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1.
Adv Mater ; 32(19): e1906238, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173918

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) palladium diselenide (PdSe2 ) has strong interlayer coupling and a puckered pentagonal structure, leading to remarkable layer-dependent electronic structures and highly anisotropic in-plane optical and electronic properties. However, the lack of high-quality, 2D PdSe2 crystals grown by bottom-up approaches limits the study of their exotic properties and practical applications. In this work, chemical vapor deposition growth of highly crystalline few-layer (≥2 layers) PdSe2 crystals on various substrates is reported. The high quality of the PdSe2 crystals is confirmed by low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electrical characterization. In addition, strong in-plane optical anisotropy is demonstrated via polarized Raman spectroscopy and second-harmonic generation maps of the PdSe2 flakes. A theoretical model based on kinetic Wulff construction theory and density functional theory calculations is developed and described the observed evolution of "square-like" shaped PdSe2 crystals into rhombus due to the higher nucleation barriers for stable attachment on the (1,1) and (1,-1) edges, which results in their slower growth rates. Few-layer PdSe2 field-effect transistors reveal tunable ambipolar charge carrier conduction with an electron mobility up to ≈294 cm2 V-1 s-1 , which is comparable to that of exfoliated PdSe2 , indicating the promise of this anisotropic 2D material for electronics.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150384

RESUMO

Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials face significant energy barriers for synthesis and processing into functional metastable phases such as Janus structures. Here, the controllable implantation of hyperthermal species from pulsed laser deposition (PLD) plasmas is introduced as a top-down method to compositionally engineer 2D monolayers. The kinetic energies of Se clusters impinging on suspended monolayer WS2 crystals were controlled in the <10 eV/atom range with in situ plasma diagnostics to determine the thresholds for selective top layer replacement of sulfur by selenium for the formation of high quality WSSe Janus monolayers at low (300 °C) temperatures and bottom layer replacement for complete conversion to WSe2. Atomic-resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy in tilted geometry confirm the WSSe Janus monolayer. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that Se clusters implant to form disordered metastable alloy regions, which then recrystallize to form highly ordered structures, demonstrating low-energy implantation by PLD for the synthesis of 2D Janus layers and alloys of variable composition.

3.
J Immunol ; 204(6): 1448-1461, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060137

RESUMO

Tris (dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium (Tris DBA), a small-molecule palladium complex, has been shown to inhibit cell growth and proliferation in pancreatic cancer, lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. In the current study, we examined the therapeutic effects of Tris DBA on glomerular cell proliferation, renal inflammation, and immune cells. Treatment of accelerated and severe lupus nephritis (ASLN) mice with Tris DBA resulted in improved renal function, albuminuria, and pathology, including measurements of glomerular cell proliferation, cellular crescents, neutrophils, fibrinoid necrosis, and tubulointerstitial inflammation in the kidneys as well as scoring for glomerulonephritis activity. The treated ASLN mice also showed significantly decreased glomerular IgG, IgM, and C3 deposits. Furthermore, the compound was able to 1) inhibit bone marrow-derived dendritic cell-mediated T cell functions and reduce serum anti-dsDNA autoantibody levels; 2) differentially regulate autophagy and both the priming and activation signals of the NLRP3 inflammasome; and 3) suppress the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Tris DBA improved ASLN in mice through immunoregulation by blunting the MAPK (ERK, JNK)-mediated priming signal of the NLRP3 inflammasome and by regulating the autophagy/NLRP3 inflammasome axis. These results suggest that the pure compound may be a drug candidate for treating the accelerated and deteriorated type of lupus nephritis.

4.
Ann Nucl Med ; 34(1): 58-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The tumor-to-normal tissue (T/N) boron ratio is determined in a patient prior to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18F-FBPA) positron emission tomography (PET). The T/N ratio is used as a reference parameter to calculate BNCT dose and to evaluate treatment effects. The boronophenylalanine (BPA) dosage for BNCT treatment is higher than the 18F-FBPA dosage for PET diagnosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the T/N ratios between diagnosis and treatment were correlated. METHODS: In this study, SAS tongue cancer cells were used to develop an orthotopic nude mouse model. Micro-PET was performed after the mice were injected a dose of 3.7 ± 0.74 MBq of 18F-FBPA via the tail vein. The 18F radioactivity in the tumor, muscle, and heart blood pool was calculated using AMIND software. Organs and blood were collected for boron concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy after the mice were injected with 400 mg/kg BPA at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetics of the tumor and muscle from 45 to 60 min after 18F-FBPA and BPA injections were slightly increased, whereas that of blood was slightly decreased. Median T/N ratios at 60 min after 18F-FBPA and BPA injections were 3.5 and 3.43, respectively. Median value of the T/N ratio between them was 3.49 at 60 min. The T/N ratio at 60 min after 18F-FBPA injection was similar to that after BPA injection. However, median tumor-to-blood (T/B) boron ratios of 18F-FBPA and BPA at 60 min were 1.63 and 3.35, respectively. Median value between them was 1.83 at 60 min. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the T/B ratios demonstrate the spread of a distribution between 18F-FBPA and BPA injections. At 60 min, the T/N ratio of the 18F-FBPA injection was similar to that of the BPA injection. Boron concentration in normal tissue was almost equal to that in blood. Therefore, the representative T/N ratio could be obtained at 60 min after 18F-FBPA injection, and it was used as a reference parameter for calculating accurate radiation dose.

5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6661-6671, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) selectively kills tumor cells while sparing adjacent normal cells. Boric acid (BA)-mediated BNCT showed therapeutic efficacy in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vivo. However, DNA damage and corresponding responses induced by BA-mediated BNCT remained unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether BA-mediated BNCT induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and to explore DNA damage responses in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Huh7 Human HCC cells were treated with BA and irradiated with neutrons during BA-BNCT. Cell survival and DNA DSBs were examined by clonogenic assay and expression of phosphorylated H2A histone family member X (γH2AX), respectively. The DNA damage response was explored by determining the expression levels of DNA repair- and apoptosis-associated proteins and conducting a cell-cycle analysis. RESULTS: DNA DSBs induced by BA-mediated BNCT were primarily repaired through the homologous recombination pathway. BA-mediated BNCT induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in HCC. CONCLUSION: Our findings may enable the identification of radiosensitizers or adjuvant drugs for potentiating the therapeutic effectiveness of BA-mediated BNCT for HCC.


Assuntos
Ácidos Bóricos/uso terapêutico , Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro/métodos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Ácidos Bóricos/farmacocinética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacocinética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação
6.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224986, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710642

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of timing of arthroscopic release and manipulation under anesthesia for frozen shoulder in patients with diabetes and non-diabetes. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-seven patients with frozen shoulder were included in the study. Each patient was assigned to: 1) one of four groups according to the duration from symptom onset to surgery (group A: ≤3 months; group B: 3-6 months; group C: 6-12 months; group D: >12 months), 2) diabetic or nondiabetic group. The outcomes were measured by shoulder range of motion (ROM), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Shoulder score, the period of pain relief, overall duration of disease, and satisfaction. RESULTS: All the patients got great improvement in shoulder ROM (P < .0001) after arthroscopic surgery, but there was no statistical difference in the pre-operative and post-operative shoulder ROM between the four groups and between diabetic and nondiabetic groups. The overall duration of disease was mean 55.4~68.7 weeks, which demonstrated much shorter disease course compared with nature course. Improvement were also seen in shoulder ROM at one week to one month, and the period of total pain relief was at a mean time of 3.7 to 3.8 weeks. There were higher ASES Shoulder score in group B than in group C (P = 0.02) and higher DASH score in diabetic group in short term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic release provides effective and rapid improvements to shoulder motion and function, unrelated to the timing of surgery, in patients with frozen shoulder. The diabetic patients do not have functional outcomes as good as the nondiabetic patient at short-term follow-up.

7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5495-5504, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cannot be treated using traditional therapies. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide a new treatment for HCC. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy and radiobiological effects of boric acid (BA)-mediated BNCT in a VX2 multifocal liver tumor-bearing rabbit model are investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabbits were irradiated with neutrons at the Tsing Hua Open Pool Reactor 35 min following an intravenous injection of BA (50 mg 10B/kg BW). The tumor size following BNCT treatment was determined by ultrasonography. The radiobiological effects were identified by histopathological examination. RESULTS: A total of 92.85% of the tumors became undetectable in the rabbits after two fractions of BNCT treatment. The tumor cells were selectively eliminated and the tumor vasculature was collapsed and destroyed after two fractions of BA-mediated BNCT, and no injury to the hepatocytes or blood vessels was observed in the adjacent normal liver regions. CONCLUSION: Liver tumors can be cured by BA-mediated BNCT in the rabbit model of a VX2 multifocal liver tumor. BA-mediated BNCT may be a breakthrough therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Ácidos Bóricos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos da radiação , Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro/métodos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos da radiação , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Coelhos
8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(4): 694-703, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727756

RESUMO

Objective- PAR4 (protease-activated receptor 4), one of the thrombin receptors in human platelets, has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of arterial thrombotic disease. Previous studies implied that thrombin exosite II, known as a binding site for heparin, may be involved in thrombin-induced PAR4 activation. In the present study, a heparin octasaccharide analog containing the thrombin exosite II-binding domain of heparin was chemically synthesized and investigated for anti-PAR4 effect. Approach and Results- PAR4-mediated platelet aggregation was examined using either thrombin in the presence of a PAR1 antagonist or γ-thrombin, which selectively activates PAR4. SCH-28 specifically inhibits PAR4-mediated platelet aggregation, as well as the signaling events downstream of PAR4 in response to thrombin. Moreover, SCH-28 prevents thrombin-induced ß-arrestin recruitment to PAR4 but not PAR1 in Chinese Hamster Ovary-K1 cells using a commercial enzymatic complementation assay. Compared with heparin, SCH-28 is more potent in inhibiting PAR4-mediated platelet aggregation but has no significant anticoagulant activity. In an in vitro thrombosis model, SCH-28 reduces thrombus formation under whole blood arterial flow conditions. Conclusions- SCH-28, a synthetic small-molecular and nonanticoagulant heparin analog, inhibits thrombin-induced PAR4 activation by interfering with thrombin exosite II, a mechanism of action distinct from other PAR4 inhibitors that target the receptor. The characteristics of SCH-28 provide a new strategy for targeting PAR4 with the potential for the treatment of arterial thrombosis.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Heparina/química , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Trombina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antitrombinas/síntese química , Células CHO , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Cricetulus , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombina/farmacologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle
9.
Complement Ther Med ; 42: 279-285, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670255

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is an experiential form of medicine with a history dating back thousands of years. The present study aimed to utilize neural network analysis to examine specific prescriptions for colorectal cancer (CRC) in clinical practice to arrive at the most effective prescription strategy. The study analyzed the data of 261 CRC cases recruited from a total of 141,962 cases of renowned veteran TCM doctors collected from datasets of both the DeepMedic software and TCM cancer treatment books. The DeepMedic software was applied to normalize the symptoms/signs and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescriptions using standardized terminologies. Over 20 percent of CRC patients demonstrated symptoms of poor appetite, fatigue, loose stool, and abdominal pain. By analyzing the prescription patterns of CHM, we found that Atractylodes macrocephala (Bai-zhu) and Poria (Fu-ling) were the most commonly prescribed single herbs identified through analysis of medical records, and supported by the neural network analysis; although there was a slight difference in the sequential order. The study revealed an 81.9% degree of similarity of CHM prescriptions between the medical records and the neural network suggestions. The patterns of nourishing Qi and eliminating dampness were the most common goals of clinical prescriptions, which corresponds with treatments of CRC patients in clinical practice. This is the first study to employ machine learning, specifically neural network analytics to support TCM clinical diagnoses and prescriptions. The DeepMedic software may be used to deliver accurate TCM diagnoses and suggest prescriptions to treat CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Software
10.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1849-1855, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415536

RESUMO

A two-dimensional (2D) heterobilayer system consisting of MoS2 on WSe2, deposited on epitaxial graphene, is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at temperatures of 5 and 80 K. A moiré pattern is observed, arising from lattice mismatch of 3.7% between the MoS2 and WSe2. Significant energy shifts are observed in tunneling spectra observed at the maxima of the moiré corrugation, as compared with spectra obtained at corrugation minima, consistent with prior work. Furthermore, at the minima of the moiré corrugation, sharp peaks in the spectra at energies near the band edges are observed for spectra acquired at 5 K. The peaks correspond to discrete states that are confined within the moiré unit cells. Conductance mapping is employed to reveal the detailed structure of the wave functions of the states. For measurements at 80 K, the sharp peaks in the spectra are absent, and conductance maps of the band edges reveal little structure.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 965-975, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360349

RESUMO

Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of interest for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate device-ready synthetic tungsten diselenide (WSe2) via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and provide key insights into the phenomena that control the properties of large-area, epitaxial TMDs. When epitaxy is achieved, the sapphire surface reconstructs, leading to strong 2D/3D (i.e., TMD/substrate) interactions that impact carrier transport. Furthermore, we demonstrate that substrate step edges are a major source of carrier doping and scattering. Even with 2D/3D coupling, transistors utilizing transfer-free epitaxial WSe2/sapphire exhibit ambipolar behavior with excellent on/off ratios (∼107), high current density (1-10 µA·µm-1), and good field-effect transistor mobility (∼30 cm2·V-1·s-1) at room temperature. This work establishes that realization of electronic-grade epitaxial TMDs must consider the impact of the TMD precursors, substrate, and the 2D/3D interface as leading factors in electronic performance.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(29): 25006-25013, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715196

RESUMO

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and LiClO4, a solid polymer electrolyte with a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 80 °C, is used to electrostatically gate graphene field-effect transistors. The ions in PVA:LiClO4 are drifted into place by field-effect at T > Tg, providing n- or p-type doping, and when the device is cooled to room temperature, the polymer mobility and, hence ion mobility are arrested and the electric double layer (EDL) is "locked" into place in the absence of a gate bias. Unlike other electrolytes used to gate two-dimensional devices for which the Tg, and therefore the "locking" temperature, is well below room temperature, the electrolyte demonstrated in this work provides a route to achieve room-temperature EDL stability. Specifically, a 6 orders of magnitude increase in the room temperature EDL retention time is demonstrated over the commonly used electrolyte, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and LiClO4. Hall measurements confirm that large sheet carrier densities can be achieved with PVA:LiClO4 at top gate programming voltages of ±2 V (-6.3 ± 0.03 × 1013 cm-2 for electrons and 1.6 ± 0.3 × 1014 cm-2 for holes). Transient drain current measurements show that at least 75% of the EDL is retained after more than 4 h at room temperature. Unlike PEO-based electrolytes, PVA:LiClO4 is compatible with the chemicals used in standard photolithographic processes enabling the direct deposition of patterned, metal contacts on the surface of the electrolyte. A thermal instability in the electrolyte is detected by both I-V measurements and differential scanning calorimetry, and FTIR measurements suggest that thermally catalyzed cross-linking may be driving phase separation between the polymer and the salt. Nevertheless, this work highlights how the relationship between polymer and ion mobility can be exploited to tune the state retention time and the charge carrier density of a 2D crystal transistor.

13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3488, 2017 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615647

RESUMO

High resolution synchrotron microtomography capable of revealing microvessels in three dimensional (3D) establishes distinct imaging markers of mouse kidney disease strongly associated to renal tubulointerstitial (TI) lesions and glomerulopathy. Two complementary mouse models of chronic kidney disease (CKD), unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), were used and five candidates of unique 3D imaging markers were identified. Our characterization to differentially reflect the altered microvasculature of renal TI lesions and/or glomerulopathy demonstrated these image features can be used to differentiate the disease status and the possible cause therefore qualified as image markers. These 3D imaging markers were further correlated with the histopathology and renal microvessel-based molecular study using antibodies against vascular endothelial cells (CD31), the connective tissue growth factor or the vascular endothelial growth factor. We also found that these 3D imaging markers individually characterize the development of renal TI lesions or glomerulopathy, quantitative and integrated use of all of them provide more information for differentiating the two renal conditions. Our findings thus establish a practical strategy to characterize the CKD-associated renal injuries by the microangiography-based 3D imaging and highlight the impact of dysfunctional microvasculature as a whole on the pathogenesis of the renal lesions.


Assuntos
Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Imageamento Tridimensional , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Síncrotrons
14.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(9): 883-888, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650442

RESUMO

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide crystals, as direct-gap materials with strong light-matter interactions, have attracted much recent attention. Because of their spin-polarized valence bands and a predicted spin splitting at the conduction band edges, the lowest-lying excitons in WX2 (X = S, Se) are expected to be spin-forbidden and optically dark. To date, however, there has been no direct experimental probe of these dark excitons. Here, we show how an in-plane magnetic field can brighten the dark excitons in monolayer WSe2 and permit their properties to be observed experimentally. Precise energy levels for both the neutral and charged dark excitons are obtained and compared with ab initio calculations using the GW-BSE approach. As a result of their spin configuration, the brightened dark excitons exhibit much-increased emission and valley lifetimes. These studies directly probe the excitonic spin manifold and reveal the fine spin-splitting at the conduction band edges.

16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(7): 2022-2037, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179433

RESUMO

IL-36 cytokines are proinflammatory and have an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, but the role of IL-36 signaling in renal tubulointerstitial lesions (TILs), a major prognostic feature of renal inflammation and fibrosis, remains undetermined. In this study, increased IL-36α expression detected in renal biopsy specimens and urine samples from patients with renal TILs correlated with renal function impairment. We confirmed the increased expression of IL-36α in the renal tubular epithelial cells of a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and related cell models using mechanically induced pressure, oxidative stress, or high mobility group box 1. In contrast, the kidneys of IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) knockout mice exhibit attenuated TILs after UUO. Compared with UUO-treated wild-type mice, UUO-treated IL-36 knockout mice exhibited markedly reduced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and macrophage/T cell infiltration in the kidney and T cell activation in the renal draining lymph nodes. In vitro, recombinant IL-36α facilitated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells and enhanced dendritic cell-induced T cell proliferation and Th17 differentiation. Furthermore, deficiency of IL-23, which was diminished in IL-36R knockout UUO mice, also reduced renal TIL formation in UUO mice. In wild-type mice, administration of an IL-36R antagonist after UUO reproduced the results obtained in UUO-treated IL-36R knockout mice. We propose that IL-36 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of renal TILs through the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-23/IL-17 axis.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/fisiologia , Interleucina-17/fisiologia , Interleucina-1/fisiologia , Interleucina-23/fisiologia , Rim/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/fisiologia , Nefrite/etiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Fibrose/etiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia
17.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 32(12): 624-629, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914614

RESUMO

Percutaneous release (PR) of the A1 pulley is a quick, safe, and minimally invasive procedure for treating trigger fingers. The purpose of this study is to identify if PR with additional steroid injections can shorten the recovery to reach unlimited range of motion. Between January 2013 and December 2013, we included 432 trigger fingers with actively correctable triggering or severer symptoms without previous surgical release or steroid injections from two hand clinic offices (A and B). The same experienced surgeon performed PR at the office. Patients from Clinic A received PR with steroid injections and those from Clinic B received PR without steroid injections. Patients returned for follow-up 1 week, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after the procedure. Between the steroid group and the nonsteroid group, there is no significant difference in the mean time for patients to return to normal work and the rate of residual extensor lag. Middle fingers showed a 5.09-fold chance of having a residual extensor lag over that of the other fingers. High grade trigger fingers recovered more slowly than low grade ones. The success rate of a 12-week follow-up was 98.4%. There was no significant difference between the steroid group (97.5%) and the nonsteroid group (99.1%). PR can treat trigger fingers effectively, but additional steroid injection does not provide more benefit. Some fingers showed temporary extensor lag, especially in middle fingers and high grade trigger fingers, but 85% of those will eventually reach full recovery after self-rehabilitation without another surgical release.


Assuntos
Injeções , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dedo em Gatilho/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(50): 504001, 2016 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27779128

RESUMO

Integrating a phase transition material with two-dimensional semiconductors can provide a route towards tunable opto-electronic metamaterials. Here, we integrate monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films grown via molecular beam epitaxy to form a 2D/3D heterostructure. Vanadium dioxide undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition at 60-70 °C, which changes the band alignment between MoS2 and VO2 from a semiconductor-insulator junction to a semiconductor-metal junction. By switching VO2 between insulating and metallic phases, the modulation of photoluminescence emission in the 2D semiconductors was observed. This study demonstrates the feasibility to combine TMDs and functional oxides to create unconventional hybrid optoelectronic properties derived from 2D semiconductors that are linked to functional properties of oxides through proximity coupling.

19.
Nat Mater ; 15(11): 1166-1171, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571451

RESUMO

The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials 'beyond graphene' offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (∼5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides 'beyond hBN' and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

20.
ACS Nano ; 10(8): 7840-6, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27434813

RESUMO

Light emission in atomically thin heterostructures is known to depend on the type of materials and the number and stacking sequence of the constituent layers. Here we show that the thickness of a two-dimensional substrate can be crucial in modulating the light emission. We study the layer-dependent charge transfer in vertical heterostructures built from monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) on one- and two-layer epitaxial graphene, unravelling the effect that the interlayer electronic coupling has on the excitonic properties of such heterostructures. We bring evidence that the excitonic properties of WS2 can be effectively tuned by the number of supporting graphene layers. Integrating WS2 monolayers with two-layer graphene leads to a significant enhancement of the photoluminescence response, up to 1 order of magnitude higher compared to WS2 supported on one-layer graphene. Our findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering when constructing atomically thin-layered heterostructures.

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