Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129763, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736225

RESUMO

Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are vital to human health and welfare, but following therapeutic use, they may pose a potential ecological risk if discharged into the environment. Today's conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants are not designed to remove APIs specifically, and various techniques, preferably cost-effective and environmentally friendly, are being developed and evaluated. Microalgae-based treatment of wastewater is a sustainable and low-cost approach to remove nutrients and emerging contaminants. In this study, a North Sweden high-rate algal pond (HRAP) using municipal untreated wastewater as medium, was investigated in terms of API distribution and fate. Three six-day batches were prepared during 18 days and a total of 36 APIs were quantified within the HRAP of which 14 were removed from the aqueous phase above 50% and seven removed above 90% of their initial concentrations. Twelve APIs of a hydrophobic nature were mostly associated with the algal biomass that was harvested at the end of each batch. HRAPs treatment successfully removed 69% of studied APIs (25 of 36 studied) in six day time. The distribution of various APIs between the aqueous phase and biomass suggested that several removal mechanisms may occur, such as hydrophobicity driven removal, passive biosorption and active bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Biomassa , Humanos , Tanques , Suécia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
2.
Environ Int ; 146: 106188, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096467

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25572-25581, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356053

RESUMO

Activated carbon (AC) and activated biochar (ABC) are widely used as sorbents for micropollutant removal during water and wastewater treatment. Spent adsorbents can be treated in several ways, e.g., by incineration, disposal in landfills, or reactivation. Regeneration is an attractive and potentially more economically viable alternative to modern post-treatment practices. Current strategies for assessing the performance of regeneration techniques often involve only repeated adsorption and regeneration cycles, and rarely involve direct measurements of micropollutants remaining on the adsorbent after regeneration. However, the use of regenerated adsorbents containing such residual micropollutants could present an environmental risk. In this study, the extraction of eight active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) commonly found in treated effluents was evaluated using 10 solvents and sorption onto three different carbon materials. An optimized extraction method was developed involving ultrasonication in 1:1 methanol:dichloromethane with 5% formic acid. This method achieved recoveries of 60 to 99% per API for an API concentration of 2 µg/g char and 27 to 129% per API for an API concentration of 1 mg/g char. Experiments using a mixture of 82 common APIs revealed that the optimized protocol achieved extraction recoveries above 70% for 29 of these APIs. These results show that the new extraction method could be a useful tool for assessing the regenerative properties of different carbon sorbents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Incineração , Águas Residuárias
4.
J Gen Virol ; 101(8): 816-824, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855133

RESUMO

Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the gold standard treatment for influenza A virus (IAV). Oseltamivir is mostly used, followed by zanamivir (ZA). NAIs are not readily degraded in conventional wastewater treatment plants and can be detected in aquatic environments. Waterfowl are natural IAV hosts and replicating IAVs could thus be exposed to NAIs in the environment and develop resistance. Avian IAVs form the genetic basis for new human IAVs, and a resistant IAV with pandemic potential poses a serious public health threat, as NAIs constitute a pandemic preparedness cornerstone. Resistance development in waterfowl IAVs exposed to NAIs in the water environment has previously been investigated in an in vivo mallard model and resistance development was demonstrated in several avian IAVs after the exposure of infected ducks to oseltamivir, and in an H1N1 IAV after exposure to ZA. The N1 and N2 types of IAVs have different characteristics and resistance mutations, and so the present study investigated the exposure of an N2-type IAV (H4N2) in infected mallards to 1, 10 and 100 µg l-1 of ZA in the water environment. Two neuraminidase substitutions emerged, H274N (ZA IC50 increased 5.5-fold) and E119G (ZA IC50 increased 110-fold) at 10 and 100 µg l-1 of ZA, respectively. Reversion towards wild-type was observed for both substitutions in experiments with removed drug pressure, indicating reduced fitness of both resistant viruses. These results corroborate previous findings that the development of resistance to ZA in the environment seems less likely to occur than the development of resistance to oseltamivir, adding information that is useful in planning for prudent drug use and pandemic preparedness.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(9): 9371-9378, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805842

RESUMO

The presence of human pharmaceuticals in the environment has garnered significant research attention because these compounds may exert therapeutic effects on exposed wildlife. Yet, for many compounds, there is still little research documenting their stability in the water column and uptake in organism tissues. Here, we measured the uptake and stability of methylphenidate (Ritalin®, a frequently prescribed central nervous system stimulant) and its primary metabolite, ritalinic acid, in (1) water only or (2) with nine-spine stickleback and water louse. Methylphenidate degraded to ritalinic acid in both studies faster at a higher temperature (20 °C versus 10 °C), with concentrations of ritalinic acid surpassing methylphenidate after 48-100 h, depending on temperature. The concentration of methylphenidate in stickleback was highest at the first sampling point (60 min), while the concentration in water louse tissues reached comparatively higher levels and peaked after ~ 6 days. Neither stickleback nor water louse took up ritalinic acid in tissues despite being present in the water column. Our findings provide valuable data for use in future risk assessment of methylphenidate and will aid in the design of studies aimed at measuring any ecotoxicological effects on, for example, the behaviour or physiology of aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Isópodes/fisiologia , Metilfenidato/análogos & derivados , Metilfenidato/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Humanos , Isópodes/metabolismo , Ftirápteros , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Água
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 170: 644-656, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579165

RESUMO

Eight recently isolated microalgal species from Northern Sweden and the culture collection strain Scenedesmus obliquus RISE (UTEX 417) were tested for their ability to remove 19 pharmaceuticals from growth medium upon cultivation in short light path, flat panel photobioreactors. While the growth of one algal species, Chlorella sorokiniana B1-1, was completely inhibited by the addition of pharmaceuticals, and the one of Scenedesmus sp. B2-2 was strongly inhibited, the other algal strains grew well and produced biomass. In general, lipophilic compounds were removed highly efficient from the culture medium by the microalgae (>70% in average within 2 days). The most lipophilic compounds Biperiden, Trihexyphenidyl, Clomipramine and Amitriptyline significantly accumulated in the biomass of most algal species, with a positive correlation between accumulation and their total biomass content. More persistent in the growth medium were hydrophilic compounds like Caffeine, Fluconazole, Trimetoprim, Codeine, Carbamazepin, Oxazepam and Tramadol, which were detected in amounts of above 60% in average after algal treatment. While Coelastrella sp. 3-4 and Coelastrum astroideum RW10 were most efficient to accumulate certain compounds in their biomass, two algae species, Chlorella vulgaris 13-1 and Chlorella saccharophila RNY, were not only highly efficient in removing all 19 pharmaceuticals from the growth medium within 12 days, at the same time only small amounts of these compounds accumulated in their biomass allowing its further use. Chlorella vulgaris 13-1 was able to remove most compounds within 6 days of growth, while Chlorella saccharophila RNY needed 8-10 days."Wild" Nordic microalgae therefore are able to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients, equally or more efficient than the investigated culture collection strain, thereby demonstrating their possible use in sustainable wastewater reclamation in Nordic conditions.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Scenedesmus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biomassa , Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Fotobiorreatores , Scenedesmus/efeitos dos fármacos , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Suécia , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 633: 1496-1509, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758901

RESUMO

The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57-3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10-9 s-1 based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 °C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/análise , Modelos Químicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Água do Mar/química
8.
Water Res ; 115: 318-328, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288311

RESUMO

Incoming sewage water, treated effluent and digested sludge were collected from 11 Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) on 3 different days. Analytical protocols were established for a large number of compounds (47) with antimicrobial properties and the collected samples were then screened for the presence of these selected substances. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to analyse the samples. Thirty organic compounds and 10 metals were detected above their respective detection limit. Quaternary ammonium compounds were the most abundant substances in the particulate phases with levels up to 370 µg/g and benzotriazoles were the most common in the aqueous phases with levels up to 24 µg/L. Several compounds with no, or very limited, previously reported data were detected in this study, including chlorhexidine, hexadecylpyridinium chloride and 10-benzalkonium chloride. Some of these were both frequently detected (>60% detection frequency) and found in high levels (up to 19 µg/g d.w. sludge). This study gives a comprehensive overview of the presence in Swedish STPs of a number of antimicrobial substances, providing crucial information in designing relevant studies on potential microbial co- and cross resistance development between antibiotics, biocides, and metals in the sewage system.


Assuntos
Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos , Desinfetantes , Metais , Suécia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água
9.
Chemosphere ; 176: 342-351, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28273541

RESUMO

Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Käppala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87-95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Käppala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O3/m3) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O3/m3) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Käppala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1As and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Ozônio/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Filtração , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Suécia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
10.
Talanta ; 141: 164-9, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25966397

RESUMO

Zanamivir (Za) is a highly polar and hydrophilic antiviral drug used for the treatment of influenza A viruses. Za has been detected in rivers of Japan and it's environmental occurrence has the risk of inducing antiviral resistant avian influenza viruses. In this study, a rapid automated online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography method using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS) for trace analysis of Za was developed. Furthermore, an internal standard (IS) calibration method capable of quantifying Za in Milli-Q, surface water, sewage effluent and sewage influent was evaluated. Optimum pre-extraction sample composition was found to be 95/5 v/v acetonitrile/water sample and 1% formic acid. The developed method showed acceptable linearities (r(2)≥0.994), filtration recovery (≥91%), and intra-day precisions (RSD≤16%), and acceptable and environmentally relevant LOQs (≤20ngL(-1)). Storage tests showed no significant losses of Za during 20 days and +4/-20°C (≤12%) with the exception of influent samples, which should be kept at -20°C to avoid significant Za losses. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on phototransformation of Za in unfiltered and filtered surface water during 28 days of artificial UV irradiation exposure. No significant (≤12%) phototransformation was found in surface water after 28 days suggesting a relatively high photostability of Za and that Za should be of environmental concern.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zanamivir/análise , Acetonitrilos/química , Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/química , Formiatos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Japão , Sistemas On-Line , Rios/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Zanamivir/química
11.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e108621, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25254643

RESUMO

The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max=6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max=193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late- and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max=292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max=448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally- and spatially-resolved prescription statistics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antivirais/química , Descongestionantes Nasais/química , Rios , Águas Residuárias/química , Inglaterra , Monitoramento Ambiental , Geografia , Poluentes Químicos da Água
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 488-489: 46-50, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24814035

RESUMO

Tissue-specific bioconcentration of selected antidepressants was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to undiluted effluent from a Swedish municipal sewage treatment plant for 13 days. Citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine were found in the brains and livers of most fish, but not in blood plasma or muscle. Venlafaxine was the only drug found in plasma (3/20 fish). Fluoxetine was not detected in any fish tissue, in accordance with a low concentration in the effluent and a comparably high limit of quantification in tissues. Concentrations of citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine in fish brain were up to 1/12, 1/8 and 1/26, respectively, of the lowest concentrations found in the brains of mammals treated with therapeutic doses. Thus, given co-exposure to several antidepressants and an assumed similar potency in fish, the margin of safety for target-related effects in fish residing in effluent-dominated streams is relatively low. Furthermore, the non-detectable levels of these drugs in blood plasma suggest that analyses of concentrations in target tissues (brain) would be more informative in field studies and other studies with environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental
13.
Water Res ; 58: 221-9, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24768701

RESUMO

The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Analgésicos/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Anti-Hipertensivos/análise , União Europeia , Limite de Detecção , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esgotos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Suécia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 472: 862-71, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24342093

RESUMO

Analytical measurements of sewage water have been used many times to estimate the consumption of specific drugs in an area. This study measured a large number of illicit drugs and metabolites (>30) at a large number of sewage treatment plants (STPs) distributed across Sweden. Twenty-four illicit and prescription drugs, classified as narcotic substances in Sweden, and seven selected metabolites were included in the study. A 24 hour composite sample of incoming sewage water was collected from 33 different municipalities at various geographic locations across Sweden. Species were analyzed using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method. The method proved to be rapid with minimum need for sample work up and was able to detect 13 compounds above their respective limits of quantification. The results for all compounds were presented as per capita loads. Multivariate data analysis was used to relate drug consumption to geographical location and/or population of cities. The results showed that geographical differences in drug consumption were apparent across the country. For the narcotic pharmaceuticals, the geographical differences suggested by the multivariate model were supported by prescription statistics.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Esgotos/química , Suécia/epidemiologia , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Water Res ; 47(17): 6475-87, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24091184

RESUMO

In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides MCPA and mecoprop, perfluoroalkyl substances (such as PFOS and PFOA), caffeine, and gadolinium.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental , União Europeia , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Domésticos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
PLoS One ; 8(8): e71230, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23951116

RESUMO

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is problematic as these drugs constitute the major treatment option for severe influenza. Extensive use of the NAI oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) results in up to 865 ng/L of its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) in river water. There one of the natural reservoirs of influenza A, dabbling ducks, can be exposed. We previously demonstrated that an influenza A(H1N1) virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to 1 µg/L of OC developed oseltamivir resistance through the mutation H274Y (N2-numbering). In this study, we assessed the resistance development in an A(H6N2) virus, which belongs to the phylogenetic N2 group of neuraminidases with distinct functional and resistance characteristics. Mallards were infected with A(H6N2) while exposed to 120 ng/L, 1.2 µg/L or 12 µg/L of OC in their sole water source. After 4 days with 12 µg/L of OC exposure, the resistance mutation R292K emerged and then persisted. Drug sensitivity was decreased ≈13,000-fold for OC and ≈7.8-fold for zanamivir. Viral shedding was similar when comparing R292K and wild-type virus indicating sustained replication and transmission. Reduced neuraminidase activity and decrease in recovered virus after propagation in embryonated hen eggs was observed in R292K viruses. The initial, but not the later R292K isolates reverted to wild-type during egg-propagation, suggesting a stabilization of the mutation, possibly through additional mutations in the neuraminidase (D113N or D141N) or hemagglutinin (E216K). Our results indicate a risk for OC resistance development also in a N2 group influenza virus and that exposure to one NAI can result in a decreased sensitivity to other NAIs as well. If established in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds, the resistance could spread to humans via re-assortment or direct transmission. This could potentially cause an oseltamivir-resistant pandemic; a serious health concern as preparedness plans rely heavily on oseltamivir before vaccines can be mass-produced.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Animais , Anseriformes/virologia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Embrião de Galinha , Biologia Computacional , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neuraminidase/genética , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Oseltamivir/administração & dosagem , Oseltamivir/análogos & derivados , Oseltamivir/química , Água/química , Zanamivir/farmacologia
17.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 27(15): 1751-62, 2013 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23821568

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Analysis of drugs in wastewater is gaining more interest, as new approaches to estimate drug consumption from the amount of drug residues in wastewater have been proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative performance of high-resolution mass spectrometry with that of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. METHODS: A Q-Exactive mass spectrometer was operated in full scan (HRFS) (70 000 FWHM) and product scan (HRPS) (17 500 FWHM) modes. The first and third quadrupoles of the QqQ MS/MS instrument were operated at 0.7 FWHM. A mass-extracted window of 5 ppm around the theoretical m/z of each analyte was used to construct chromatograms. An HESI-II ion source was used for the ionization of target compounds. In-line-SPE-LC configuration was used for the extraction and separation of target analytes. RESULTS: All three methods showed good linearity and repeatability. High-resolution detection of product ions exhibited better sensitivity and selectivity for some compounds. For most of the tested compounds, LOQs ranged from 0.46 to 20 ng L(-1) . Good agreement between measured and nominal concentrations was observed for most of the compounds at different levels of fortification. Both MS/MS methods showed good selectivity, while HRFS gave some false positive results. CONCLUSIONS: The Q-Exactive mass spectrometer proved to be suitable for trace detection and quantification of most of the tested drugs in wastewater, with performance comparable to that of the commonly used MS/MS triple quadrupole, but with better selectivity.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e60221, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23613721

RESUMO

Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite) was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP) catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people) can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Oseltamivir/análise , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Águas Residuárias/química , Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Estatística como Assunto , Reino Unido
19.
Talanta ; 100: 183-95, 2012 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23141327

RESUMO

A multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of more than 90 pharmaceuticals in water samples was developed and validated. The developed method utilizes a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) run after sample enrichment using solid-phase extraction (SPE). The pharmaceuticals included in this method were chosen based on their potency (effect/concentration ratio) and potential to bioaccumulate in fish. Because the selection was based on ecotoxicological criteria and not on ease of detection, the pharmaceuticals have a wide range of physico-chemical properties and represent 27 distinct classes. No method for surface, waste water or similar matrices was previously described for 52 of the 100 target analytes. Four chromatographic columns were tested to optimize the separation prior to detection by mass spectrometry (MS). The resulting method utilizes a Hypersil Gold aQ column. Three different water matrices were tested during method validation: Milli-Q water, surface water (river water from the Umea River) and effluent from the Umea waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Four of the selected pharmaceuticals exhibited poor method efficiency in all matrices. Amiodarone, Dihydroergotamine, Perphenazine and Terbutalin were omitted from the final analytical method. In addition, five compounds were excluded from the method for surface water (Atorvastatin, Chloropromazin, Dipyridamol, Furosemid and Ranitidin) and three other pharmaceuticals (Glibenclamid, Glimepirid and Meclozine) from waste water method respectively. Absolute recoveries were above 70% for Milli-Q water, surface water, and sewage effluent for most pharmaceuticals. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 50 ng L(-1) (median 5 ng L(-1)). The use of matrix-matched standards led to the elimination of ionization enhancement or suppression. The recoveries of the method for real matrices were in the range of 23-134% for surface water (only three compounds were outside of the range of 40-130%) and in the range of 47-162% for waste water (five compounds were outside of the range of 40-130% at lower validated concentration).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Ecotoxicologia , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Limite de Detecção , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 432: 432-9, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22836098

RESUMO

The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare illicit drug loads in Europe over a 1-week period. An inter-laboratory comparison study was performed to evaluate the analytical performance of the participating laboratories. Raw 24-hour composite sewage samples were collected from 19 European cities during a single week in March 2011 and analyzed for the urinary biomarkers of cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine and cannabis using in-house optimized and validated analytical methods. The load of each substance used in each city was back-calculated from the measured concentrations. The data show distinct temporal and spatial patterns in drug use across Europe. Cocaine use was higher in Western and Central Europe and lower in Northern and Eastern Europe. The extrapolated total daily use of cocaine in Europe during the study period was equivalent to 356 kg/day. High per capita ecstasy loads were observed in Dutch cities, as well as in Antwerp and London. In general, cocaine and ecstasy loads were significantly elevated during the weekend compared to weekdays. Per-capita loads of methamphetamine were highest in Helsinki and Turku, Oslo and Budweis, while the per capita loads of cannabis were similar throughout Europe. This study shows that a standardized analysis for illicit drug urinary biomarkers in sewage can be applied to estimate and compare the use of these substances at local and international scales. This approach has the potential to deliver important information on drug markets (supply indicator).


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Vigilância da População/métodos , Esgotos/química , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Anfetaminas/análise , Anfetaminas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Canabinoides/análise , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Cidades , Cocaína/análise , Cocaína/metabolismo , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...