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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386367

RESUMO

We demonstrate that the possibility of monitoring relative photoionization cross sections over a large photon energy range allows us to study and disentangle shake processes and intramolecular inelastic scattering effects. In this gas-phase study, relative intensities of the carbon 1s photoelectron lines from chemically inequivalent carbon atoms in the same molecule have been measured as a function of the incident photon energy in the range of 300-6000 eV. We present relative cross sections for the chemically shifted carbon 1s lines in the photoelectron spectra of ethyl trifluoroacetate (the "ESCA" molecule). The results are compared with those of methyl trifluoroacetate and S-ethyl trifluorothioacetate as well as a series of chloro-substituted ethanes and 2-butyne. In the soft X-ray energy range, the cross sections show an extended X-ray absorption fine structure type of wiggles, as was previously observed for a series of chloroethanes. The oscillations are damped in the hard X-ray energy range, but deviations of cross-section ratios from stoichiometry persist, even at high energies. The current findings are supported by theoretical calculations based on a multiple scattering model. The use of soft and tender X-rays provides a more complete picture of the dominant processes accompanying photoionization. Such processes reduce the main photoelectron line intensities by 20-60%. Using both energy ranges enabled us to discern the process of intramolecular inelastic scattering of the outgoing electron, whose significance is otherwise difficult to assess for isolated molecules. This effect relates to the notion of the inelastic mean free path commonly used in photoemission studies of clusters and condensed matter.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 11100-11109, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381309

RESUMO

Ge nanoparticles embedded in thin films have attracted a lot of attention due to their promising optical and electronic properties that can be tuned by varying the particle size and choice of matrix material. In this study, Ge nanoparticle formation was investigated for Al-Ge-N based thin films by simultaneous measurements of HAXPES and grazing incidence XRD during in situ annealing in vacuum conditions. As-deposited Al-Ge-N thin films, synthesized by reactive dc magnetron sputtering, consisted of a nanocrystalline (Al1-xGex)Ny solid solution and an amorphous tissue phase of Ge3Ny. Upon annealing to 750 °C, elemental Ge was formed shown by both HAXPES and XRD measurements, and N2 gas was released as measured by a mass spectrometer. Postannealed ex situ analysis by SEM and TEM showed that the elemental Ge phase formed spherical nanoparticles on the surface of the film, with an average size of 210 nm. As the annealing temperature increased further to 850 °C, the Ge particles on the film surface evaporated, while the phase segregation of Ge still could be observed within the film. Thus, these results show the possibility for a controlled synthesis of Ge nanoparticles through annealing of Al-Ge-N thin films to produce materials suitable for use in electronic or optoelectronic devices.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 150(24): 244704, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255092

RESUMO

The temperature dependent dehydrogenation of naphthalene on Ni(111) has been investigated using vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory with the aim of discerning the reaction mechanism and the intermediates on the surface. At 110 K, multiple layers of naphthalene adsorb on Ni(111); the first layer is a flat lying chemisorbed monolayer, whereas the next layer(s) consist of physisorbed naphthalene. The aromaticity of the carbon rings in the first layer is reduced due to bonding to the surface Ni-atoms. Heating at 200 K causes desorption of the multilayers. At 360 K, the chemisorbed naphthalene monolayer starts dehydrogenating and the geometry of the molecules changes as the dehydrogenated carbon atoms coordinate to the nickel surface; thus, the molecule tilts with respect to the surface, recovering some of its original aromaticity. This effect peaks at 400 K and coincides with hydrogen desorption. Increasing the temperature leads to further dehydrogenation and production of H2 gas, as well as the formation of carbidic and graphitic surface carbon.

4.
Chemphyschem ; 19(9): 1041-1047, 2018 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451358

RESUMO

Cross-linked polymers of elemental sulfur are of potential interest for electronic applications as they enable facile thin-film processing of an abundant and inexpensive starting material. Here, we characterize the electronic structure of a cross-linked sulfur/diisopropenyl benzene (DIB) polymer by a combination of soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SOXPES and HAXPES). Two different approaches for enhancing the conductivity of the polymer are compared: the addition of selenium in the polymer synthesis and the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) during film preparation. For the former, we observe the incorporation of Se into the polymer structure resulting in a changed valence-band structure. For the latter, a Fermi level shift in agreement with p-type doping of the polymer is observed and also the formation of a surface layer consisting mostly of TFSI anions.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(40): 34970-34978, 2017 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28925263

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskites have emerged as materials of high interest for solar energy-to-electricity conversion, and in particular, the use of mixed-ion structures has led to high power conversion efficiencies and improved stability. For this reason, it is important to develop means to obtain atomic level understanding of the photoinduced behavior of these materials including processes such as photoinduced phase separation and ion migration. In this paper, we implement a new methodology combining visible laser illumination of a mixed-ion perovskite ((FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15) with the element specificity and chemical sensitivity of core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. By carrying out measurements at a synchrotron beamline optimized for low X-ray fluxes, we are able to avoid sample changes due to X-ray illumination and are therefore able to monitor what sample changes are induced by visible illumination only. We find that laser illumination causes partially reversible chemistry in the surface region, including enrichment of bromide at the surface, which could be related to a phase separation into bromide- and iodide-rich phases. We also observe a partially reversible formation of metallic lead in the perovskite structure. These processes occur on the time scale of minutes during illumination. The presented methodology has a large potential for understanding light-induced chemistry in photoactive materials and could specifically be extended to systematically study the impact of morphology and composition on the photostability of metal halide perovskites.

6.
Sci Rep ; 6: 19719, 2016 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26822900

RESUMO

The functionalization of graphene remains an important challenge for numerous applications expected by this fascinating material. To keep advantageous properties of graphene after modification or functionalization of its structure, local approaches are a promising road. A novel technique is reported here that allows precise site-selective fluorination of graphene. The basic idea of this approach consists in the local radicalization of graphene by focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation and simultaneous introduction of XeF2 gas. A systematic series of experiments were carried out to outline the relation between inserted defect creation and the fluorination process. Based on a subsequent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, a 6-fold increase of the fluorine concentration on graphene under simultaneous irradiation was observed when compared to fluorination under normal conditions. The fluorine atoms are predominately localized at the defects as indicated from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental findings are confirmed by density functional theory which predicts a strong increase of the binding energy of fluorine atoms when bound to the defect sites. The developed technique allows for local fluorination of graphene without using resists and has potential to be a general enabler of site-selective functionalization of graphene using a wide range of gases.

7.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(11): 113105, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24289386

RESUMO

This paper describes the philosophy and design goals regarding the construction of a versatile sample environment: a source capable of producing beams of atoms, molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles in view of studying their interaction with short wavelength (vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray) synchrotron radiation. In the design, specific care has been taken of (a) the use standard components, (b) ensuring modularity, i.e., that swiftly switching between different experimental configurations was possible. To demonstrate the efficiency of the design, proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted by recording x-ray absorption and photoelectron spectra from isolated nanoparticles (SiO2) and free mixed clusters (Ar/Xe). The results from those experiments are showcased and briefly discussed.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(23): 233001, 2010 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231455

RESUMO

Dissociative nuclear motion in core-excited molecular states leads to a splitting of the fragment Auger lines: the Auger-Doppler effect. We present here for the first time experimental evidence for an Auger-Doppler effect following F1s → a(1g)* inner-shell excitation by circularly polarized x rays in SF(6). In spite of a uniform distribution of the dissociating S-F bonds near the polarization plane of the light, the intersection between the subpopulation of molecules selected by the core excitation with the cone of dissociation induces a strong anisotropy in the distribution of the S-F bonds that contributes to the scattering profile measured in the polarization plane.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(21): 7264-71, 2009 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19432425

RESUMO

Aqueous potassium chloride has been studied by synchrotron-radiation excited core-level photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. In the Auger spectrum of the potassium ion, the main feature comprises the final states where two outer valence holes are localized on potassium. This spectrum exhibits also another feature at a higher kinetic energy which is related to final states where outer valence holes reside on different subunits. Through ab initio calculations for microsolvated clusters, these subunits have been assigned as potassium ions and the surrounding water molecules. The situation is more complicated in the Auger spectrum of the chloride anion. One-center and multicenter final states are present here as well but overlap energetically.

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