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1.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 637-649, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472225

RESUMO

The insect brain is the central part of the neurosecretory system, which controls morphology, physiology, and behavior during the insect's lifecycle. Lepidoptera are holometabolous insects, and their brains develop during the larval period and metamorphosis into the adult form. As the only fully domesticated insect, the Lepidoptera silkworm Bombyx mori experienced changes in larval brain morphology and certain behaviors during the domestication process. Hormonal regulation in insects is a key factor in multiple processes. However, how juvenile hormone (JH) signals regulate brain development in Lepidoptera species, especially in the larval stage, remains elusive. We recently identified the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant 1 ( Met1) as a putative domestication gene. How artificial selection on Met1 impacts brain and behavioral domestication is another important issue addressing Darwin's theory on domestication. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Bombyx Met1 caused developmental retardation in the brain, unlike precocious pupation of the cuticle. At the whole transcriptome level, the ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) signaling and downstream pathways were overactivated in the mutant cuticle but not in the brain. Pathways related to cell proliferation and specialization processes, such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and tyrosine metabolism pathways, were suppressed in the brain. Molecular evolutionary analysis and in vitro assay identified an amino acid replacement located in a novel motif under positive selection in B. mori, which decreased transcriptional binding activity. The B. mori MET1 protein showed a changed structure and dynamic features, as well as a weakened co-expression gene network, compared with B. mandarina. Based on comparative transcriptomic analyses, we proposed a pathway downstream of JH signaling (i.e., tyrosine metabolism pathway) that likely contributed to silkworm larval brain development and domestication and highlighted the importance of the biogenic amine system in larval evolution during silkworm domestication.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica
2.
PLoS Genet ; 15(1): e1007616, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668559

RESUMO

Like other domesticates, the efficient utilization of nitrogen resources is also important for the only fully domesticated insect, the silkworm. Deciphering the way in which artificial selection acts on the silkworm genome to improve the utilization of nitrogen resources and to advance human-favored domestication traits, will provide clues from a unique insect model for understanding the general rules of Darwin's evolutionary theory on domestication. Storage proteins (SPs), which belong to a hemocyanin superfamily, basically serve as a source of amino acids and nitrogen during metamorphosis and reproduction in insects. In this study, through blast searching on the silkworm genome and further screening of the artificial selection signature on silkworm SPs, we discovered a candidate domestication gene, i.e., the methionine-rich storage protein 1 (SP1), which is clearly divergent from other storage proteins and exhibits increased expression in the ova of domestic silkworms. Knockout of SP1 via the CRISPR/Cas9 technique resulted in a dramatic decrease in egg hatchability, without obvious impact on egg production, which was similar to the effect in the wild silkworm compared with the domestic type. Larval development and metamorphosis were not affected by SP1 knockout. Comprehensive ova comparative transcriptomes indicated significant higher expression of genes encoding vitellogenin, chorions, and structural components in the extracellular matrix (ECM)-interaction pathway, enzymes in folate biosynthesis, and notably hormone synthesis in the domestic silkworm, compared to both the SP1 mutant and the wild silkworm. Moreover, compared with the wild silkworms, the domestic one also showed generally up-regulated expression of genes enriched in the structural constituent of ribosome and amide, as well as peptide biosynthesis. This study exemplified a novel case in which artificial selection could act directly on nitrogen resource proteins, further affecting egg nutrients and eggshell formation possibly through a hormone signaling mediated regulatory network and the activation of ribosomes, resulting in improved biosynthesis and increased hatchability during domestication. These findings shed new light on both the understanding of artificial selection and silkworm breeding from the perspective of nitrogen and amino acid resources.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Domesticação , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Filogenia , Transcriptoma/genética
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