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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 373-380, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The assessment of nutritional status and the quality of life in patients with gastric cancer has become one of the important goals of current clinical treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status in hospitalized gastric cancer patients by using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and to analyze the influence of nutritional status on the patients' quality of life (QOL). METHODS: We reviewed the pathological diagnosis of gastric cancer for 2322 hospitalized patients using PG-SGA to assess their nutritional status and collected data on clinical symptoms, the anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), and hand-grip strength (HGS). We also collected laboratory data (prealbumin, albumin, hemoglobin) within 48 h after the patient was admitted to the hospital. The 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used for QOL assessment in all patients. RESULTS: By using PG-SGA, we found 80.4% of the patients were malnourished (score ≥ 4) and 45.1% of the patients required urgent nutritional support (score ≥ 9). In univariate analysis, old age (> 65 years, p < 0.001), female (p = 0.007), residence in a village (p = 0.004), a lower level of education (p < 0.001), and self-paying (p < 0.001) were indicated as risk factors of patients with gastric cancer to be suffering from severe malnutrition. There was a negative correlation between PG-SGA and various nutritional parameters (p < 0.05). The quality of life was significantly different in gastric cancer patients with different nutritional status (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Malnutrition of hospitalized patients with gastric cancer in China is common and seriously affects the patients' quality of life. The nutritional status should be evaluated in a timely manner and reasonable nutritional intervention should be provided as soon as possible. The PG-SGA was fit for using as a clinical nutrition assessment method, being worthy of clinical application.

2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 16): 590, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of biomedical research articles have increased exponentially with the advancement of biomedicine in recent years. These articles have thus brought a great difficulty in obtaining the needed information of researchers. Information retrieval technologies seek to tackle the problem. However, information needs cannot be completely satisfied by directly introducing the existing information retrieval techniques. Therefore, biomedical information retrieval not only focuses on the relevance of search results, but also aims to promote the completeness of the results, which is referred as the diversity-oriented retrieval. RESULTS: We address the diversity-oriented biomedical retrieval task using a supervised term ranking model. The model is learned through a supervised query expansion process for term refinement. Based on the model, the most relevant and diversified terms are selected to enrich the original query. The expanded query is then fed into a second retrieval to improve the relevance and diversity of search results. To this end, we propose three diversity-oriented optimization strategies in our model, including the diversified term labeling strategy, the biomedical resource-based term features and a diversity-oriented group sampling learning method. Experimental results on TREC Genomics collections demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in improving the relevance and the diversity of search results. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed three strategies jointly contribute to the improvement of biomedical retrieval performance. Our model yields more relevant and diversified results than the state-of-the-art baseline models. Moreover, our method provides a general framework for improving biomedical retrieval performance, and can be used as the basis for future work.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(47): 44905-44912, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738511

RESUMO

The lattice symmetry of strongly correlated oxide heterostructures determines their exotic physical properties by coupling the degrees of freedom between lattices and electrons, orbitals, and spin states. Systematic studies on VO2, a Mott insulator, have previously revealed that lattice distortion can be manipulated by the interfacial strain and electronic phase separation can emerge. However, typical epitaxial film-substrate interface strain provides a very limited range for exploring such interface-engineered phenomena. Herein, epitaxially grown VO2 thin films on asymmetrically faceted m-plane sapphire substrates with the hill-and-valley type surfaces have been demonstrated. Interestingly, lattice symmetry breaking has been proven based on the large residual strain from the different faceted planes. By this lattice symmetry breaking, electronic phase separation and metal-insulator transition in the VO2 films are modulated, and anisotropy in optical responses is exhibited. These results on asymmetrical interfacial engineering in oxide heterostructures open up new routes for novel functional materials design and functional electro/optic device nanofabrication.

4.
Orthop Surg ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of the restoration of tibial component coronal alignment with a double-check technique and the conventional surgical technique during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in knee osteoarthritis patients, and to investigate the distribution of the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) after TKA. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 151 patients (179 knees) with knee osteoarthritis undergoing primary TKA in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University from February 2013 to January 2015 to evaluate the differences in MPTA in patients undergoing the conventional TKA and those undergoing a modified TKA with a double-check technique after the surgery. All patients were evaluated by MPTA, range of motion (ROM), Knee Society Clinical Rating System (KSS) clinical scores, and KSS functional scores. An MPTA deviation of 3° or greater was considered malalignment. RESULTS: A total of 130 TKA procedures in 119 patients were included in the study: 64 knees treated with conventional TKA and 66 knees treated with the double-check technique TKA. The mean postoperative MPTA was 88.6° ± 2.2° in the conventional TKA group and 89.1° ± 1.5° in the double-check TKA group. The mean postoperative MPTA between the two groups was not significantly different. In the conventional TKA group, 79.7% (51 knees) had a postoperative MPTA deviation within 3° and 20.3% (13 knees) had a MPTA deviation greater than 3°. In the double-check TKA group, 93.9% (62 knees) had a postoperative MPTA deviation within 3°and 6.1% (4 knees) had a MPTA deviation greater than 3°. The postoperative MPTA deviation within 3° showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups. In the double-check TKA group, a 21.2% (14 knees) tibial malalignment was detected after the first check and a 9.1% (6 knees) tibial malalignment was detected after the second check. The mean postoperative ROM was 118.1° ± 9.2° in the conventional TKA group and 115.7° ± 10.1° in the double-check TKA group. The mean postoperative KSS clinical score was 89.3 ± 3.5 in the conventional TKA group and 89.0 ± 3.7 in the double-check TKA group. The mean postoperative KSS functional score was 84.8 ± 10.0 in the conventional TKA group and 84.9 ± 9.0 in the double-check TKA group. The mean postoperative ROM, KSS clinical scores, and KSS functional scores between the two groups were not statistically significantly different. CONCLUSION: Malalignment of the tibial component can occur after conventional TKA, and the double-check technique is an effective method to improve tibial component coronal alignment.

5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(5): 760-764, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze of the minimum graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) required for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) without middle hepatic vein branch (MHVT) reconstruction. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the clinical data and outcomes of 303 LDLT patients over 16 years from 2001 to 2017. The minimum GRWR of non-middle hepatic vein reconstruction was analyzed by propensity score (PSM). RESULTS: With PSM analysis, no significant differences were observed in postoperative complications, SFSS, inpatient time, liver function, and coagulation function, but significant differences in 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival between MHVT reconstruction and non-reconstruction group. The patients with MHVT reconstruction had better short-term and long-term survival than those without reconstruction. CONCLUSION: For LDLT patients without HMVT reconstruction, GRWR should be greater than 0.86%; for patients with HMVT reconstruction, GRWR is acceptable between 0.5% and 0.6%.


Assuntos
Veias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Doadores Vivos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5277, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754099

RESUMO

Mitochondrial calcium ([Ca2+]mito) dynamics plays vital roles in regulating fundamental cellular and organellar functions including bioenergetics. However, neuronal [Ca2+]mito dynamics in vivo and its regulation by brain activity are largely unknown. By performing two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the primary motor (M1) and visual cortexes (V1) of awake behaving mice, we find that discrete [Ca2+]mito transients occur synchronously over somatic and dendritic mitochondrial network, and couple with cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyto) transients in a probabilistic, rather than deterministic manner. The amplitude, duration, and frequency of [Ca2+]cyto transients constitute important determinants of the coupling, and the coupling fidelity is greatly increased during treadmill running (in M1 neurons) and visual stimulation (in V1 neurons). Moreover, Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II is mechanistically involved in modulating the dynamic coupling process. Thus, activity-dependent dynamic [Ca2+]mito-to-[Ca2+]cyto coupling affords an important mechanism whereby [Ca2+]mito decodes brain activity for the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics to meet fluctuating neuronal energy demands as well as for neuronal information processing.

7.
Environ Int ; 134: 105305, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739136

RESUMO

With the rapid development of the Internet of things (IoTs) and modern industrial society, forecasting air pollution concentration, e.g., the concentration of PM2.5, is of great significance to protect human health and the environment. Accurate prediction of PM2.5 concentrations is limited by the number and the data quality of air quality monitoring stations. In Taiwan, the spatial and temporal data of PM2.5 concentrations are measured by 77 national air quality monitoring stations (built by Taiwan EPA). However, the national stations are costly and scarce because of the highly precise instrument and their size. Therefore, many places are still out of coverage of the monitoring network. Recently, under the framework of IoTs, there are hundreds of portable air quality sensors called "AirBox" developed jointly by the Taiwan local government and a private company. By virtue of its low price and portability, the AirBox can provide a higher resolution of space-time PM2.5 measurement. However, the spatiotemporal distribution is different between AirBox and EPA stations, and data quality and accuracy of AirBox is poorer than national air quality monitoring stations. Thus, to integrate the heterogeneous PM2.5 data, the data fusion technique should be used before further analysis. In this study, we propose a new data fusion method called multi-sensor space-time data fusion framework. It is based on the Optimum Linear Data Fusion theory and integrating with a multi-time step Kriging method for spatial-temporal estimation. The method is used to do heterogeneous data fusion from different sources and data qualities. It is able to improve the estimation of PM2.5 concentration in space and time. Results have shown that by combining PM2.5 concentration data from 1176 low-cost AirBoxes as additional information in our model, the estimation of spatial-temporal PM2.5 concentration becomes better and more reasonable. The r2 of the validation regression model is 0.89. Under the approach proposed in this study, we made the information of the micro-sensors more reliable and improved the higher spatial-temporal resolution of air quality monitoring. It could provide very useful information for better spatial-temporal data analysis and further environmental management, such as air pollution source localization, health risk assessment, and micro-scale air pollution analysis.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(19)2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581619

RESUMO

Mobile electroencephalogram (EEG)-sensing technologies have rapidly progressed and made the access of neuroelectrical brain activity outside the laboratory in everyday life more realistic. However, most existing EEG headsets exhibit a fixed design, whereby its immobile montage in terms of electrode density and coverage inevitably poses a great challenge with applicability and generalizability to the fundamental study and application of the brain-computer interface (BCI). In this study, a cost-efficient, custom EEG-electrode holder infrastructure was designed through the assembly of primary components, including the sensor-positioning ring, inter-ring bridge, and bridge shield. It allows a user to (re)assemble a compact holder grid to accommodate a desired number of electrodes only to the regions of interest of the brain and iteratively adapt it to a given head size for optimal electrode-scalp contact and signal quality. This study empirically demonstrated its easy-to-fabricate nature by a low-end fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer and proved its practicability of capturing event-related potential (ERP) and steady-state visual-evoked potential (SSVEP) signatures over 15 subjects. This paper highlights the possibilities for a cost-efficient electrode-holder assembly infrastructure with replaceable montage, flexibly retrofitted in an unlimited fashion, for an individual for distinctive fundamental EEG studies and BCI applications.

9.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653686

RESUMO

Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) plays a critical role in lung organogenesis, but is downregulated during lung cancer development and progression. The prognostic significance and functional consequences of FSTL1 downregulation in lung cancer are unclear. Here, reduced levels of FSTL1 were detected in various tumors compared to normal tissues and were associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, particularly those with lung adenocarcinoma. FSTL1 expression negatively correlated with the metastatic potential of lung cancer cells. Antibody-based neutralization of extracellular FSTL1 increased cellular migration/invasion while addition of recombinant FSTL1 protein diminished the metastatic capacity of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Notably, treatment with FSTL1 effectively prevented the metastatic progression of lung cancer cells in an orthotopic animal model. Mechanistically, FSTL1 directly bound to the pro-form of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)/osteopontin restraining proteolytic activation of SPP1 which led to inactivation of integrin/CD44-associated signaling and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Combined low expression of FSTL1 and high expression of SPP1 predicted a poorer prognosis for patients with lung cancer. This study highlights the novel interaction between FSTL1 and SPP1 and new opportunities to effectively target SPP1-driven metastatic cancers characterized by FSTL1 downregulation.

10.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 2: S10-S16, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short telomere length (TL), an indicator of cellular aging and oxidative stress, has been implicated in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, studies have illustrated that the association of TL with health outcomes may vary by age. Yet, data on the association between TL and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are sparse and the potential effect modification by age remains unknown. METHODS: We prospectively investigated TL in early pregnancy in relation to the subsequent GDM risk in a case-control study of 93 women with GDM and 186 randomly selected controls matched on age, race/ethnicity, and gestational weeks at blood collection. TL was measured using blood samples collected at 10-14 gestational weeks and reported as the T/S ratio, a ratio of telomere repeat length T to copy number of a single copy gene S. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for major risk factors. RESULTS: Overall, TL was not significantly associated with GDM risk. The TL-GDM association was significantly modified by age (Pinteraction = 0.02). Shorter TL in early pregnancy was associated with an increased GDM risk among women <30 years old (adjusted OR comparing the shortest vs. longest tertile: 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2, 8.1), but not associated with GDM risk among women ≥30 years. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TL in early pregnancy may be implicated in GDM development, particularly among younger women.

11.
Theranostics ; 9(23): 6856-6866, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660073

RESUMO

Resistance to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a major obstacle to cancer treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. This study was to explore genome alterations in rectal cancer under CRT stress. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 28 paired tumors collected before and after CRT from the same patients who did not respond to CRT treatment. Somatic point mutations and copy number variations were detected by VarScan2 and Exome CNVs respectively using paired tumor and blood samples. Somatic alterations associated with CRT resistance were inferred considering differences in significantly mutated genes, mutation counts and cancer cell fraction between matched pre- and post-CRT tumors. We employed SignatureAnalyzer to infer mutation signatures and PyClone to decipher clonal evolution and examine intratumoral heterogeneity in tumors before and after CRT. The associations between intratumoral heterogeneity and patients' survival were analyzed using the log-rank test and the Cox regression model. Results: (i) Recurrent mutations in CTDSP2, APC, KRAS, TP53 and NFKBIZ confer selective advantages on cancer cells and made them resistant to CRT treatment. (ii) CRT alters the genomic characteristics of tumors at both the somatic mutation and the copy number variation levels. (iii) CRT-resistant tumors exhibit either a branched or a linear evolution pattern. (iv) Different recurrent mutation signatures in pre-CRT and post-CRT patients implicate mutational processes underlying the evolution of CRT-resistant tumors. (v) High intratumoral heterogeneity in pre- or post-CRT is associated with poor patients' survival. Conclusion: Our study reveals genome landscapes in rectal cancer before and after CRT and tumors evolution under CRT stress. The treatment-associated characteristics are useful for further investigations of CRT resistance in rectal cancer.

12.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2145-2162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571851

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the potential mechanism underpinning the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate the role of the Roundabout signaling pathway in COPD. Methods: Three microarray datasets (GSE1650, GSE38974 and GSE76925) including 139 cases of severe COPD and 52 cases of normal smokers without carcinoma, were integrated to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using bioinformatics methods. Gene ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway of the DEGs were performed by a DAVID online tool. Finally, a cigarette smoke (CS)- induced emphysema mice model was established, the lung mRNA expression levels of genes associated with Slit guidance ligand 2 (SLIT2) -Roundabout (ROBO) signaling pathway were detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the protein level of SLIT2 was examined by immunohistochemistry staining. Results: A total of 315 DEGs were identified in three databases. GO and KEGG pathway analyses suggested that the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix disassembly, immune response, the apoptotic signaling pathway, ubiquitination and the Roundabout signaling pathway all together were involved in the development of COPD. The genes SLIT2 and ROBO2 were decreased in patients with COPD and these decreases were significantly negatively correlated with the disease stages of COPD. Consistently, the mRNA expression levels of SLIT2, ROBO1 and ROBO2, and the protein level of SLIT2 were revealed to be lower in the lungs of CS-induced emphysema mice compared with the air-exposed control mice. In addition, the SLIT2 protein level was negatively associated with alveolar mean linear intercept. Conclusion: Integrated bioinformatics analysis may provide novel insights into the complicated pathogenesis of COPD, and to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence to suggest that the Roundabout signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD.

13.
Nanoscale ; 11(43): 20868-20875, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657407

RESUMO

We demonstrate a tunable longwave infrared photodetector with ultra-high sensitivity based on graphene surface plasmon polaritons controlled by ferroelectric domains. The simulated results show that the photodetector shows a tunable absorption peak, modulated by periodically polarized ferroelectric domains at the nanoscale, with an ultra-high responsivity up to 7.62 × 106 A W-1 and a detectivity of ∼6.24 × 1013 Jones (Jones = cm Hz1/2 W-1) in the wavelengths ranging from 5 to 20 µm at room temperature. The potential mechanism for the prominent performances of the proposed photodetector can be attributed to the highly confined graphene surface plasmons excited by the local electrical field across the interface of the graphene and ferroelectric layer resonant to the incident wavelength, which could be easily controlled by the features of the ferroelectric domains. Compared with the silicon-based graphene plasmonic photodetector using a complex process of micro-nano fabrication, the proposed photodetector provides the advantages of a more convenient and controllable technique without the need for patterning graphene, and lower energy consumption due to the non-volatile properties of the ferroelectrics without an additional contact electrode. The tunable spectral response and the ultra-high responsivity make the graphene plasmonic photodetector tuned by the ferroelectric domains promising in practical applications of micro-spectrometers and other light sensing devices.

14.
Chem Asian J ; 14(23): 4201-4206, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596051

RESUMO

Two types of ionic liquids (ILs), 1-(3-hexenyl)-3-methyl imidazolium iodide and 1-(3-butenyl)-3-methyl imidazolium iodide, are synthesized by introducing an unsaturated bond into the side alkyl chain of the imidazolium cation. These new ionic liquids exhibit high thermal stability and low viscosity (104 cP and 80 cP, respectively). The molecular dynamics simulation shows that the double bond introduced in the alkane chain greatly changes the molecular system space arrangement and diminishes the packing efficiency, leading to low viscosity. The low viscosity of the synthesized ionic liquids would enhance the diffusion of redox couples. This enhancement is detected by fabricating dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with electrolytes containing the two ILs and I2 . The highest efficiency of DSSCs is 6.85 % for 1-(3-hexenyl)-3-methyl imidazolium iodide and 5.93 % for 1-(3-butenyl)-3-methyl imidazolium iodide electrolyte, which is much higher than that of 5.17 % with the counterpart 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium iodide electrolyte.

15.
Pharmacology ; : 1-16, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630149

RESUMO

Nitroglycerin (NTG), a nitric oxide-donating drug, may increase tumor blood flow and consequently increase cancer drug delivery to tumor cells. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an essential enzyme for the de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate; we had found that knocking down the expression of TS sensitizes lung cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. However, whether NTG and cisplatin could induce synergistic cytotoxicity in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells through modulating TS expression is unknown. In this study, NTG decreased TS expression in an AKT, also known as Protein kinase B (PKB) inactivation dependent manner in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma H1703 cells. Enhancement of AKT activity by transfection with constitutive active AKT vectors increased the TS expression level as well as the cell survival pretreated by NTG. Moreover, NTG synergistically enhanced cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition by cisplatin treatment in NSCLC cells, which were associated with downregulation of TS expression and inactivation of AKT in A549 and H1703 cells. Together, these results may provide a rationale to combine NTG with cisplatin-based chemotherapy to enhance the therapeutic effect for lung cancer in the future.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although free tissue transfer is thought the best option for head and neck reconstruction, the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMCF) remains an important alternative method. The aim of this study was to assess the use of the PMMCF with the prevertebral fascia to close a pharyngeal defect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 30 patients who underwent circumferential pharyngeal defect reconstruction with a U-shaped PMMCF from 2009 to 2018. The flap was primarily used to reconstruct defects after tumor extirpation. RESULTS: One patient (3.3%) died of an acute myocardial infarction within 24 h of the operation. Six cases (20.0%) developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula; one of them required debridement, while the others spontaneously healed with conservative treatment. Seven cases (23.3%) developed tracheal stomal stenosis. Twenty-four (80.0%) of these cases could eat a regular diet, while the other five cases needed tube feeding. CONCLUSION: In patients with late-stage laryngopharyngeal cancer, reconstructing circumferential pharyngeal defects with the U-shaped PMMCF is an expedient alternative to free tissue transfer.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222895, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550294

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to airborne hydrocarbons, including volatile organic compounds, increases the risk of developing retinal vein occlusion (RVO) among the population of Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study involving 855,297 people was conducted. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis fitted the multiple pollutant models for two targeted pollutants, including total hydrocarbons (THC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) were used, and the risk of RVO was estimated. The chi-squared test and one-way analysis of variance were used to test differences in demographics and comorbidity distribution among tertiles of the targeted pollutants. Before controlling for multiple pollutants, hazard ratios for the overall population were 19.88 (95% CI: 17.56-22.50) at 0.51-ppm increases in THC and 4.33 (95% CI: 3.97-4.73) at 0.27-ppm increases in NMHC. The highest adjusted hazard ratios for different multiple pollutant models of each targeted pollutant were statistically significant (all p values were ≤0.05) for all patients at 29.67 (95% CI: 25.57-34.42) for THC and 16.24 (95% CI: 14.14-18.65) for NMHC. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to THC and NMHC contribute to RVO development.

18.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002910, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite dietary recommendations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for cardiometabolic health, n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and their interplay in relation to diabetes risk remain debated. Importantly, data among pregnant women are scarce. We investigated individual plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in early to midpregnancy in relation to subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort (n = 2,802), individual plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFAs levels were measured at gestational weeks (GWs) 10-14, 15-26, 23-31, and 33-39 among 107 GDM cases (ascertained on average at GW 27) and 214 non-GDM controls. Conditional logistic regression was used, adjusting for major risk factors for GDM. After adjusting for covariates, individual n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were inversely correlated with insulin-resistance markers, whereas individual n-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) was positively correlated with insulin-resistance markers. At GW 15-26, a standard deviation (SD) increase in total n-3 PUFAs and individual n-3 DPA was associated with a 36% (adjusted odds ratio 0.64; 95% CI 0.42-0.96; P = 0.042) and 33% (0.67; 95% CI 0.45-0.99; P = 0.047) lower risk of GDM, respectively; however, the significance did not persist after post hoc false-discovery rate (FDR) correction (FDR-corrected P values > 0.05). Associations between total n-6 PUFAs and GDM were null, whereas associations with individual n-6 PUFAs were differential. Per SD increase, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) at GWs 10-14 and DGLA at GWs 10-14 and 15-26 were significantly associated with a 1.40- to 1.95-fold higher risk of GDM, whereas docosatetraenoic acid (DTA) at GW 15-26 was associated with a 45% (0.55; 95% CI 0.37-0.83) lower risk of GDM (all FDR-corrected P values < 0.05). Null associations were observed for linoleic acid (LA) in either gestational window in relation to risk of GDM. Women with high (≥median) n-3 PUFAs and low (

19.
Nanotechnology ; 31(1): 015502, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519011

RESUMO

We developed a facile method to fabricate platinum (Pt) porous nanotubes coated with interconnected Pt dendrites using the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a template. The surface-exposed arginine residues of the TMV induced the selective deposition of Pt seeds on the TMV outside surface, and poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was chosen to stabilize the dispersity of TMV coated with Pt seeds (TMV/SPt). The limited space between the Pt seeds and their uniform distribution on the TMV exterior confined the growth of Pt dendrites, resulting in continuous dendritic platinum nanotubes (TMV/DPtNT). The synergistic effects of porous dendrites and anisotropic structures of the TMV/DPtNTs provided an increase in the active sites, the enhancement of transport efficiency and long-distance electron transfer, which greatly improved the catalytic activity. We also demonstrated that such nanotubes could be used in the detection of H2O2 with good sensitivity.

20.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 12345-12356, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503449

RESUMO

Hair loss, a common and distressing symptom, has been plaguing humans. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments have been widely studied to achieve the desired effect for hair regeneration. As a nonpharmacological physical approach, physiologically appropriate alternating electric field plays a key role in the field of regenerative tissue engineering. Here, a universal motion-activated and wearable electric stimulation device that can effectively promote hair regeneration via random body motions was designed. Significantly facilitated hair regeneration results were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats and nude mice. Higher hair follicle density and longer hair shaft length were observed on Sprague-Dawley rats when the device was employed compared to conventional pharmacological treatments. The device can also improve the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor and thereby alleviate hair keratin disorder, increase the number of hair follicles, and promote hair regeneration on genetically defective nude mice. This work provides an effective hair regeneration strategy in the context of a nonpharmacological self-powered wearable electronic device.

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