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1.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 46(3): 557-565, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859018

RESUMO

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare, but exceptionally serious, congenital heart defect. We aimed to explore the best-fitted Z-score models for individual chamber dimension and to draw a comparison between fetuses with HLHS and the normal Chinese cohort. We made measurements of 1674 healthy fetuses and 79 fetuses with HLHS, undertaking echocardiography. Normal fetal cardiovascular Z-score formulae were established by curve-fitting with 5 algorithmic functions and weighted regression of absolute residuals. Classic linear models were fitted for left ventricular diameter against gestational age, and log-transformed linear-power models-were statistically better for left ventricular length, diameter of left atrium and ascending aorta. Fetuses with HLHS manifested significantly lower Z-score means (≤3.5) for these 4 parameters and the vast majority (∼90%) lay beyond -2. Overall, cardiovascular Z-score equations were reliably constructed in a larger Chinese cohort, and their application should benefit evaluation and diagnosis of HLHS.

2.
Genomics ; 111(4): 986-996, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307632

RESUMO

The underlying mechanisms of macrophage polarization have been detected by genome-wide transcriptome analysis in a variety of mammals. However, the transcriptome profile of rat genes in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) at different activation statuses has not been reported. Therefore, we performed RNA-Sequencing to identify gene expression signatures of rat BMM polarized in vitro with different stimuli. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among unactivated (M0), classically activated pro-inflammatory (M1), and alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2) were analyzed by using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis. In this study, not only we have identified the changes of global gene expression in rat M0, M1 and M2, but we have also made clear systematically the key genes and signaling pathways in the differentiation process of M0 to M1 and M2. These will provide a foundation for future researches of macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(3): 899-903, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the gene-carrying rate and gene mutation types of α- and ß-thalassemia in population of Fujian area and to analyze the differences in hemoglobin A2 (HbA2), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) between different types of thalassemia, so as to provide the reference basis for screening and classification, genetic diagnosis and counseling about thalassemia. METHODS: Total 1474 samples from different areas of Fujian province were detected for α- and ß-thalassemsia genotypes by gap single PCR (GS-PCR) combined with reverse dot blot hybridization (RDB). The detection of peripheral RBC, hemoglobin and primary screening of thalassemia in each set of sample were carried out before test. RESULTS: Among the detected 1474 samples, 704 (47.76%) were diagnosed as α-thalassemia, out of them 416 (28.22%) were diagnosed as α-thalassemia, 267(18.11%) as ß-thalassemia, 21 (1.43%) as αß-thalassemia. The α-thalassemia further was divide into 3 types: silent (5.09%), minor (22.18%) and HbH disease (0.95%), and their MCV, MCH and HbA2 levels were detected. The detection results showed obvious decrease trend with significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The gene mutation types of thalassemia display obvious heterogenity in Fujian area. The gene type in α-thalassemia mostly is --SEA/αα, the gene type in ß-thalassemia mostly is IVS-Ⅱ-654. Moreover, the sings of anemia in Hb H disease of α-thalassemia are mostly serious, which obviously are different from other types of α-thalassemia.


Assuntos
Talassemia alfa , Talassemia beta , China , Genótipo , Hemoglobina A2 , Humanos
4.
Lipids ; 53(5): 547-558, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074625

RESUMO

The rate at which dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) is desaturated and elongated to its longer-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in humans is not agreed upon. In this study, we applied a methodology developed using rodents to investigate the whole-body, presumably hepatic, synthesis-secretion rates of esterified n-3 PUFA from circulating unesterified ALA in 2 healthy overweight women after 10 weeks of low-linoleate diet exposure. During continuous iv infusion of d5-ALA, 17 arterial blood samples were collected from each subject at -10, 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150, 180, and 210 min, and at 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 h after beginning infusion. Plasma esterified d5-n-3 PUFA concentrations were plotted against the infusion time and fit to a sigmoidal curve using nonlinear regression. These curves were used to estimate kinetic parameters using a kinetic analysis developed using rodents. Calculated synthesis-secretion rates of esterified eicosapentaenoate, n-3 docosapentaenoate, docosahexaenoic acid, tetracosapentaenate, and tetracosahexaenoate from circulating unesterified ALA were 2.1 and 2.7; 1.7 and 5.3; 0.47 and 0.27; 0.30 and 0.30; and 0.32 and 0.27 mg/day for subjects S01 and S02, respectively. This study provides new estimates of whole-body synthesis-secretion rates of esterified longer-chain n-3 PUFA from circulating unesterified ALA in human subjects. This method now can be extended to study factors that regulate human whole-body PUFA synthesis-secretion in health and disease.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(2): 211-227, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931035

RESUMO

Fatty acids are among the most studied nutrients in human metabolism and health. Endogenous fatty acid status influences health and disease via multiple mechanisms at all stages of the life cycle. Despite widespread interest, attempts to summarize the results of multiple studies addressing similar fatty acid-related outcomes via meta-analyses and systematic reviews have been disappointing, largely because of heterogeneity in study design, sampling, and laboratory and data analyses. Our purpose is to recommend best practices for fatty acid clinical nutrition and medical studies. Key issues in study design include judicious choice of sampled endogenous pools for fatty acid analysis, considering relevant physiologic state, duration of intervention and/or observation, consideration of specific fatty acid dynamics to link intake and endogenous concentrations, and interpretation of results with respect to known fatty acid ranges. Key laboratory considerations include proper sample storage, use of sample preparation methods known to be fit-for-purpose via published validation studies, detailed reporting or methods to establish proper fatty acid identification, and quantitative analysis, including calibration of differential response, quality control procedures, and reporting of data on a minimal set of fatty acids to enable comprehensive interpretation. We present a checklist of recommendations for fatty acid best practices to facilitate design, review, and evaluation of studies with the intention of improving study reproducibility.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa , Eritrócitos/química , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Laboratórios , Lipídeos/sangue , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Controle de Qualidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 66(3): 175-187, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300519

RESUMO

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) is a member of the IFITM family that is associated with some acute-phase cytokine-stimulated response. Recently, we demonstrated that IFITM1 was significantly upregulated in the injured spinal cords at the mRNA level. However, its expression and cellular localization at the protein level is still unclear. Here, a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed to investigate the spatio-temporal expression of IFITM1 after SCI. IFITM1 mRNA and protein were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot, respectively. IHC was used to identify its cellular localization. We revealed that IFITM1 could be found in sham-opened spinal cords and gradually increased after SCI. It reached peak at 7 and 14 days postinjury (dpi) and still maintained at a relatively higher level at 28 dpi. IHC showed that IFITM1 expressed in GFAP+ and APC+ cells in sham-opened spinal cords. After SCI, in addition to the above-mentioned cells, it could also be found in CD45+ and CD68+ cells, and its expression in CD45+, CD68+, and GFAP+ cells was increased significantly. These results demonstrate that IFITM1 is mainly expressed in astrocytes and oligodendroglia in normal spinal cords, and could rapidly increase in infiltrated leukocytes, activated microglia, and astrocytes after SCI.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação/análise , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/genética
7.
Neurochem Int ; 113: 23-33, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196144

RESUMO

Hexokinase-3 (HK3) is a member of hexokinase family, which can catalyze the first step of glucose metabolism. It can increase ATP levels, reduce the production of reactive oxygen species, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, protect mitochondrial membrane potential and play an antioxidant role. However, the change of its expression in spinal cord after injury is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal expression of HK3 in the spinal cords by using a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that HK3 could be detected in sham-opened spinal cords. After SCI, it gradually increased, reached a peak at 7 days post-injury (dpi), and then gradually decreased with the prolonging of injury time, but still maintained at a higher level for up to 28 dpi (the longest time evaluated in this study). Immunofluorescence staining showed that HK3 was found in GFAP+, ß-tubulin III+ and IBA-1+ cells in sham-opened spinal cords. After SCI, in addition to the above-mentioned cells, it could also be found in CD45+ and CD68+ cells. These results demonstrate that HK3 is mainly expressed in astrocytes, neurons and microglia in normal spinal cords, and could rapidly increase in infiltrated leukocytes, activated microglia/macrophages and astrocytes after SCI. These data suggest that HK3 may be involved in the pathologic process of SCI by promoting glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Hexoquinase/biossíntese , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/enzimologia , Animais , Feminino , Hexoquinase/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões , Fatores de Tempo
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(17): 14935-14944, 2017 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414425

RESUMO

UV- and visible-light photoresponse was achieved via p-type K-doped ZnO nanowires and nanosheets that were hydrothermally synthesized on an n-ZnO/glass substrate and peppered with Au nanoparticles. The K content of the p-ZnO nanostructures was 0.36 atom %. The UV- and visible-light photoresponse of the p-ZnO nanostructures/n-ZnO sample was roughly 2 times higher than that of the ZnO nanowires. The Au nanoparticles of various densities and diameter sizes were deposited on the p-ZnO nanostructures/n-ZnO samples by a simple UV photochemical reaction method yielding a tunable and enhanced UV- and visible-light photoresponse. The maximum UV and visible photoresponse of the Au nanoparticle sample was obtained when the diameter size of the Au nanoparticle was approximately 5-35 nm. On the basis of the localized surface plasmon resonance effect, the UV, blue, and green photocurrent/dark current ratios of Au nanoparticle/p-ZnO nanostructures/n-ZnO are ∼1165, ∼94.6, and ∼9.7, respectively.

9.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 11: 79, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377695

RESUMO

Our previous study showed that Schwann cells (SCs) promote survival, proliferation and migration of co-transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and neurological recovery in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). A subsequent in vitro study confirmed that SCs modulated OPC proliferation and migration by secreting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF)-2. We also found that PDGF-AA stimulated OPC proliferation and their differentiation into oligodendrocytes (OLs) at later stages. We therefore speculated that PDGF-AA administration can exert the same effect as SC co-transplantation in SCI repair. To test this hypothesis, in this study we investigated the effect of transplanting PDGF-AA-overexpressing OPCs in a rat model of SCI. We found that PDGF-AA overexpression in OPCs promoted their survival, proliferation, and migration and differentiation into OLs in vivo. OPCs overexpressing PDGF-AA were also associated with increased myelination and tissue repair after SCI, leading to the recovery of neurological function. These results indicate that PDGF-AA-overexpressing OPCs may be an effective treatment for SCI.

10.
Environ Res ; 154: 247-252, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110211

RESUMO

Prior studies addressing associations between mercury and blood pressure have produced inconsistent findings; some of this may result from measuring total instead of speciated mercury. This cross-sectional study of 263 pregnant women assessed total mercury, speciated mercury, selenium, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical cord blood and blood pressure during labor and delivery. Models with a) total mercury or b) methyl and inorganic mercury were evaluated. Regression models adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, neighborhood income, parity, smoking, n-3 fatty acids and selenium. Geometric mean total, methyl, and inorganic mercury concentrations were 1.40µg/L (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.52); 0.95µg/L (0.84, 1.07); and 0.13µg/L (0.10, 0.17), respectively. Elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were found, respectively, in 11.4%, 6.8%, and 19.8% of mothers. In adjusted multivariable models, a one-tertile increase of methyl mercury was associated with 2.83mmHg (0.17, 5.50) higher systolic blood pressure and 2.99mmHg (0.91, 5.08) higher pulse pressure. In the same models, an increase of one tertile of inorganic mercury was associated with -1.18mmHg (-3.72, 1.35) lower systolic blood pressure and -2.51mmHg (-4.49, -0.53) lower pulse pressure. No associations were observed with diastolic pressure. There was a non-significant trend of higher total mercury with higher systolic blood pressure. We observed a significant association of higher methyl mercury with higher systolic and pulse pressure, yet higher inorganic mercury was significantly associated with lower pulse pressure. These results should be confirmed with larger, longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Mercúrio/sangue , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/sangue , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/etiologia , Adulto , Baltimore , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Gravidez , Selênio/sangue
11.
J Neurosci Res ; 95(8): 1666-1676, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898179

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the temporal changes of cytotoxic CD8+ CD28+ and regulatory CD8+ CD28- T-cell subsets in the lesion microenvironment after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats, by combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry (FCM). In the sham-opened spinal cord, few CD8+ T cells were found. After SCI, the CD8+ T cells were detected at one day post-injury (dpi), then markedly increased and were significantly higher at 3, 7, and 14 dpi compared with one dpi (p < 0.01), the highest being seven dpi. In CD8+ T cells, more than 90% were CD28+ , and there were only small part of CD28- ( < 10%). After 14 days, the infiltrated CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased, and few could be found in good condition at 21 and 28 dpi. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining showed that the percentages of apoptotic/necrotic CD8+ cells at 14 dpi and 21 dpi were significantly higher than those of the other early time-points (p < 0.01). These results indicate that CD8+ T cells could rapidly infiltrate into the injured spinal cords and survive two weeks, however, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells were dominant. Therefore, two weeks after injury might be the "time window" for treating SCI by prolonging survival times and increasing the fraction of CD8+ regulatory T-cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28/metabolismo , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Cinética , Necrose/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Lipids ; 52(2): 167-172, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28005226

RESUMO

n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3, TPAn-3) and tetracosahexaenoic acid (24:6n-3, THA) are believed to be important intermediates to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis. The purpose of this study is to report for the first time serum concentrations of TPAn-3 and THA and their response to changing dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and DHA. The responses will then be used in an attempt to predict the location of these fatty acids in relation to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway. Male Long Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were fed either a low (0.1% of total fatty acids), medium (3%) or high (10%) ALA diet with no added DHA, or a low (0%), medium (0.2%) or high (2%) DHA diet with a background of 2% ALA for 8 weeks post-weaning. Serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations (nmol/mL ± SEM) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum THA increases from low (0.3 ± 0.1) to medium (5.8 ± 0.7) but not from medium to high (4.6 ± 0.9) dietary ALA, while serum TPAn-3 increases with increasing dietary ALA from 0.09 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.14 nmol/mL. Following DHA feeding, neither TPAn-3 or THA change across all dietary DHA intake levels. Serum TPAn-3 demonstrates a similar response to dietary DHA. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that increases in dietary ALA but not DHA increase serum TPAn-3 and THA in rats, suggesting that both fatty acids are precursors to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27720036

RESUMO

Human studies and some animal work have shown more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) was accumulated or converted from precursors in females compared to males. This study explored in-depth the effect of gender on fatty acid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in rats fed one of two well-defined diets containing 10% total fat. One diet contained 15% of linoleic acid (LA) and 3% of α-linolenic acid (ALA) of the total fatty acids (LA+ALA diet), while the other diet contained 15% LA and 0.05% ALA (LA diet). At the age of 20 weeks, all animals were orally administered a single dose of a mixture of deuterium-labeled LA and ALA. Caudal venous blood was then drawn at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 168h. The concentrations of the deuterated precursors and their metabolites in plasma total lipids were quantified by GC/MS negative chemical ionization. Endogenous fatty acids were quantified by GC/FID analysis. When expressed as the percentage of oral dosage, female rats accumulated more precursors and more products, deuterated DHA and deuterated n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (2H5-DPAn-6), in plasma than did male rats in both the LA+ALA diet and the LA diet. For the endogenous non-labeled PUFA, greater concentrations of DHA and DPAn-6 were similarly observed in female rats compared to males within each diet. A lower concentration of non-labeled ARA was observed only in female rats fed the LA+ALA diet. In summary, greater endogenous and exogenous DHA and DPAn-6 was observed in female rat plasma and this was independent of dietary ALA status.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ácidos Linoleicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ratos , Caracteres Sexuais , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem
14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 19457, 2016 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785759

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/patologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Aptidão Física , Prevalência , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(3): 373-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26115160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg) may affect fetal growth; however, prior research often lacked assessment of mercury speciation, confounders, and interactions. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the relationship between MeHg and fetal growth as well as the potential for confounding or interaction of this relationship from speciated mercury, fatty acids, selenium, and sex. METHODS: This cross-sectional study includes 271 singletons born in Baltimore, Maryland, 2004-2005. Umbilical cord blood was analyzed for speciated mercury, serum omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs), and selenium. Multivariable linear regression models controlled for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, selenium, n-3 HUFAs, and inorganic mercury (IHg). RESULTS: Geometric mean cord blood MeHg was 0.94 µg/L (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07). In adjusted models for ponderal index, ßln(MeHg) = -0.045 (g/cm(3)) × 100 (95% CI: -0.084, -0.005). There was no evidence of a MeHg × sex interaction with ponderal index. Contrastingly, there was evidence of a MeHg × n-3 HUFAs interaction with birth length [among low n-3 HUFAs, ßln(MeHg) = 0.40 cm, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.81; among high n-3 HUFAs, ßln(MeHg) = -0.15, 95% CI: -0.54, 0.25; p-interaction = 0.048] and head circumference [among low n-3 HUFAs, ßln(MeHg) = 0.01 cm, 95% CI: -0.27, 0.29; among high n-3 HUFAs, ßln(MeHg) = -0.37, 95% CI: -0.63, -0.10; p-interaction = 0.042]. The association of MeHg with birth weight and ponderal index was affected by n-3 HUFAs, selenium, and IHg. For birth weight, ßln(MeHg) without these variables was -16.8 g (95% CI: -75.0, 41.3) versus -29.7 (95% CI: -93.9, 34.6) with all covariates. Corresponding values for ponderal index were -0.030 (g/cm(3)) × 100 (95% CI: -0.065, 0.005) and -0.045 (95% CI: -0.084, -0005). CONCLUSION: We observed an association of increased MeHg with decreased ponderal index. There is evidence for interaction between MeHg and n-3 HUFAs; infants with higher MeHg and n-3 HUFAs had lower birth length and head circumference. These results should be verified with additional studies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Baltimore , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefalometria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Lipids ; 49(8): 839-51, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24986160

RESUMO

A methodology combining finger-pricked blood sampling, microwave accelerated fatty acid assay, fast gas chromatography data acquisition, and automated data processing was developed, evaluated and applied to a population study. Finger-pricked blood was collected on filter paper previously impregnated with 0.05 mg of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene and air-dried at room temperature. Transmethylation was accelerated by microwave irradiation in an explosion-proof multimode microwave reaction system. The chemical procedure was based on a one-step direct transmethylation procedure catalyzed by acetyl chloride. The short-term stability of PUFA in blood dried on filter paper and storage at room temperature was examined using venous blood. The recoveries ranged from 97 to 101 % for the categorized fatty acids as well as the ratios of n-6 to n-3 PUFA and the n-3 % highly unsaturated fatty acid. Specifically, recoveries were 99, 98, 97, and 97 % for linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (ARA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. The mol% (mean ± SD, 95 % confidence interval) of fatty acid composition in subjects from the population study was determined as 36.2 ± 3.8 (35.8, 36.7), 23.2 ± 3.0 (22.8, 23.5), 36.8 ± 3.5 (36.4, 37.2) and 3.79 ± 1.0 (3.68, 3.91) for the saturated, monounsaturated, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, respectively. Individually, the mean mol% (95 % CI) was 22.6 (22.3, 22.9) for 18:2n-6, 9.5 (9.3, 9.7) for ARA, 0.51 (0.49, 0.53) for ALA, 0.42 (0.38, 0.47) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and 1.67 (1.61, 1.73) for DHA. This methodology provides an accelerated yet high-efficiency, chemically safe, and temperature-controlled transmethylation, with diverse laboratory applications including population studies.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Ácidos Graxos/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Humanos , Metilação , Micro-Ondas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1841(9): 1336-44, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24960100

RESUMO

Accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the fetal brain is accomplished predominantly via a highly selective flow of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, AA) through the placenta. Little is known regarding the endogenous capability of the fetus to generate its own DHA and AA from lower homologues such as linolenic (18:3n-3, ALA) and linoleic (18:2n-6, LA) acids, respectively. Deuterium-labeled d5-ALA and d5-LA at millimolar concentrations were injected directly into the amniotic fluid in order to investigate maternal-independent metabolic conversion of the stable isotopes in brain and liver of the fetus near delivery. After 48h under adequate maternal diet, the levels of d5-ALA metabolites in the fetal brain and fetal liver were 45±2.2 pmol/mg and 86±4 pmol/mg of which 79% and 63.6% were comprised of d5-DHA. At this time point, incorporation of d5-LA metabolites was 103±5 pmol/mg and 772±46 pmol/mg for brain and liver, of which 50% and 30% were comprised of d5-AA. Following sustained maternal dietary ALA deficiency, the levels of total d5-ALA derived metabolites in the fetal brain and fetal liver were increased to 231 pmol/mg and 696 pmol/mg of which 71% and 26% were comprised of d5-DHA. From the time course and relative rates of d5-ALA precursor displacement by d5-DHA in cellular phosphoglycerides, it is concluded that the fetal rat brain can generate its own DHA from its d5-ALA precursors particularly under dietary stress.


Assuntos
Âmnio/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Araquidônico/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Âmnio/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Deutério , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Injeções , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo
18.
Lipids ; 49(1): 59-69, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24081493

RESUMO

Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) has increased dramatically during the 20th century and is associated with greater prevalence of obesity. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulation of energy balance and a sustained hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to obesity. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is the precursor for 2-AG and anandamide (AEA), and we sought to determine if low fat diets (LFD) could be made obesogenic by increasing the endocannabinoid precursor pool of ARA, causing excessive endocannabinoid signaling leading to weight gain and a metabolic profile associated with obesity. Mice (C57BL/6j, 6 weeks of age) were fed 1 en% LNA and 8 en% LNA in low fat (12.5 en%) and medium fat diets (MFD, 35 en%) for 16 weeks. We found that increasing dietary LNA from 1 to 8 en% in LFD and MFD significantly increased ARA in phospholipids (ARA-PL), elevated 2-AG and AEA in liver, elevated plasma leptin, and resulted in larger adipocytes and more macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. In LFD, dietary LNA of 8 en% increased feed efficiency and caused greater weight gain than in an isocaloric reduction to 1 en% LNA. Increasing dietary LNA from 1 to 8 en% elevates liver endocannabinoid levels and increases the risk of developing obesity. Thus a high dietary content of LNA (8 en%) increases the adipogenic properties of a low fat diet.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glicerídeos/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Br J Nutr ; 109(8): 1508-17, 2013 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22883314

RESUMO

Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA in the salmon fillet. The effect on fish consumers of such a replacement remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the effect of excessive dietary LA from soyabean oil (SO) on endocannabinoid levels in Atlantic salmon and mice, and study the metabolic effects in mice when SO replaces FO in feed for Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were fed FO and SO for 6 months, and the salmon fillet was used to produce feed for mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed diets of 35% of energy as fat based on FO- and SO-enriched salmon for 16 weeks. We found that replacing FO with SO in feed for Atlantic salmon increased LA, arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated 2-AG and AEA associated with increased feed efficiency, weight gain and adipose tissue inflammation compared with mice fed the FO salmon diet. In conclusion, excessive dietary LA elevates endocannabinoids in the liver of salmon and mice, and increases weight gain and counteracts the anti-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice.


Assuntos
Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Análise de Variância , Ração Animal , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Ácido Linoleico/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja , Ganho de Peso
20.
Lipids ; 47(11): 1109-17, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23015312

RESUMO

Microwave irradiation as the energy source for one-step direct transesterification of fatty acids in human serum lipids was examined in a solvent system of methanol: hexane: acetyl chloride based on a Lepage & Roy assay. Innovative and explosion proof single-mode or multimode microwave accelerated reaction system was employed. Recoveries were calculated as the percentage of fatty acid concentrations measured by microwave assay to those by the reference method of the Lepage & Roy assay that utilized conductive heating at 100 °C for 60 min. Under conditions of 100 °C for 1 min in Single-mode (S4-100 × 1), or 125 °C for 5 min in Multimode (M5-125 × 5), the recoveries were 100-103 % for the total fatty acids and 96-106 % for each categorized fatty acid, including saturates, monounsaturates, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA. For individual PUFA, the mean recoveries were 102-105 % for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3; 99, 109, and 95 % for 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, respectively. Thus, fatty acid concentrations determined by microwave fatty acid assay were accurate to those results by the reference method, when the microwave conditions were optimal. In summary, the microwave irradiation could replace conductive heating in one-step direct transesterification, and reduce the duration from 60 min to 5 min or less. This methodology may be applied in both the absolute and relative quantification of serum total fatty acids.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/química , Micro-Ondas , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Metilação/efeitos da radiação
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