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2.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 1609941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776794

RESUMO

Objective: To develop and validate ubiquitination-related molecular subtypes and a novel prognostic index using ubiquitination-related genes (URGs) for patients with bladder cancer (BCa). Materials and Methods: We downloaded the clinical data and transcriptome data of BCa from TCGA and GEO database. Consensus clustering analysis was conducted to identify ubiquitination-related molecular subtypes for BCa. Besides, we performed univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis to develop a novel prognostic URGs-related index for BCa. We conducted internal and external verification in TCGA cohort and GEO cohort, respectively. Furthermore, the associations of ubiquitination-related molecular subtypes and prognostic index with tumor immune environment were also investigated. Results: A total of four ubiquitination-related molecular subtypes of BCa were finally identified. These four molecular subtypes had significantly different clinical characteristics, prognosis, PD-L1 expression level and tumor microenvironment. Besides, we developed a novel prognostic index using six URGs (including HLA-A, TMEM129, UBE2D1, UBE2N, UBE2T and USP5). The difference in OS between high and low-risk group was statistically significant in training cohort, testing cohort, and validating cohort. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for OS prediction was 0.736, 0.723, and 0.683 in training cohort, testing cohort, and validating cohort, respectively. Multivariate survival analysis showed that this index was an independent predictor for OS. This prognostic index was especially suitable for subtype 1 and 3, older, male, high grade, AJCC stage III-IV, stage N0, stage T3-4 BCa patients. Conclusions: This study identified a total of four ubiquitination-related molecular subtypes with significantly different tumor microenvironment, prognosis, clinical characteristics and PD-L1 expression level. Besides, a novel ubiquitination-related prognostic index for BCa patients was developed and successfully verified, which performed well in predicting prognosis of BCa.

3.
Insights Imaging ; 12(1): 166, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The least amount of contrast medium (CM) should be used under the premise of adequate diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing ultra-low-dose (224 mgI/kg) CM for pancreatic artery depiction using the combination of advanced virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) and high-concentration (400 mgI/mL) CM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 41 patients who underwent both normal dose CM (ND-CM, 320 mgI/kg) and low dose CM (LD-CM, 224 mgI/kg) thoracoabdominal enhanced CT for tumor follow-up were prospectively included. The VMI+ at the energy level of 40-kev for LD-CM images was reconstructed. CT attenuation, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the abdominal artery, celiac artery, and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and qualitative scores of pancreatic arteries depiction were recorded and compared among the three groups (ND-CM, LD-CM, and VMI+ LD-CM images). ANOVA and Friedman tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: All quantitative and qualitative parameters on LD-CM images were lower than that on ND-CM images (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences of all arteries' qualitative scores between ND-CM and VMI+ LD-CM images (all p > 0.05). VMI+ LD-CM images had the highest mean CT and CNR values of all arteries (all p < 0.0001). The CM volume was 52.6 ± 9.4 mL for the ND-CM group and 37.0 ± 6.7 mL for the LD-CM group. CONCLUSION: Ultra-low-dose CM (224 mgI/kg) was feasible for depicting pancreatic arteries. Inferior angiographic image quality could be successfully compensated by VMI+ and high-concentration CM.

4.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747722

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effects of male age and abstinence time on semen quality and explored the best abstinence time for Chinese males among different age groups. Semen parameters, including sperm kinetics, morphology, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI), were reviewed from 2952 men. Samples were divided into six age groups (≤25 years, 26-30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years, and >45 years) and were divided into six groups according to different abstinence time (2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days). The differences in semen quality between the groups were compared, and the effect of age and abstinence time on semen quality was analyzed. Significant differences were observed in semen volume, progressive motility (PR), and DFI among the age groups (all P < 0.05), and no significant differences were observed in sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). There were significant differences in semen volume, PR, and DFI among different abstinence time groups (all P < 0.05) and no significant differences in sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). Pearson analysis showed that male age and abstinence time were both significantly correlated with sperm kinetics and DFI (both P < 0.05), while no significant correlation was found with sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). The box plots and histograms of men's age, abstinence time, and semen quality show that most semen quality parameters differ significantly between the 2 days and 7 days abstinence groups and other groups at different ages. Except for the sperm morphology parameters, sperm kinetic parameters and sperm DFI are linearly related to male age and abstinence time.

5.
Cogn Process ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750665

RESUMO

The present study investigated how visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is involved in the construction of a spatial situation model for spatial passages presented auditorily. A simple spatial tapping condition, a complex tapping condition as a target-tracking task, and a control condition, were used to analyze the role of VSWM. To understand how individuals who differ in verbal working memory (VWM) capacity (determined with a listening span test) process spatial text during dual-task performance, individual differences in VWM capacity were analyzed. In two experiments, the participants listened to a spatial text at the same time as performing a spatial concurrent task or no concurrent task. The results of the free recall test in Experiment 1 showed that there were no differences between the tapping conditions in the high VWM capacity group; the low VWM capacity group had a lower performance in both spatial tapping tasks compared to the control condition. The results of the map drawing test in Experiment 2 showed that complex spatial tapping impaired performance in comparison to simple spatial tapping and the control condition in the high VWM capacity group; in the low VWM capacity group, both spatial tapping tasks impaired recall performance. In addition, the participants with high VWM capacity demonstrated better performance. Overall, the results suggest that individuals with high VWM capacity have more resources to process verbal and spatial information than those with low VWM capacity, indicating that VWM capacity is related to the degree of the involvement of VSWM.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(11): 1042, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725332

RESUMO

Advanced breast cancer (BC), especially basal like triple-negative BC (TNBC), is a highly malignant tumor without viable treatment option, highlighting the urgent need to seek novel therapeutic targets. Arylsulfatase D (ARSD), localized at Xp22.3, is a female-biased gene due to its escaping from X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Unfortunately, no systematic investigation of ARSD on BC has been reported. In this study, we observed that ARSD expression was positively related to ERα status either in BC cells or tissue specimens, which were associated with good prognosis. Furthermore, we found a set of hormone-responsive lineage-specific transcription factors, FOXA1, GATA3, ERα, directly drove high expression of ARSD through chromatin looping in luminal subtype BC cells. Opposingly, ARSD still subjected to XCI in TNBC cells mediated by Xist, CpG islands methylation, and inhibitory histone modification. Unexpectedly, we also found that ectopic ARSD overexpression could inhibit proliferation and migration of TNBC cells by activating Hippo/YAP pathway, indicating that ARSD may be a molecule brake on ERα signaling pathway, which restricted ERα to be an uncontrolled active status. Combined with other peoples' researches that Hippo signaling maintained ER expression and ER + BC growth, we believed that there should exist a regulative feedback loop formation among ERα, ARSD, and Hippo/YAP pathway. Collectively, our findings will help filling the knowledge gap about the influence of ARSD on BC and providing evidence that ARSD may serve as a potential marker to predict prognosis and as a therapeutic target.

7.
Clin Nutr ; 40(12): 5792-5801, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictors of response to intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy for intermediate and high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological data of 184 intermediate and high risk NMIBC cases receiving transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and intravesical BCG immunotherapy from December 2014 to April 2021 at our center. All patients were divided into BCG responders and non-responders. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of response to intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied to explore the independent prognostic factors of recurrence-free survival (RFS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were also utilized. RESULTS: The RFS of BCG responders was significantly increased compared with BCG non-responders. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that low grade, pTa stage, non-CIS, lower relative visceral fat area (rVFA) and lower systemic immune inflammation index (SII) were independent prognostic factors of increased RFS after intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that pTa stage, low grade, non-CIS, low rVFA, and low SII were independent predictors of response to intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the RFS of patients in low rVFA group or low SII group was significantly increased in comparison with those in high rVFA group or high SII group. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under ROC (AUC) of including SII and rVFA was significantly increased, indicating that the inclusion of preoperative SII and rVFA could significantly improve the predictive efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Low grade, pTa stage, non-CIS, preoperative lower rVFA and lower SII were vital independent predictors of response to intravesical BCG immunotherapy and were associated with preferable prognosis in NMIBC patients. The inclusion of preoperative SII and rVFA could significantly improve the predictive efficiency.

8.
Ann Hematol ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766217

RESUMO

Polatuzumab vedotin (PoV) has recently shown promising activity when combined with rituximab-bendamustine (BR) in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, few studies have described the prognostic factors predicting response. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of PoV-based chemotherapy, including regimens other than BR, as third-line or beyond treatment for patients with R/R DLBCL and to explore prognostic factors. Overall, 40 patients, including 37 with de novo and 3 with transformed DLBCL, were enrolled. The overall response rate was 52.5%, and 25% and 27.5% of patients showed a complete response and partial response, respectively. With a median follow-up of 18.8 months, the median overall survival (OS) of the total cohort was 8.5 months, and that of those receiving subsequent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was 24 months. Low/intermediate risk according to the revised International Prognostic Index score at diagnosis and before PoV treatment predicted better OS. Furthermore, a normal lactate dehydrogenase level and an absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio > 1.5 were favorable OS prognostic factors. The most common adverse event was cytopenia, with 42.5% of patients developing febrile neutropenia. Grade 1-3 peripheral neuropathy associated with PoV was reported in 25% of patients and resolved in most patients after the cessation of treatment. In summary, we demonstrated that PoV combined with either BR or other intensive chemotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated salvage option for patients with R/R DLBCL. Subsequent HSCT has the potential to further improve survival outcomes in this high-risk population. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT05006534.

9.
Pharmacology ; 106(11-12): 623-636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753130

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used to treat various cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It inhibits nucleotide synthesis and induces single- and double-strand DNA breaks. In the homologous recombination pathway, radiation-sensitive 52 (Rad52) plays a crucial role in DNA repair by promoting the annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA and stimulating Rad51 recombinase activity. Erlotinib (Tarceva) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with clinical activity against NSCLC cells. However, whether the combination of 5-FU and erlotinib has synergistic activity against NSCLC cells is unknown. METHODS: After the 5-FU and/or erlotinib treatment, the expressions of Rad52 mRNA were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Protein levels of Rad52 and phospho-p38 MAPK were determined by Western blot analysis. We used specific Rad52 or p38 MAPK small interfering RNA and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB2023580) to examine the role of p38 MAPK-Rad52 signal in regulating the chemosensitivity of 5-FU and/or erlotinib. Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion assay. RESULTS: In 2 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, namely, H520 and H1703, 5-FU reduced Rad52 expression in a p38 MAPK inactivation-dependent manner. Enhancement of p38 MAPK activity by transfection with MKK6E (a constitutively active form of MKK6) vector increased the Rad52 protein level and cell survival by 5-FU. However, in human lung bronchioloalveolar cell adenocarcinoma A549 cells, 5-FU reduced Rad52 expression and induced cytotoxicity independent of p38 MAPK. Moreover, 5-FU synergistically enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of erlotinib in NSCLC cells; these effects were associated with Rad52 downregulation and p38 MAPK inactivation in H520 and H1703 cells. CONCLUSION: The results provide a rationale for combining 5-FU and erlotinib in lung cancer treatment.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9963700, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604389

RESUMO

The study is aimed at observing the influence of microribonucleic acid- (miRNA-) 30a-50p on the pulmonary fibrosis in mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection through the regulation of autophagy by Beclin-1. Specific pathogen-free mice were instilled with Streptococcus pneumoniae through the trachea to establish the pulmonary fibrosis model. Then, they were divided into the miRNA-30a-50p mimics group (mimics group, n = 10) and miRNA-30a-5p inhibitors group (inhibitors group, n = 10), with the control group (n = 10) also set. Pulmonary tissue wet weight/dry weight (W/D) was detected. The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 6, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Besides, the changes in the pulmonary function index dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), plateau pressure (Pplat), and peak airway pressure (Ppeak) were monitored, and the gene and protein expression levels were measured via quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. The expression level of miRNA-30a-5p was substantially raised in the mimics group (p < 0.05), but extremely low in the inhibitors group (p < 0.05). The mimics group had obviously raised levels of serum aminotransferase (AST), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and pulmonary tissue W/D (p < 0.05). Additionally, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and MPO were notably elevated in the mimics group, while their expression levels showed the opposite conditions in the inhibitors group (p < 0.05). According to the HE staining results, the inhibitors group had arranged orderly cells, while the mimics group exhibited lung injury, pulmonary edema, severe inflammatory response, and alveolar congestion. In the inhibitors group, Cdyn was remarkably elevated, but Pplat and Ppeak declined considerably (p < 0.05). Besides, the inhibitors group exhibited elevated messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Beclin-1 and LC3, lowered mRNA levels of α-SMA and p62, a raised protein level of Beclin-1, and a markedly decreased protein level of p62 (p < 0.05). Silencing miRNA-30a-5p expression can promote the expression of Beclin-1 to accelerate the occurrence of autophagy, thereby treating pulmonary fibrosis in mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.

11.
Front Neurol ; 12: 738329, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630307

RESUMO

Objective: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but fatal complication observed within 2 weeks of adenovirus-vectored vaccination. Case Report: A 52-year-old male patient, with a family history of autoimmune diseases, presented with a new onset of worsening headache with nausea and vomiting post-vaccination. The patient was diagnosed with VITT based on laboratory findings demonstrating thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, and dural sinus thrombosis identified on neuroimaging. The patient was successfully treated with high-dose immunoglobulin, steroids, and non-heparin anticoagulants, without any neurologic sequelae. Finally, a confirmatory test with anti-platelet factor 4 antibody was strongly positive. Conclusion: Physicians should be vigilant when treating patients presenting with new-onset thunderclap headache, progressive worsening headache, and awakening headache accompanied by nausea or vomiting after vaccination, even if no definite clinical neurological deficits are identified. Emergency laboratory test results for demonstrating elevated D-dimer levels, decreased platelet count, and neuroimaging correlation are integral for diagnosis and must be the standard protocol. Treatment with non-heparin anticoagulants, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, and steroids that halt or slow the immune-mediated prothrombotic process should be initiated immediately. Considering the high mortality rate of VITT, treatment should be initiated prior to confirmatory test results.

12.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 883-889, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622610

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effect of the combination treatment of ginkgo biloba extract and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) on the oxidative stress and brain neurotransmitters of patients who had cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted, and 93 CIS patients admitted to the Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences/Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2018 to January 2020 were included in the study. They were divided into three groups, the regular treatment group (31 cases), the LF-rTMS group (31 cases), and the combination treatment group (31 cases). Patients in the regular treatment group were given the conventional drug therapy and exercise regimen. The LF-rTMS group received LF-rTMS therapy (for 20-30 min each time, 1 time/d and 5 times/week) in addition to the treatment given to the regular treatment group. The combination treatment group was given ginkgo biloba extract (intravenous drips, once per day) in addition to the treatment given to the LF-rTMS group. The treatment was given continuously for 4 weeks and comparison was made at the end of the 4-week treatment regarding the clinical efficacy, oxidative stress response, cerebral oxygen metabolism, and brain neurotransmitter as shown by the three groups. Results: The treatment efficacy in the combination treatment group (96.77%) was higher than those of the LF-rTMS group (80.65%) and the regular treatment group (54.84%). The LF-rTMS group showed higher treatment efficacy than that of the regular group. The serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the combination treatment group was higher than that of the LF-rTMS group and that of the routine group, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) of the combination treatment group were lower than those of the LF-rTMS group and the regular treatment group ( P<0.05). The serum SOD of the LF-rTMS group was higher than that of the regular treatment group, while the MDA and ET-1 of the group was lower than those of the regular treatment group ( P<0.05). The arterial oxygen content (CaO 2), arterio-venous oxygen content difference (Ca-vO 2) and cerebral extraction rate of oxygen (CERO 2) in the combination treatment group were lower than those of the LF-rTMS group and the regular treatment group ( P<0.05). The levels of these three indicators of the LF-rTMS group were lower than those of the regular treatment group ( P<0.05). EEG frequencies of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) of the combination treatment group were higher than those of the LF-rTMS group and the regular treatment group, while the acetylcholine (Ach) EEG frequency of the combination treatment group was lower than that of the LF-rTMS group and regular treatment group ( P<0.05). The LF-rTMS group showed higher GABA, 5-HT and DA EEG frequencies than those of the regular treatment group, while the Ach EEG frequency of the group was lower than that of the regular treatment group ( P<0.05). All the patients were followed up for 6 months, and recurrence rate was lower in the combination treatment group (3.23%) than that of the LF-rTMS group (19.35%) and the regular treatment group (25.81%) ( P<0.05). Conclusion: The combination treatment of ginkgo biloba extract and LF-rTMS helped to improve the clinical outcome of CIS patients, which may be related to the inhibition of oxidative stress, improvement in cerebral oxygen metabolism, and regulation of brain neurotransmitter.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Asian J Surg ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In recent years, a modified levator muscle resection using Putterman ptosis clamp was developed. We used a retrospective case-control study to compare the effects of the modified and traditional levator muscle resection methods. METHODS: Patients with moderate-to-severe ptosis who underwent the traditional or modified method for levator muscle resection were divided into two groups: Group I received the traditional method in 2013 and Group II received the modified method using Putterman clamp in 2015. During each postoperative visit, in addition to imaging, changes in the margin reflex distance 1 (MRD 1), and adverse events were recorded. Surgical time and final result in the last follow-up were recorded. RESULTS: Group I had 35 patients (54 eyes) and Group II had 33 patients (59 eyes). After the surgery, the MRD 1 in both groups was significantly improved at 1 week and at the final visit compared to baseline. Significant differences were observed in MRD 1 change at 1-week post-operation and the change at the final visit and the surgical time between Groups I and II (P < 0.05). Group II had a shorter surgical time than Group I. Compared with Group I (20.37%), the revision rate was lower in Group II (10.16%). CONCLUSIONS: The modified levator muscle resection using Putterman ptosis clamp and traditional levator muscle resection can both improve ptosis. Comparison results showed that using Putterman ptosis clamp assisted in levator muscle surgery had shorter operation time, faster postoperative recovery, and lower revision rate than the traditional method. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

14.
Eur J Pain ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic widespread pain. Its pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, and effective diagnosis and treatments are lacking. This study aimed to identify significantly changed biosignatures in FM and propose a novel classification for FM based on pain and soreness (sng) symptoms. METHODS: Urine and serum samples from 30 FM patients and 25 controls underwent metabolomic and proteomic profiling. RESULTS: Compared with controls, FM patients showed significant differential expression of three metabolites in urine and five metabolites and eight proteins in serum. Of them, DETP, 4-guanidinobutanoic acid, SM(d18:1/18:0), PC(20:1(11Z)/18:0), S100A7, SERPINB3, galectin-7 and LYVE1 were first reported as potential biomarkers for FM. Furthermore, lactate, 2-methylmaleate and cotinine in urine and lactate, SM(d18:1/25:1), SM(d18:1/26:1) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and PCYOX1, ITIH4, PFN1, LRG1, C8G, C8A, CP, CDH5 and DBH in serum could differentiate pain- (PG) and sng-dominant groups (SG). Lactate, 2-methylmaleate, cotinine, PCYOX1, ITIH4, PFN1 and DBH have a higher level in SG. SM(d18:1/25:1), SM(d18:1/26:1), PGD2, LRG1, C8G, C8A, CP and CDH5 in SG are lower than PG. The omics results indicated disordered free radical scavenging, and lipid and amino acid metabolism networks and resulting NF-κB-dependent cytokine generation in FM. Lactate level was altered simultaneously in urine and serum and significantly higher in sng-dominant patients than others. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified potential biomarkers from FM patients. The selected biomarkers could discriminate sng and pain phenotypes in FM patients. These results could help elucidate the underlying pathological mechanisms for more effective diagnosis and therapy for FM.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing of an entire community has been used as an approach to control COVID-19. In Hong Kong, a universal community testing programme (UCTP) was implemented at the fadeout phase of a community epidemic in July to September 2020. We described the utility of the UCTP in finding unrecognised infections, and analysed data from the UCTP and other sources to characterise transmission dynamics. METHODS: We described the characteristics of people participating in the UCTP and compared the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 cases detected by the UCTP versus those detected by clinical diagnosis and public health surveillance (CDPHS). We developed a Bayesian model to estimate the age-specific incidence of infection and the proportion of cases detected by CDPHS. RESULTS: 1.77 million people, 24% of the Hong Kong population, participated in the UCTP from 1 to 14 September 2020. The UCTP identified 32 new infections (1.8 per 100,000 samples tested), consisting of 29% of all local cases reported during the two-week UCTP period. Compared with the CDPHS, the UCTP detected a higher proportion of sporadic cases (62% versus 27%, p <0.01) and identified 6 (out of 18) additional clusters during that period. We estimated that 27% (95% credible interval: 22%, 34%) of all infections were detected by the CDPHS in the third wave. CONCLUSIONS: We reported empirical evidence of the utility of population-wide COVID-19 testing in detecting unrecognised infections and clusters. Around three quarters of infections have not been identified through existing surveillance approaches including contact tracing.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(41): 23537-23543, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647554

RESUMO

The yields of all dissociation channels of ethane dications produced by strong field double ionization were measured. It was found that the branching ratios can be controlled by varying the ellipticity of laser pulses. The CH3+ formation and H+ formation channels show a clear competition, producing the highest and lowest branching ratios at ellipticity of ∼0.6, respectively. With the help of theoretical calculations, such a control was attributed to the ellipticity dependent yields of different sequential ionization pathways.

17.
Opt Express ; 29(20): 31680-31688, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615256

RESUMO

The typical optical camera communication (OCC) modulation scheme is based on binary intensity modulation. To increase the transmission data rate, multi-level modulation format is highly desirable. In this work, we bring forward and demonstrate a rolling shutter 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) demodulation scheme for OCC systems using pixel-per-symbol labeling neural network (PPSL-NN) for the first time up to the authors' knowledge. A bit-rate distance product of 28.8 kbit/s • m per color is achieved. The proposed scheme is to calculate and re-sample the pixel-per-symbol (PPS) to make sure the same number of pixels in each PAM4 symbol is corresponding to a label for the neural network. Experiment results reveal that the proposed scheme can efficiently demodulate high speed PAM4 signal in the rolling shutter OCC pattern.

18.
Small ; : e2103919, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623753

RESUMO

Given that traditional anticancer therapies fail to significantly improve the prognoses of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), new modalities with high efficiency are urgently needed. Herein, by mixing the metal-phenolic network formed by tannic acid (TA), bleomycin (BLM), and Fe3+ with glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) inhibitor (ML210) loaded hollow mesoporous Prussian blue (HMPB) nanocubes, the HMPB/ML210@TA-BLM-Fe3+ (HMTBF) nanocomplex is prepared to favor the ferroptosis/apoptosis synergism in TNBC. During the intracellular degradation, Fe3+ /Fe2+ conversion mediated by TA can initiate the Fenton reaction to drastically upregulate the reactive oxygen species level in cells, subsequently induce the accumulation of lipid peroxidation, and thereby cause ferroptotic cell death; meanwhile, the released ML210 efficiently represses the activity of GPX4 to activate ferroptosis pathway. Besides, the chelation of Fe2+ with BLM leads to in situ BLM toxification at tumor site, then triggers an effective apoptosis to synergize with ferroptosis for tumor therapy. As a result, the superior in vivo antitumor efficacy of HMTBF is corroborated in a 4T1 tumor-bearing mice model regarding tumor growth suppression, indicating that the nanoformulations can serve as efficient ferroptosis and apoptosis inducers for use in combinatorial TNBC therapy.

19.
Front Oncol ; 11: 615881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631509

RESUMO

Objective: To explore whether preoperative 18Fluorine-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) in combination with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could accurately predict malignant lesions of upper urinary tract (UUT). Methods and Materials: The clinicopathologic data of a total of 252 patients with UUT lesions receiving surgical treatment at our center from January 2012 to November 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients performed routine preoperative hematological examination, urine cytology, computed tomography urography (CTU), and 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Clinicopathologic data between 179 cases with malignancy (Group 1) and 73 cases with benign lesions (Group 2) were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the independent predictors of malignant UUT lesions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive ability. Results: Among all patients, univariate analysis showed that NLR, hydronephrosis, CTU indicating malignancy, and PET/CT indicating malignancy were significantly associated with malignant UUT lesions; multivariate analysis revealed that NLR, CTU indicating malignancy, and PET/CT indicating malignancy were independent predictors of malignant UUT lesions; the area under ROC curve (AUC) of NLR, CTU, PET/CT, combining CTU and NLR, combining PET/CT and NLR, and combining PET/CT and CTU were 0.735, 0.788, 0.857, 0.863, 0.913, and 0.919, respectively, for postoperative pathological malignancy. Among 68 patients undergoing ureteroscopy biopsy, univariate analysis suggested that NLR, positive urine exfoliation cytology, CTU indicating malignancy, and PET/CT indicating malignancy were significantly associated with malignant UUT lesions; multivariate analysis demonstrated that positive urine cytology, PET/CT indicating malignancy, and NLR were independent predictors of malignant UUT lesions; the AUC of NLR, ureteroscopy biopsy, and combining PET/CT and NLR were 0.768, 0.853, and 0.839, respectively, for postoperative pathological malignancy. Conclusions: Combining preoperative NLR and PET/CT performed well in differentiating benign from malignant UUT lesions, which could not be identified by traditional imaging or urine cytology. Combining preoperative NLR and PET/CT could be used to reduce unnecessary ureteroscopy biopsy, which might result in tumor cell dissemination and risk of associated complications.

20.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(41): 8604-8614, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605523

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are typically cultivated on extracellular matrix (ECM) protein-coated dishes in xeno-free culture conditions. We supplemented mixed ECM proteins (laminin-511 and recombinant vitronectin, rVT) in culture medium for hPSC culture on conventional polystyrene dishes. Three hPSC cell lines were successfully cultivated on uncoated polystyrene dishes in medium supplemented with optimal conditions of laminin-511 and rVT. Excellent colony shape and colony size as well as high expansion fold of hPSCs were found under these conditions, whereas the colony size was small and poor expansion fold was found solely on L-511-coated dishes. A small portion of L-511 in the culture medium supported hPSC adhesion and prevented the adhesion from being too strong on the uncoated dishes, and rVT in the culture medium further supported adhesion of hPSCs on the dishes by maintaining their pluripotency. Having the optimal composition of L-511 and rVT in the culture medium was important for generating good hPSC colony shapes and sizes as well as a high expansion fold. After long-term culture of hPSCs on uncoated dishes supplemented with the mixed proteins, the hPSCs successfully showed pluripotent markers and could differentiate into a specific lineage of cells, cardiomyocytes, with high efficiency.

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