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1.
Heart ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most reports on the declining incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) during the COVID-19 have either been anecdotal, survey results or geographically limited to areas with lockdowns. We examined the incidence of MI during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, which has remained an open society with a different public health approach fighting COVID-19. METHODS: We assessed the incidence rate (IR) as well as the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of all MI referred for coronary angiography in Sweden using the nationwide Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR), during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden (1 March 2020-7 May 2020) in relation to the same days 2015-2019. RESULTS: A total of 2443 MIs were referred for coronary angiography during the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in an IR 36 MIs/day (204 MIs/100 000 per year) compared with 15 213 MIs during the reference period with an IR of 45 MIs/day (254 MIs/100 000 per year) resulting in IRR of 0.80, 95% CI (0.74 to 0.86), p<0.001. Results were consistent in all investigated patient subgroups, indicating no change in patient category seeking cardiac care. Kaplan-Meier event rates for 7-day case fatality were 439 (2.3%) compared with 37 (2.9%) (HR: 0.81, 95% CI (0.58 to 1.13), p=0.21). Time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was shorter during the pandemic and PCI was equally performed, indicating no change in quality of care during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the incidence of MI referred for invasive treatment strategy. No differences in overall short-term case fatality or quality of care indicators were observed.

2.
Heart ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most reports on the declining incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) during the COVID-19 have either been anecdotal, survey results or geographically limited to areas with lockdowns. We examined the incidence of MI during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, which has remained an open society with a different public health approach fighting COVID-19. METHODS: We assessed the incidence rate (IR) as well as the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of all MI referred for coronary angiography in Sweden using the nationwide Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR), during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden (1 March 2020-7 May 2020) in relation to the same days 2015-2019. RESULTS: A total of 2443 MIs were referred for coronary angiography during the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in an IR 36 MIs/day (204 MIs/100 000 per year) compared with 15 213 MIs during the reference period with an IR of 45 MIs/day (254 MIs/100 000 per year) resulting in IRR of 0.80, 95% CI (0.74 to 0.86), p<0.001. Results were consistent in all investigated patient subgroups, indicating no change in patient category seeking cardiac care. Kaplan-Meier event rates for 7-day case fatality were 439 (2.3%) compared with 37 (2.9%) (HR: 0.81, 95% CI (0.58 to 1.13), p=0.21). Time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was shorter during the pandemic and PCI was equally performed, indicating no change in quality of care during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the incidence of MI referred for invasive treatment strategy. No differences in overall short-term case fatality or quality of care indicators were observed.

3.
Circulation ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867508

RESUMO

Background: The comparative efficacy and safety of ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in older myocardial infarction (MI) patients has received limited study. Methods: We performed an observational analysis of all patients ≥80 years (n=14005) who were discharged alive with aspirin combined with either clopidogrel (60.2%) or ticagrelor (39.8%) after a MI between 2010 and 2017 registered in the national registry Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART). Inverse probability treatment weighting was used in Cox regression models to adjust for differences in demographics, in-hospital therapies, and medications. The primary ischemic outcome (death, MI or stroke), and bleeding were obtained from national registries at 1 year. A sensitivity analysis in <80-year-old patients was performed. Results: In patients ≥80 years, the incidence of the primary ischemic outcome (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88-1.06) was similar for ticagrelor- and clopidogrel-treated patients. Ticagrelor was associated with a 17% and 48% higher risk of death (1.17 (1.03- 1.32)) and bleeding (1.48 (1.25- 1.76)), but a lower risk of MI (0.80 (0.70- 0.92)) and stroke (0.72 (0.56-0.93)). In <80-year-old patients the incidence of the primary ischemic outcome was 17% (0.83 (0.77-0.89)) lower with ticagrelor. Ticagrelor was associated with 15% (0.85 (0.76-0.96)) lower risk of death, 32% higher risk of bleeding (1.32 (1.18-1.47)), but lower risk of MI (0.82 (0.75-0.91)) and stroke (0.82 (0.69-0.98)). Conclusions: Ticagrelor use among elderly MI patients was associated with higher risk of bleeding and death compared with clopidogrel. A randomized study of ticagrelor vs clopidogrel in the elderly is needed.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15227, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943674

RESUMO

Using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays with sex-specific 99th percentiles may improve management of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated the impact of transitioning from a conventional troponin I assay to a high-sensitivity assay with sex-specific thresholds, in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome admitted to Swedish coronary care units. Based on data from SWEDEHEART registry (females, n = 4,819/males, n = 7,670), we compared periods before and after implementation of hs-cTnI assay (Abbott) using sex-specific 99th percentiles. We investigated differences on discharge diagnosis, in-hospital examinations, treatments, and clinical outcome. Upon implementation of the hs-cTnI assay, proportion of patients with troponin levels above diagnostic AMI threshold increased in women and men by 24.3% versus 14.8%, respectively. Similarly, incidence of AMI increased by 11.5% and 9.8%. Diagnostic interventions and treatments increased regardless of sex. However, these associations did not persist following multivariable adjustment, probably due to the effect of temporal management trends during the observation period. Overall, no risk reduction on major adverse cardiovascular events was observed (HR: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80-1.03], P = 0.126). The implementation of hs-cTnI assay together with sex-specific 99th percentiles was associated with an increase in incidence of AMI regardless of sex, but had no major impact on clinical management and prognosis.

5.
Cardiology ; : 1-8, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818945

RESUMO

Chest pain is one of the most common complaints at the emergency department (ED), and it is commonly the perceived likelihood of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that drives management. Guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommend the use of a 0-/1-h high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) protocol to rule out or in ACS, but this is mostly based on observational studies. The aim of the ESC-TROP trial is to determine the safety and effectiveness of the ESC 0-/1-h hs-cTnT protocol when implemented in routine care. Adult chest pain patients at 5 EDs in the Skåne Region, Sweden, are included in the trial. The 0-/1-h hs-cTnT ESC protocol supplemented with clinical assessment and electrocardiography (ECG) is implemented at 3 EDs, and the other 2 EDs act as concurrent controls. Outcomes will be evaluated during the 10 months after the implementation and the corresponding 10 months of the previous year. The 2 co-primary outcomes are (a) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and all-cause death within 30 days in patients discharged from the ED, and (b) ED length of stay of the same patients. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of chest pain patients discharged from the ED and the number of ruled-out patients undergoing objective testing within 30 days. The ESC-TROP trial will determine the performance and applicability of the 0-/1-h hs-cTnT ESC protocol supplemented with clinical assessment and ECG when implemented in routine ED care. It will provide evidence whether 0-/1-h hs-cTnT testing is safe, effective, and feasible, and whether widespread implementation as recommended by ESC guidelines should be supported.

6.
Biomarkers ; 25(4): 322-330, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362195

RESUMO

Purpose: The Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) has highlighted the different pathophysiological mechanisms that may lead to ischaemic and non-ischaemic myocardial injury and has emphasised that the diagnosis of myocardial infarction requires the presence of acute myocardial ischaemia in the setting of acute myocardial injury. This case based review intends to illustrate basic principles on how to apply this new, revised definition in clinical practice.Methods and Results: The distinction between different types of MIs (type 1 or type 2) and the delineation of MI from acute non-ischaemic myocardial injury may be challenging in individual patients, which is illustrated by presenting and discussing real-life routine cases.Conclusions: Type 1 MI is a consequence of coronary plaque rupture or erosion with intracoronary thrombus formation that is usually apparent on coronary angiography. Plausible triggering mechanisms causing myocardial oxygen supply/demand mismatch must be identified for the diagnosis of type 2 MI and its treatment should focus initially on management of the underlying disease attributable to acute myocardial ischaemia.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6791, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322013

RESUMO

Cardiac-specific troponins (cTn), troponin T (cTnT) and troponin I (cTnI) are diagnostic biomarkers when myocardial infarction is suspected. Despite its clinical importance it is still not known how cTn is cleared once it is released from damaged cardiac cells. The aim of this study was to examine the clearance of cTn in the rat. A cTn preparation from pig heart was labeled with fluorescent dye or fluorine 18 (18 F). The accumulation of the fluorescence signal using organ extracts, or the 18 F signal using positron emission tomography (PET) was examined after a tail vein injection. The endocytosis of fluorescently labeled cTn was studied using a mouse hepatoma cell line. Close to 99% of the cTnT and cTnI measured with clinical immunoassays were cleared from the circulation two hours after a tail vein injection. The fluorescence signal from the fluorescently labeled cTn preparation and the radioactivity from the 18F-labeled cTn preparation mainly accumulated in the liver and kidneys. The fluorescently labeled cTn preparation was efficiently endocytosed by mouse hepatoma cells. In conclusion, we find that the liver and the kidneys are responsible for the clearance of cTn from plasma in the rat.

8.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(3): 527-533, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spironolactone, a cheap effective diuretic used to manage hypertension and heart failure, also has anti-androgenic effects through its non-selective binding to steroid receptors, and hence may affect prostate cancer (PCa) risk. This study investigated the association between spironolactone use and PCa risk. For comparison, we also examined associations with thiazide diuretics which do not have anti-androgenic properties. METHODS: A matched case-control study was undertaken using population-wide data from the Prostate Cancer Data Base Sweden (PCBaSe). All PCa cases diagnosed from 2014 to 2016 were matched by birth year and county with PCa-free controls selected from the general population (1:5). Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations between spironolactone use (dose and duration) and PCa risk, and similarly for thiazides. RESULTS: Three percent of the 31,591 cases and 4% of the 156,802 controls had been prescribed spironolactone. Multivariable analyses indicated reduced risk of PCa among those ever exposed to spironolactone (odds ratio [OR] 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.89), with a stronger association for current users (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.69-0.86) than past users (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.97) and decreasing risk with increasing dose (p-trend < 0.001). No association was observed for thiazide exposure and PCa risk. Biases due to differences in prescribing patterns or frequency of PSA testing may have influenced these findings. CONCLUSION: PCa risk was reduced among men exposed to the diuretic spironolactone. Further investigation of spironolactone's potential chemopreventive effects is warranted.

9.
Clin Chem ; 66(2): 333-341, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and troponin T (cTnT) form a complex in the human myocardium and bind to thin filaments in the sarcomere, cTnI often reaches higher concentrations and returns to normal concentrations faster than cTnT in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: We compared the overall clearance of cTnT and cTnI in rats and in patients with heart failure and examined the release of cTnT and cTnI from damaged human cardiac tissue in vitro. RESULTS: Ground rat heart tissue was injected into the quadriceps muscle in rats to simulate myocardial damage with a defined onset. cTnT and cTnI peaked at the same time after injection. cTnI returned to baseline concentrations after 54 h, compared with 168 h for cTnT. There was no difference in the rate of clearance of solubilized cTnT or cTnI after intravenous or intramuscular injection. Renal clearance of cTnT and cTnI was similar in 7 heart failure patients. cTnI was degraded and released faster and reached higher concentrations than cTnT when human cardiac tissue was incubated in 37°C plasma. CONCLUSION: Once cTnI and cTnT are released to the circulation, there seems to be no difference in clearance. However, cTnI is degraded and released faster than cTnT from necrotic cardiac tissue. Faster degradation and release may be the main reason why cTnI reaches higher peak concentrations and returns to normal concentrations faster in patients with MI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Troponina I/metabolismo , Troponina T/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue
10.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(5): 518-529, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067283

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigate effectiveness by gender and age and equity implications of treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockade (RASb) in heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS: In this population-based register study, we used inpatient data from 2006 to 2010 for patients age 20 years or older with no HF hospitalisation for minimum of 1 year before an index hospitalisation. A wash-out period for RASb of 6 months preceding admission was used. Hospital data were linked with drug dispensation data and cause of death data. The associations between time-dependent RASb exposure and all-cause death and HF death, respectively, were examined by Cox regression models. Interactions by gender and age were also investigated on the multiplicative and additive scales. RESULTS: Thirty thousand seven hundred twenty-one patients were analysed. Fifty-one percent were women. Median age was 83. Fifty-three percent of women and 64% of men received RASb after the index hospitalisation. Younger patients were more likely to receive RASb than older ones. One-year mortality was 28%. RASb was associated with an overall hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause death of 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.75), and an HR of 0.85 (0.77-0.93) for HF death. Interaction analyses showed HRs for all-cause death associated with RASb between 0.12 (0.10-0.13) in the youngest, and 0.80 (0.76-0.84) in the oldest patients. CONCLUSIONS: RASb appeared effective for women and men and for patients of all ages in this hospitalised HF cohort. No gender difference in effectiveness was found. RASb exposure was low overall, indicating a need for improved adherence to treatment guidelines. Treatment with RASb may be inequitable for women and older patients.

11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(1): 149-157, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350550

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) mortality between Sweden and the UK, adjusting for background population rates of expected death, case mix, and treatments. METHODS AND RESULTS: National data were collected from hospitals in Sweden [n = 73 hospitals, 180 368 patients, Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART)] and the UK [n = 247, 662 529 patients, Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP)] between 2003 and 2013. There were lower rates of revascularization [STEMI (43.8% vs. 74.9%); NSTEMI (27.5% vs. 43.6%)] and pharmacotherapies at time of hospital discharge including [aspirin (82.9% vs. 90.2%) and (79.9% vs. 88.0%), ß-blockers (73.4% vs. 86.4%) and (65.3% vs. 85.1%)] in the UK compared with Sweden, respectively. Standardized net probability of death (NPD) between admission and 1 month was higher in the UK for STEMI [8.0 (95% confidence interval 7.4-8.5) vs. 6.7 (6.5-6.9)] and NSTEMI [6.8 (6.4-7.2) vs. 4.9 (4.7-5.0)]. Between 6 months and 1 year and more than 1 year, NPD remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI [2.9 (2.5-3.3) vs. 2.3 (2.2-2.5)] and [21.4 (20.0-22.8) vs. 18.3 (17.6-19.0)], but was similar for STEMI [0.7 (0.4-1.0) vs. 0.9 (0.7-1.0)] and [8.4 (6.7-10.1) vs. 8.3 (7.5-9.1)]. CONCLUSION: Short-term mortality following STEMI and NSTEMI was higher in the UK compared with Sweden. Mid- and longer-term mortality remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI but was similar for STEMI. Differences in mortality may be due to differential use of guideline-indicated treatments.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(4): 502-513, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental oxygen in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure related to baseline oxygen saturation. A secondary objective was to investigate outcomes in patients developing hypoxemia. BACKGROUND: In the DETO2X-AMI (Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial, 6,629 normoxemic patients with suspected MI were randomized to oxygen at 6 l/min for 6 to 12 h or ambient air. METHODS: The study population of 5,010 patients with confirmed MI was divided by baseline oxygen saturation into a low-normal (90% to 94%) and a high-normal (95% to 100%) cohort. Outcomes are reported within 1 year. To increase power, all follow-up time (between 1 and 4 years) was included post hoc, and interaction analyses were performed with oxygen saturation as a continuous covariate. RESULTS: The composite endpoint of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure occurred significantly more often in patients in the low-normal cohort (17.3%) compared with those in the high-normal cohort (9.5%) (p < 0.001), and most often in patients developing hypoxemia (23.6%). Oxygen therapy compared with ambient air was not associated with improved outcomes regardless of baseline oxygen saturation (interaction p values: composite endpoint, p = 0.79; all-cause death, p = 0.33; rehospitalization with MI, p = 0.86; hospitalization for heart failure, p = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of oxygen saturation at baseline, we found no clinically relevant beneficial effect of routine oxygen therapy in normoxemic patients with MI regarding cardiovascular outcomes. Low-normal baseline oxygen saturation or development of hypoxemia was identified as an independent marker of poor prognosis. (An Efficacy and Outcome Study of Supplemental Oxygen Treatment in Patients With Suspected Myocardial Infarction; NCT01787110).

13.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 160, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women with established cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is unknown whether a history of pregnancy complications are related to multisite artery disease (MSAD), defined as atherosclerotic lesions in at least two major vascular beds. Pregnancy complications are an established risk factor for CVD. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of pregnancy complications and their association to specific atherosclerotic manifestations and prediction of MSAD in older women with and without CVD. METHODS: In total, 556 women were invited to participate in the study. Of these women 307 reported former pregnancy from a cohort of women with (n = 233) and without CVD (n = 74). The self-reported frequency of pregnancy complications were surveyed retrospectively by a questionnaire that included miscarriage, subfertility, gestational hypertension (GHT) and/or preeclampsia (PE), low birth weight, preterm birth, bleeding in late pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus and high birth weight. Three vascular beds were examined, the peripheral, carotid and coronary arteries. RESULTS: The mean age was 67.5 (SD 9.5) years. GHT and/or PE tended to be more common, but not significant, in women with CVD than in women without (20.3% vs 10.8%, p = 0.066). Among women with GHT and/or PE, hypertension later in life were more frequent than in women without (66.7% vs 47.4%, p = 0.010). GHT and/or PE were not associated with specific atherosclerotic manifestations or prediction of MSAD. CONCLUSIONS: In older women with established CVD, pregnancy complications was not associated to specific atherosclerotic manifestations and may not provide additional value to the risk evaluation for MSAD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Diabetes Care ; 42(11): 2032-2041, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of oxygen therapy in myocardial infarction (MI) patients with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial, 6,629 normoxemic patients with suspected MI were randomized to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 h or ambient air. In this prespecified analysis involving 5,010 patients with confirmed MI, 934 had known diabetes. Oxidative stress may be of particular importance in diabetes, and the primary objective was to study the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death and rehospitalization with MI or heart failure (HF) at 1 year in patients with and without diabetes. RESULTS: As expected, event rates were significantly higher in patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes (main composite end point: hazard ratio [HR] 1.60 [95% CI 1.32-1.93], P < 0.01). In patients with diabetes, the main composite end point occurred in 16.2% (72 of 445) allocated to oxygen as compared with 16.6% (81 of 489) allocated to ambient air (HR 0.93 [95% CI 0.67-1.27], P = 0.81). There was no statistically significant difference for the individual components of the composite end point or the rate of cardiovascular death up to 1 year. Likewise, corresponding end points in patients without diabetes were similar between the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite markedly higher event rates in patients with MI and diabetes, oxygen therapy did not significantly affect 1-year all-cause death, cardiovascular death, or rehospitalization with MI or HF, irrespective of underlying diabetes, in line with the results of the entire study.

15.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e024098, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether gender-specific health behaviour can be an explanation for why women outlive men, while having worse morbidity outcomes, known as the morbidity-mortality or gender paradox. SETTING: The working population in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty per cent random sample of Swedish women and men aged 40-59 with a hospital admission in the 1993-2004 period were included. The sample for analysis consists of 233 274 individuals (115 430 men and 117 844 women) and in total 1 867 013 observations on sickness absence. INTERVENTION: Hospital admission across 18 disease categories. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were sickness absence (morbidity) and mortality. Longitudinal data at the individual level allow us to study how sickness absence changed after a hospital admission in men and women using a difference-in-differences regression analysis. Cox regression models are used to study differences in mortality after the admission. RESULTS: Women increased their sickness absence after a hospital admission by around five more days per year than men (95% CI 5.25 to 6.22). At the same time, men had higher mortality in the 18 diagnosis categories analysed. The pattern of more sickness absence in women was the same across 17 different diagnosis categories. For neoplasm, with a 57% higher risk of death for men (54.18%-59.89%), the results depended on the imputation method of sickness for those deceased. By using the premortality means of sickness absence, men had an additional 14.47 (-16.30- -12.64) days of absence, but with zero imputation women had an additional 1.6 days of absence (0.05-3.20). Analyses with or without covariates revealed a coherent picture. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of increased sickness absence (morbidity) and lower mortality in women provides evidence on the more proactive and preventive behaviour of women than of men, which could thus explain the morbidity-mortality paradox.

16.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 53(5): 259-265, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294615

RESUMO

Objective. Since 2010, myocardial infarction (MI) patients reported to the Swedish registry for MI (SWEDEHEART) are routinely classified into MI subtypes. The registry has been used to study the type 2 MI population but the MI-classification in the registry has not previously been validated. The aim of this study was to validate the type 2 MI classification in the registry. Design. A total of 772 patients diagnosed with MI in 2011 and reported to the SWEDEHEART registry were included in the study. All patients were retrospectively classified into MI type 1-5 or myocardial injury by independent reviewers strictly adhering to The Third Universal Definition of MI. This gold standard classification was compared with the classification in the registry. Results. Forty-eight (6.2%) patients were classified as type 2 MI in the registry compared with 93 (12.0%) according to the gold standard classification. A type 2 MI diagnosis was confirmed in 30 out of the 48 type 2 MI patients in the registry (PPV: 62.5%). There was a moderate rate of agreement (κ: 0.43) between the gold standard classification and the classification in SWEDEHEART in deciding a type 2 MI diagnosis. Conclusion. The SWEDEHEART registry agreed moderately with the gold standard in classifying patients with type 2 MI diagnosis. Thus, studies on patients with type 2 MI in the registry should be interpreted with caution. Since the prevalence of type 2 MI is substantially underestimated in SWEDEHEART, the registry should not be used to study the prevalence of type 2 MI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/classificação , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
18.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 53(5): 280-285, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216908

RESUMO

Objectives. The main aim of the Aiming toWards Evidence baSed inTerpretation of Cardiac biOmarkers in patients pResenting with chest pain (WESTCOR-study) (Clinical Trials number NCT02620202) is to improve diagnostic pathways for patients presenting to the Emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain. Design. The WESTCOR-study is a two center, cross-sectional and prospective observational study recruiting unselected patients presenting to the ED with suspected non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Patient inclusion started September 2015 and we plan to include 2250 patients, finishing in 2019. The final diagnosis will be adjudicated by two independent cardiologists based on all available information including serial high sensitivity cardiac troponin measurements, coronary angiography, coronary CT angiography and echocardiography. The study includes one derivation cohort (N = 985) that will be used to develop rule out/rule in algorithms for NSTEMI and NSTE-ACS (if possible) using novel troponin assays, and to validate established NSTEMI algorithms, with and without clinical scoring systems. The study further includes one subcohort (n = 500) where all patients are examined with coronary CT angiography independent of biomarker status, aiming to assess the associations between biomarkers and the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Finally, an external validation cohort (N = 750) will be included at Stavanger University Hospital. Prospective studies will be based on the merged cohorts. Conclusion. The WESTCOR study will provide new diagnostic algorithms for early inclusion and exclusion of NSTE-ACS and insights in the associations between cardiovascular biomarkers, CT-angiographic findings and short and long-term clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Angina Instável/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Troponina/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Algoritmos , Angina Instável/sangue , Angina Instável/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Noruega , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Heart ; 105(20): 1559-1567, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the setting of left bundle branch block (LBBB) present an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the incidence of AMI and diagnostic performance of specific ECG and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) criteria in patients presenting with chest discomfort to 26 emergency departments in three international, prospective, diagnostic studies. The final diagnosis of AMI was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Among 8830 patients, LBBB was present in 247 (2.8%). AMI was the final diagnosis in 30% of patients with LBBB, with similar incidence in those with known LBBB versus those with presumably new LBBB (29% vs 35%, p=0.42). ECG criteria had low sensitivity (1%-12%) but high specificity (95%-100%) for AMI. The diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations at presentation (area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.96 and AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.95), as well as that of their 0/1-hour and 0/2-hour changes, was very high. A diagnostic algorithm combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I concentrations and their absolute changes at 1 hour or 2 hours derived in cohort 1 (45 of 45(100%) patients with AMI correctly identified) showed high efficacy and accuracy when externally validated in cohorts 2 and 3 (28 of 29 patients, 97%). CONCLUSION: Most patients presenting with suspected AMI and LBBB will be found to have diagnoses other than AMI. Combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I testing at 0/1 hour or 0/2 hours allows early and accurate diagnosis of AMI in LBBB. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: APACE: NCT00470587; ADAPT: ACTRN12611001069943; TRAPID-AMI: RD001107;Results.

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