment; however, eye and foot exams for patients with diabetes and lipid screening for patients with hypertension-only were inadequate. Given that comorbidities may account for half of the Black-White breast cancer survival disparity, strategies are needed to improve chronic disease management during cancer, especially for Black women who bear a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 98, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397935

RESUMO

Glucose metabolism and innate immunity evolved side-by-side. It is unclear if and how the two systems interact with each other during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and, if so, which mechanisms are involved. Here, we report that HBV activates glycolysis to impede retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-induced interferon production. We demonstrate that HBV sequesters MAVS from RIG-I by forming a ternary complex including hexokinase (HK). Using a series of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence indicating that HBV suppresses RLR signaling via lactate dehydrogenase-A-dependent lactate production. Lactate directly binds MAVS preventing its aggregation and mitochondrial localization during HBV infection. Therefore, we show that HK2 and glycolysis-derived lactate have important functions in the immune escape of HBV and that energy metabolism regulates innate immunity during HBV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Metaboloma , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicólise , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferons/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais , Vírion/metabolismo
9.
Hepatol Int ; 15(1): 155-165, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rifaximin has been recommended as a prophylactic drug for hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). This study aims to explore whether low-dose rifaximin can prevent overall complications and prolong survival in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: In this multi-centre randomized open-labelled prospective study, 200 patients with decompensated cirrhosis were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1. Patients in rifaximin group were administered 400 mg rifaximin twice daily for 6 months, and all other therapeutic strategies were kept unchanged in both groups as long as possible. The primary efficacy endpoints were the incidence of overall complications and liver transplantation-free survival. The secondary endspoints were the incidence of each major cirrhosis-related complication, as well as the Child-Pugh score and class. RESULTS: The major baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups except for HE. The cumulative incidence and frequency of overall complications were significantly lower in rifaximin group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Though liver transplantation-free survival was not significantly different between the two groups, subgroup analysis showed rifaximin markedly prolonged liver transplantation-free survival in patients with Child-Pugh score ≥ 9 (p = 0.007). Moreover, rifaximin markedly reduced the episodes of ascites exacerbation (p < 0.001), HE (p < 0.001) and gastric variceal bleeding (EGVB, p = 0.031). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose rifaximin significantly decreases the occurrence of overall complications, leading to prolonged survival in patients with advanced stages of cirrhosis in this trail. Further study should be carried out to compare the effect of this low-dose rifaximin with normal dose (1200 mg/day) rifaximin in preventing cirrhosis-related complications. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: NCT02190357.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of intraoperative use of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography (ICGFA) to prevent anastomotic leakage (AL) in rectal cancer surgery remains controversial. METHODS: The systematic review for studies evaluating ICGFA in patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was performed up to April 30, 2020. The primary outcome was the incidence of AL. The analysis was performed using RevMan v5.3 and Stata v12.0 software. RESULTS: Eighteen studies comprising 4038 patients were included. In the present meta-analysis, intraoperative use of ICGFA markedly reduced AL rate (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.24-0.45; P < 0.0001; I2 = 0%) in rectal cancer surgery, which was still significant in surgeries limited to symptomatic AL (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.31-0.64; P < 0.0001; I2 = 22%). This intervention was also associated with shorter postoperative stays (MD = - 1.27; 95% CI: - 2.42 to - 0.13; P = 0.04; I2 = 60%). However, reoperation rate (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.34-1.10; P = 0.10; I2 = 6%), ileus rate (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 0.60-2.82; P = 0.51; I2 = 56%), and surgical site infection rate (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.20; P = 0.42; I2 = 0%) were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The use of ICGFA was associated with a lower AL rate after rectal cancer resection. However, more multi-center RCTs with large sample size are required to further verify the value of ICGFA in rectal cancer surgery.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 196-205, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399028

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Following outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2002 and 2012, respectively, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third highly pathogenic emerging human coronavirus (hCoV). SARS-CoV-2 is currently causing the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CoV infections in target cells may stimulate the formation of numerous double-membrane autophagosomes and induce autophagy. Several studies provided evidence that hCoV infections are closely related to various cellular aspects associated with autophagy. Autophagy may even promote hCoV infection and replication. However, so far it is unclear how hCoV infections induce autophagy and whether the autophagic machinery is necessary for viral propagation. Here, we summarize the most recent advances concerning the mutual interplay between the autophagic machinery and the three emerging hCoVs, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 and the model system mouse hepatitis virus. We also discuss the applicability of approved and well-tolerated drugs targeting autophagy as a potential treatment against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/virologia , Autofagia , /patogenicidade , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite Murina/patogenicidade , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470617

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive malignant cancers in the world. Circular RNA hsa_circ_0000554 (circ_0000554) and Fermitin family members 1 (FERMT1) are rated to the advancement of esophageal cancer. Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanisms between circ_0000554 and FERMT1 in the radioresistance of esophageal cancer are unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to examine the expression of circ_0000554, FERMT1 mRNA, and miR-485-5p. Western blot analysis was employed to assess the protein expression levels of FERMT1, Ki-67, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2. Cell colony formation, migration, invasion, radiosensitivity and apoptosis were evaluated by cell colony formation, transwell or flow cytometry assays. The relationship between circ_0000554 or FERMT1 and miR-485-5p was verified with dual-luciferase reporter assay. Circ_0000554 and FERMT1 expression was enhanced in esophageal cancer tissues and radioresistant esophageal cancer tissues. Both circ_0000554 and FERMT1 repression blocked cell colony formation, migration, invasion and elevated cell radiosensitivity and apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Importantly, circ_0000554 served as a sponge for miR-485-5p in esophageal cancer cells. And FERMT1 acted as a downstream target for miR-485-5p. Additionally, circ_0000554 modulated FERMT1 expression via miR-485-5p. Furthermore, FERMT1 enhancement reversed circ_0000554 inhibition-mediated effects on the colony formation, migration, invasion, radiosensitivity and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. Circ_0000554 silencing repressed EC progression and enhanced cell radiosensitivity through downregulating FERMT1 via sponging miR-485-5p, which provided a possible method for improving the radioresistence of esophageal cancer.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474666

RESUMO

In the development of a land-sea coordination management strategy, it is necessary to analyze pollution sources and loads of pollutants entering the sea. This study estimated the sources and transport of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) entering Bohai Bay in Tianjin, a lower plain urban watershed, using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. We calibrated the model using TN and TP data from 26 and 27 sites, respectively. The results demonstrated that the R2 values of TN and TP were both above 0.99. In 2013, the TN load delivered to Bohai Bay was 21,320 ton, which could be traced to various sources: upstream (39%), industrial discharge (10%), sewage discharge (34%), fertilizer application (3%), livestock breeding (7%), aquaculture (5%), and rural communities (2%). The TP load delivered to Bohai Bay was 1504 ton, which originated from upstream (33%), industrial discharge (5%), sewage discharge (21%), fertilizer application (5%), livestock breeding (12%), aquaculture (10%), and rural communities (14%). Rational management of the water resources in streams, enhancement of water circulation between rivers and wetlands, and making full use of the effect of both land and water on pollutant retention are the suitable strategies in watershed management, reducing marine pollution.

14.
Theranostics ; 11(3): 1177-1191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391529

RESUMO

Rationale: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the effective delivery of therapeutic molecules to the central nervous system (CNS). A recently generated adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vector, AAV-PHP.eB, has been found to penetrate the BBB more efficiently than other vectors including AAV-PHP.B. However, little is known about the mechanisms. In this study, we investigated how AAV-PHP.eB penetrates the BBB in mice. Methods: We injected AAV-PHP.eB into the bloodstream of wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as mouse strains carrying genetic mutation in apolipoprotein E gene (Apoe) or low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (Ldlr), or lacking various components of the immune system. Then, we evaluated AAV-PHP.eB transduction to the brain and spinal cord in these mice. Results: We found that the transduction to the CNS of intravenous AAV-PHP.eB was more efficient in C57BL/6 than BALB/c mice, and significantly reduced in Apoe or Ldlr knockout C57BL/6 mice compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, poor CNS transduction in BALB/c mice was dramatically increased by B-cell or natural killer-cell depletion. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the ApoE-LDLR pathway underlies the CNS tropism of AAV-PHP.eB and that the immune system contributes to the strain specificity of AAV-PHP.eB.

15.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402547

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of IR-61, a novel mitochondrial heptamethine cyanine dye with antioxidant effects, on diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMED). Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce type 1 diabetes. Eight weeks after STZ injection, all rats were divided into three groups: the control group, DM group, and DM + IR-61 group. In the DM + IR-61 group, the rats were administered IR-61 (1.6 mg kg-1) twice a week by intravenous injection. At week 13, erectile function was evaluated by determining the ratio of the maximal intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure, and the penises were then harvested for fluorescent imaging, transmission electron microscopy, histological examinations, and Western blot analysis. Whole-body imaging suggested that IR-61 was highly accumulated in the penis after intravenous injection. IR-61 treatment significantly improved the maximal ICP of diabetic rats. Additionally, IR-61 ameliorated diabetes-induced inflammation, apoptosis, and phenotypic transition of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) in penile tissue. IR-61 also attenuated mitochondrial damage, reduced reactive oxygen species production in the corpus cavernosum and upregulated sirtuin1 (SIRT1), sirtuin3 (SIRT3), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase expression in penile tissue. In conclusion, IR-61 represents a potential therapeutic option for DMED by protecting the mitochondria of CCSMCs, which may be mediated by activation of the SIRT1, SIRT3, and Nrf2 pathways.

16.
Health Place ; 67: 102498, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383367

RESUMO

We investigated relationships between independently observed, visual cues of residential environments and subsequent participant-reported stress within a population-based cohort of Black breast cancer survivors (n = 476). Greater visual cues of engagement - presence of team sports, yard decorations, outdoor seating - (compared to less engagement) was marginally associated with lower perceived stress in univariate models, but attenuated towards null with adjustment for socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related covariates. Similarly, physical disorder and perceived stress were not associated in adjusted models. Relationships between observed built environment characteristics and perceived stress might be influenced by socioeconomic and health behavior factors, which longitudinal studies should investigate.

17.
Food Funct ; 12(1): 362-372, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325949

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol drinking and a high-fat diet (HFD) promote steatohepatitis in the comorbidity of NAFLD and AFLD. Taxifolin (TAX) is a rich dihydroxyflavone compound found in onions, milk thistle and Douglas fir. We aimed to explore the intervention mechanism of TAX on chronic steatohepatitis induced by HFD feeding plus acute ethanol binge. We established an in vivo model by HFD feeding plus a single dose of ethanol binge, and established an in vitro model by oleic acid or palmitic acid on HepG2 cells to induce lipid accumulation. TAX regulated lipid synthesis by inhibiting the expression of SREBP1 and upregulating the PPARγ level. In addition, TAX inhibited the expression of P2X7R, IL-1ß, and caspase-1. Moreover, TAX reduced the expression of caspase-1 activation; thereby inhibiting the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils. TAX also improved the inflammatory response caused by caspase-1 activation in steatotic hepatocytes. TAX exhibited an inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and caspase-1-related pyroptosis. Collectively, TAX has therapeutic potential as an intervention of steatohepatitis induced by alcohol combined with HFD and for preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver degeneration targeting caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111064, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378966

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early reported symptoms include fever, cough, and respiratory symptoms. There were few reports of digestive symptoms. However, with COVID-19 spreading worldwide, symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain have gained increasing attention. Research has found that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Whether theoretically or clinically, many studies have suggested a close connection between COVID-19 and the digestive system. In this review, we summarize the digestive symptoms reported in existing research, discuss the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and determine the possible mechanisms and aetiology, such as cytokine storm. In-depth exploration of the relationship between COVID-19 and the digestive system is urgently needed.


Assuntos
/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Pandemias , /patogenicidade , /metabolismo , Anorexia/etiologia , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/virologia , /imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Comorbidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/virologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
19.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(2): 757-764, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331001

RESUMO

AIM: To objectively assess the safety, feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and health economics benefits of vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) versus transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (TU-LESS) in ovarian cystectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of all patients in our hospital who had undergone vNOTES and TU-LESS ovarian cystectomy due to 'unilateral ovarian cyst' from March 2019 to May 2020. Patients were classified into vNOTES group (86) and TU-LESS group (210) based on surgical paths. The patients' general characteristics and perioperative outcomes were compared. RESULTS: All 296 patients completed surgery with no need to switch to conventional laparoscopy or laparotomy procedures. There were no complications of Grade III, IV, V in Clavien-Dindo classification. There were two patients in the vNOTES group and four patients in the TU-LESS group with complications of Grade I, all of whom were treated with antipyretic drugs for postoperative fever. One patient in the TU-LESS group presented the complication of Grade II and was treated with blood transfusion due to postoperative anemia. The two groups had similar general characteristics. Perioperative outcomes: The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores 24 h postoperation were significantly lower in the vNOTES group than in the TU-LESS group. The cosmetic scores were significantly higher in the vNOTES group than in the TU-LESS group. Postoperative stay and time of flatus after surgery were significantly shorter in the vNOTES group than in the TU-LESS group. There was not significant statistical differences between the two groups in operation time, estimated blood loss, Hb decrease at 48 h postoperation, maximum body temperature in 48 h after surgery and hospital costs. CONCLUSION: It was proved to be safe and feasible in ovarian cystectomy by vNOTES. It worked better than TU-LESS in relieving postoperative pain, shortening postoperative stay and improving cosmetic effects and so on. As an emerging surgical path, large sample multicenter randomized controlled trials are required to further verify its safety and advantages.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257777

RESUMO

The addition of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) to standard graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis following haploidentical blood stem transplants has resulted in relatively low rates of GVHD. As GVHD remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving transplants from matched donors, we began to use PTCy in all blood stem cell transplants in 2016 and compared our recent experience with PTCy after matched sibling and unrelated donor transplants (N = 49) to the earlier 2-year period (N = 41) when PTCy was not used. Endpoints included graft-versus-host, relapse-free-survival (GRFS), overall survival, non-relapse mortality, and percentage of patients disease-free and off immunosuppression (DFOI) at 1 year and at the last follow-up. The difference in GRFS between the standard and the PTCy cohort was not statistically significant. There was a statistically improved relapse-free and overall survival in the PTCY cohort that was due to a significant decrease in non-relapse mortality secondary to GVHD. There was also a borderline statistically improved DFOI at 1 year and at last follow-up in the PTCY group. These results suggest that PTCy after HLA-matched transplants provides at least comparable efficacy to other GVHD strategies and may allow more frequent discontinuation of immunosuppression.

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