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1.
Pathol Res Pract ; : 152910, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Protein phosphatase 4 catalytic subunit (PP4C) has been shown to play crucial regulatory roles in biological process and is frequently upregulated in cancer such as breast and colorectal carcinoma. However, the function and potential molecular mechanism of PP4C in lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: Bioinformatic analysis was used to detect the expression level and prognosis of patients. Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), CCK8, 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (Edu) proliferation assay and flow cytometric were used to explore the function in lung cancer cells. RESULTS: In this study, we found that PP4C was upregulated in lung cancer tissues as compared with that in normal lung tissues. Furthermore, patients with high expression level of PP4C were correlated with a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. In vitro, CCK8, Edu proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis showed that PP4C could promote lung cancer cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. Mechanistic investigations revealed that PP4C may interact with PP4R1 and promote ERK activation. Additionally, PP4C depletion resulted in lower tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data showed the oncogenic of PP4C in NSCLC tumorigenesis and provide a new insight of PP4C in the progression of NSCLC.

2.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 331-346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158189

RESUMO

Purpose: Monoammonium glycyrrhizinate (MAG) is an aglycone of glycyrrhizin that is found in licorice and is often used clinically as an injection to treat liver diseases. However, the effect of MAG injection on cardiac function and its possible cellular mechanisms remain unclear. We explored the protective effects of MAG against myocardial ischemic injury (MII) induced by isoproterenol (ISO), as well as the cellular mechanisms via molecular biology techniques and patch-clamp recording. Methods: A rat model of myocardial ischemia injury was induced by administering ISO (85 mg/kg) subcutaneously for 2 consecutive days. ECG, cardiac functional parameters, CK and LDH levels, SOD and GSH activities, MDA concentration, histological myocardium inspection, mitochondria ultrastructure changes, intracellular calcium concentrations were observed. Influences of MAG on ICa-L and contraction in isolated rat myocytes were observed by the patch-clamp technique. Results: MAG reduced damage, improved cardiac morphology, inhibited oxidative stress, decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species, and decreased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Exposure of the rats' ventricular myocytes to MAG resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in L-type calcium currents (ICa-L). MAG reduced ICa-L in a consistent and time-dependent fashion with a semi-maximal prohibitive concentration of MAG of 14 µM. MAG also shifted the I-V curve of ICa-L upwards and moved the activation and inactivation curves of ICa-L to the left. Conclusion: The findings indicate that MAG injection exerts a protective influence on ISO-induced MII by inhibiting oxidative stress and regulating Ca2+ homeostasis by ICa-L.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009379

RESUMO

One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, which are different from those of bulk materials, have been attracted considerable interest in either scientific research or practical application. Herein, the Sb2Se3 nanoribbons have been successfully synthesized by epitaxial growth process on mica using the rapid physical vapor deposition method. The density of the Sb2Se3 nanoribbons increased quickly when the temperature decreased, and finally connected to each other and formed the network structure even the film. These nanoribbons were all well-aligned with preferred direction, either paralleled to each other or formed 60° angles. The further structural investigation demonstrated that the Sb2Se3 nanoribbons grew along the [001] directions, which are aligned along the directions [11(-)0] and [100] or [100] and [110] on the mica surface. Then, an asymmetric lattice mismatch growth mechanism that incommensurate heteroepitaxial lattice-matched between the Sb2Se3 and mica crystal structure was suggested. Furthermore, a polarized photodetector based on the film with the well-aligned Sb2Se3 nanoribbons was constructed, which illustrated strong photosensitivity and high anisotropic in-plane transport either in dark or in light. The incommensurate heteroepitaxial growth method shown here may open the access to realize well-ordered nanostructures of other inorganic materials and promote the anisotropic photodetectors industrialization.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017542

RESUMO

The directing effect of coordinating ligands in the formation of uranium molecular complexes has been well established, but the role of counterions in metal-ligand interactions remains ambiguous and requires further investigation. In this work, we describe the targeted isolation, through the choice of alkali-metal ions, of a family of tetravalent uranium sulfates, showing the influence of the overall topology and, unexpectedly, the UIV nuclearity upon the inclusion of such countercations. Analyses of the structures of uranium(IV) oxo/hydroxosulfate oligomeric species isolated from consistent synthetic conditions reveal that the incorporation of Na+ and Rb+ promotes the crystallization of 0D discrete clusters with a hexanuclear [U6O4(OH)4(H2O)4]12+ core, whereas the larger Cs+ ion allows for the isolation of a 2D-layered oligomer with a less condensed trinuclear [U3(O)]10+ center. This finding expands the prevalent view that counterions play an innocent role in molecular complex synthesis, affecting only the overall packing but not the local oligomerization. Interestingly, trends in nuclearity appear to correlate with the hydration enthalpies of alkali-metal cations, such that the alkali-metal cations with larger hydration enthalpies correspond to more hydrated complexes and cluster cores. These findings afford new insights into the mechanism of nucleation of UIV, and they also open a new path for the rational design and synthesis of targeted molecular complexes.

5.
Mol Carcinog ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077156

RESUMO

Protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 1 (PP4R1) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of centrosome maturation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and tumor necrosis factor signaling. However, the function of PP4R1 in non-small-cell lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we identify PP4R1 as an oncogene through Oncomine database mining and immunohistochemical staining, and we showed that PP4R1 is upregulated in lung cancer tissues as compared with that in normal lung tissues and correlated with a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Furthermore, in vitro study by wound-healing and Transwell assay showed that PP4R1 could promote migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that PP4R1 could cooperate with high mobility group AT-hook 2 and thereby promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via MAPK/extracellular receptor kinase activation. Taken together, our study provides a rich resource for understanding PP4R1 in lung cancer and indicates that PP4R1 may serve as a potential biomarker in lung cancer therapies.

6.
Eur J Radiol ; 124: 108858, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the feasibility of synthetic MRI in quantitative evaluation of lumbar intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration, as compared to the conventional CarrPurcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) T2 mapping approach. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with chronic low back pain participated in this study. Patients underwent routine lumbar MRI, CPMG T2 mapping, and synthetic MRI (MAGiC) acquisition. The degree of IVD degeneration was derived from T2-weighted images according to the Pfirrmann classification. The correlation between two T2 measurements was assessed by Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Statistical differences of quantitative values obtained from MAGiC data across different degeneration grades were quantified by one-way ANOVA. ROC curves were used to test the sensitivity and specificity of CPMG and MAGiC T2 measurements for assessing Pfirrmann grading. RESULTS: T2 values obtained from CPMG and MAGiC data exhibited strong positive correlation (r = 0.962, p < 0.01). Significant negative correlations were found between quantitative values (p < 0.05) and the Pfirrmann grading. Quantitative values show significant difference across Pfirrmann grading groups (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.001). Additionally, post-hoc tests show significant differences of T1 and T2 between adjacent groups among grades I-IV (p < 0.05), while the significant differences of PD were only observed between adjacent groups among grades II-IV (p < 0.05). There is no significant difference between AUCs of T2 values obtained from CPMG and MAGiC data in differentiating grade I/ II, grade II/ III and grade III/IV. CONCLUSIONS: The synthetic MRI may be used to provide quantitative biomarkers for assessing the level of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration.

7.
Chemistry ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065679

RESUMO

Understanding and controlling the topology of self-assembled structures plays a fundamental role in supramolecular chemistry. Herein, the preparation of a series of tetranuclear metallarectangles and hexanuclear trefoil knots featuring Cp*Rh building blocks by template-free self-assembly with four different rigid and flexible ligands is described. Transformations between the trefoil knots and the corresponding macrocycles can be induced by using concentration effects. Remarkably, the hexanuclear trefoil knot 5 was shown to assemble further to provide rare examples of [12+1] heteronuclear double trefoil knots (5 a/5 b/5 c/5 d) through coordination of the amide oxygen atoms to the secondary metal ions Na+ /K+ /Ca2+ /Cd2+ . The synthetic results are supported by single-crystal XRD.

8.
Curr Mol Med ; 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903876

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the effect of Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on fibrosis of hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts (HSFs) and its concrete mechanism. BACKGROUND: ADSCs have been reported to reduce collagen production and fibroblast proliferation in co-culture experiments. Conditioned medium from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs-CM) has successfully inhibited fibrosis by decreasing the expression of collagen type І (Col1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in rabbit ear scar models. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the primary growth factor in ADSCs-CM, has been shown to reverse fibrosis in various fibrotic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ADSCs inhibit fibrosis of HSFs through the secretion of HGF. METHODS: HSFs were treated with DMEM containing 0%, 10%, 50% and 100% concentration of ADSCs-CM. The effect of ADSCs-CM on the viability was determined by cell viability assay, and the collagen production in HSFs was examined by Sirius red staining. Expression and secretion of fibrosis and degradation proteins were detected separately. After measuring the concentration of HGF in ADSCs-CM, the same number of HSFs were treated with 50% ADSCs-CM or HGF. HGF activity in ADSCs-CM was neutralized with a goat anti-human HGF antibody. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that ADSCs-CM dose-dependently decreased cell viability, expression of fibrosis molecules, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and significantly increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in HSFs. Collagen production and the ratio of collagen type І and type III (Col1/Col3) were also suppressed by ADSCs-CM in a dose-dependent manner. When HSFs were cultured with either 50% ADSCs-CM or HGF (1 ng/ml), a similar trend was observed in gene expression and protein secretion. Adding an HGF antibody to both groups returned protein expression and secretion to basal levels but did not significantly affect the fibrosis factors in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that adipose-derived stem cell-secreted HGF effectively inhibits fibrosis-related factors and regulates extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(1): eaaw8113, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922001

RESUMO

P-rich transition metal phosphides (TMPs) with abundant P sites have been predicted to be more favorable for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysis. However, the actual activities of P-rich TMPs do not behave as expected, and the underlying essence especially at the atomic level is also ambiguous. Our structural analysis reveals the inferior activity could stem from the reduced overlap of atomic wave functions between metal and P with the increase in P contents, which consequently results in too strong P-H interaction. To this end, we used N-induced lattice contraction to generally boost the HER catalysis of P-rich TMPs including CoP2, FeP2, NiP2, and MoP2. Refined structural characterization and theoretical analysis indicate the N-P strong interaction could increase the atomic wave function overlap and eventually modulate the H adsorption strength. The concept of lattice engineering offers a new vision for tuning the catalytic activities of P-rich TMPs and beyond.

10.
Nanoscale ; 12(5): 3273-3283, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971202

RESUMO

The structures, compositions and chemical states of metal catalysts are prone to dynamic changes in response to reaction conditions. In this work, a combination of in situ X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy has been used to monitor the temperature-dependent structural dynamics in bimetallic Pt-Co(OH)2 nanocatalysts during CO oxidation. Alloying with electron-donating Co promotes the catalytic activity of metallic Pt for CO oxidation at low temperature. At elevated temperatures under an oxidation atmosphere, O2 drives the segregation of the Pt-Co alloy into cobalt oxide and platinum metal, with the extent of alloying sharply decreasing from ∼30% at 300 K to 0 at 473 K. Reduction at high temperature could recover the formation of the Pt-Co alloy with the same alloying extent. The observed structural dynamics could be well correlated with the kinetic behavior of the catalysts. This work highlights the importance of tracking the dynamic structural changes of working catalysts for a correct understanding of their catalytic behavior.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e1906972, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984566

RESUMO

Developing efficient electrocatalysts for alkaline water electrolysis is central to substantial progress of alkaline hydrogen production. Herein, a Ni5 P4 electrocatalyst incorporating single-atom Ru (Ni5 P4 -Ru) is synthesized through the filling of Ru3+ species into the metal vacancies of nickel hydroxides and subsequent phosphorization treatment. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray-based measurements, and electron microscopy observations confirm the strong interaction between the nickel-vacancy defect and Ru cation, resulting in more than 3.83 wt% single-atom Ru incorporation in the obtained Ni5 P4 -Ru. The Ni5 P4 -Ru as an alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst achieves low onset potential of 17 mV and an overpotential of 54 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 together with a small Tafel slope of 52.0 mV decade-1 and long-term stability. Further spectroscopy analyses combined with density functional theory calculations reveal that the doped Ru sites can cause localized structure polarization, which brings the low energy barrier for water dissociation on Ru site and the optimized hydrogen adsorption free energy on the interstitial site, well rationalizing the experimental reactivity.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(6): 2473-2482, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793139

RESUMO

Ultrathin core-shell V3 S4 @C nanosheets assembled into hierarchical nanotubes (V3 S4 @C NS-HNTs) are synthesized by a self-template strategy and evaluated as general anodes for alkali-ion batteries. Structural/physicochemical characterizations and DFT calculations bring insights into the intrinsic relationship between crystal structures and electrochemical mechanisms of the V3 S4 @C NS-HNTs electrode. The V3 S4 @C NS-HNTs are endowed with strong structural rigidness owing to the layered VS2 subunits and interlayer occupied V atoms, and efficient alkali-ion adsorption/diffusion thanks to the electroactive V3 S4 -C interfaces. The resulting V3 S4 @C NS-HNTs anode exhibit distinct alkali-ion-dependent charge storage mechanisms and exceptional long-durability cyclic performance in storage of K+ , benefiting from synergistic contributions of pseudocapacitive and reversible intercalation/de-intercalation behaviors superior to those of the conversion-reaction-based Li+ -/Na+ -storage counterparts.

13.
Chemistry ; 26(2): 558-563, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692129

RESUMO

By taking advantage of self-complementary π-π stacking and CH-π interactions, a series of discrete quadruple stacks were constructed through the self-aggregation of U-shaped dirhodium metallotweezer complexes featuring various planar polyaromatic ligands. By altering the conjugate stacking strength and bridging ligands, assemblies with a range of topologies were obtained, including a binuclear D-shaped macrocycle, tetranuclear open-ended cagelike frameworks, and duplex metallotweezer stacking structures. Furthermore, a rare stacking interaction resulting in selective C-H activation was observed during the self-assembly process of these elaborate architectures.

14.
Talanta ; 208: 120478, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816702

RESUMO

As an emerging field of study, microplastics have drawn tremendous attention, but until now little is known about their fate and impacts in the environment. A critical bottleneck is lack of reliable techniques to identify and quantify microplastics in complex media. Here we present a simple, rapid, and effective method for identification and quantification of micro/nanoplastics (MNPs) based on thermal fragmentation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with polystyrene (PS) particles as a model MNP. The PS MNPs are identified by fingerprint peaks in both low-mass (m/z 90, 104, 128, 130, and 312-318) and high-mass regions (repeated peaks with Δm/z 104 in the m/z range 350-5000), and the quantification is carried out with m/z 315.3. The different ionization behaviors enable the differentiation of MNPs with different molecular weights. Notably, we find that a simple thermal pretreatment at 380 °C can facilitate the fragmentation of PS and significantly enhances the intensities of fingerprint peaks in low-mass regions, yielding a detection limit of 25 ng for PS MNPs. The applicability of the method in different sample matrices and for other types of MNPs such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is also validated. Considering the current shortcomings in MNP analysis, this work provides a powerful tool to advance the MNPs research.

15.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 103: 103501, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634519

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, participates in both innate and adaptive immunity and regulates the apoptotic process. In this study, we observed that an ortholog of TRAF6 could inhibit the activity of p53 and suppress the apoptotic process in the Hong Kong oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis. To investigate the possible molecular mechanism of the ChTRAF6-induced antiapoptotic effect, a GST pull-down screening assay was conducted, and ChPellino was found to physically interact with ChTRAF6. In addition, the interaction between them was confirmed by Co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that the phosphorylation level of ChPellino was decreased after the RNAi of ChTRAF6, demonstrating that ChTRAF6 may be an upstream regulator of Pellino activation. Furthermore, the apoptosis level of hemocytes increased after ChPellino knockdown, and ChPellino overexpression suppressed ChTRAF6-dependent p53 activation. Taken together, these results indicate that ChPellino plays a critical role in suppressing ChTRAF6-dependent anti-apoptosis in the hemocytes of Crassostrea hongkongensis.

16.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 106: 103596, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877328

RESUMO

Phagocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved immune response, whose efficiency is fundamentally coupled with opsonization of extracellular microbes. How marine mollusks cells recognize and selectively capture pathogens during phagocytosis to clear them is not completely understood. In this study, we observed that plasma is extremely effective for oyster hemocyte phagocytosis, so we investigated candidate proteins among plasma proteins with binding affinity for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) by subjecting them to mass spectroscopy analysis for protein identification and characterization, and address the complex regulatory network to engulf invaders. There were 620 identified proteins potentially associated with bacteria binding and phagocytosis which could be quantified. Our results showed that C1q and lectins identified in Pacific oyster plasma held binding ability to bacteria, clearly suggesting their potent to be opsonins. The dominant expressed plasma protein p1-CgC1q (Complement component 1q)-like protein was identified and its opsonic role was confirmed in this study. The cell surface receptor Cgintegrin interacts directly with p1-CgC1q to mediate phagocytosis. We further confirmed that the interaction between C1q and integrin not rely on the typical recognition site RGD but on the RGE. Evidence exist revealed that p1-CgC1q could coat bacteria via the endotoxin LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and subsequently bind the receptor integrin to significantly enhance hemocytic phagocytosis and bacteria clearance. This study has thus furnished clear evidence for the importance of plasma proteins in mollusk, shedding light on the humoral immunity and an underappreciated strategy in marine host-pathogen interactions.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(51): 19964-19968, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804817

RESUMO

The efficient electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) plays a key role in accelerating sustainable H2 production from water electrolysis, but its large-scale applications are hindered by the high cost of the state-of-the-art Pt catalyst. In this work, submonolayer Pt was controllably deposited on an intermetallic Pd3Pb nanoplate (AL-Pt/Pd3Pb). The atomic efficiency and electronic structure of the active surface Pt layer were largely optimized, greatly enhancing the acidic HER. AL-Pt/Pd3Pb exhibits an outstanding HER activity with an overpotential of only 13.8 mV at 10 mA/cm2 and a high mass activity of 7834 A/gPd+Pt at -0.05 V, both largely surpassing those of commercial Pt/C (30 mV, 1486 A/gPt). In addition, AL-Pt/Pd3Pb shows excellent stability and robustness. Theoretical calculations show that the improved activity is mainly derived from the charge transfer from Pd3Pb to Pt, resulting in a strong electrostatic interaction that can stabilize the transition state and lower the barrier.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(51): 20146-20154, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789022

RESUMO

The use of geminal di(guanidinium) and acridin-9(10H)-one-derived di(carboxylate) derivatives (1a-c and 2a-e, respectively) allows stabilization of heterodimers characterized by high binding affinities in water (maximum ΔG < -7 kcal mol-1, Ka > 105 M-1) as inferred from UV-vis spectroscopic titrations and ITC measurements, therefore rivaling or surpassing the interaction energy between the strongest DNA or RNA triplet pairs. These duplexes are readily accessible and are structurally modifiable, rendering them attractive as building blocks for creating heteroduplex constructs. Incorporating poly(ethylene glycol)-decorated benzyl groups into the dicarboxylate, allows formation of hydrogels in the case of 1b-2c.

19.
Nanoscale ; 11(48): 23318-23329, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789328

RESUMO

Non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts with high activity and stability for efficient hydrogen evolution reactions are of critical importance for low-cost and large-scale water splitting. In this work, Mo2C-Mo3C2 heteronanowires with significantly enhanced catalytic performance are constructed from an MoAn precursor via an accurate phase transition process. The structure disordering and surface carbon shell of Mo2C-Mo3C2 heteronanowires can be precisely regulated, resulting in an enlarged surface area and a defect-rich catalytic surface. Density functional theory calculations are used to identify the effect of the defective sites and carbon shell on the free energy for hydrogen adsorption in hydrogen evolution. Meanwhile, the synergistic effect between different phases and the introduced lattice defects of Mo2C-Mo3C2 are considered to enhance the HER catalytic performance. The designed catalyst exhibits optimal electrocatalytic activity in both acidic and alkaline media: low overpotentials of 134 and 116 mV at 10 mA cm-2, a small Tafel slope of 64 mV dec-1, and a long-term stability for 5000 cycles. This work will provide new insights into the design of high-efficiency HER catalysts via interfacial engineering at the nanoscale for commercial water splitting.

20.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817892

RESUMO

Electrowetting display (EWD) performance is severely affected by ink distribution and charge trapping in pixel cells. Therefore, a multi structural driving waveform is proposed for improving the aperture ratio of EWDs. In this paper, the hysteresis characteristic (capacitance-voltage, C-V) curve of the EWD pixel is tested and analyzed for obtaining the driving voltage value at the inflection point of the driving waveform. In the composition of driving waveform, a voltage slope is designed for preventing ink dispersion and a reverse pulse is designed for releasing the trapped charge which is caused by hysteresis characteristic. Finally, the frequency and the duty cycle of the driving waveform are optimized for the max aperture ratio by a series of testing. The experimental results show that the proposed driving waveform can improve the ink dispersion behavior, and the aperture ratio of the EWD is about 8% higher than the conventional driving waveform. At the same time, the response speed of the driving waveform can satisfy the dynamic display in EWDs, which provides a new idea for the design of the EWD driving scheme.

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