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1.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(11): 775-782, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334572

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC), prostate cancer (PrC), and gastric cancer (GC) are common worldwide, and the incidence is to a certain extent dependent on genetics. We have recently shown that in families with more than one case of CRC, the risk of other malignancies is increased. We therefore suggested the presence of not yet described CRC syndromes. In this study, we have searched for genetic susceptibility loci for potential cancer syndromes involving CRC combined with PrC and/or GC. We have performed SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism)-based linkage analyses in 45 families with CRC, PrC, and GC. In the regions with suggested linkage, we performed exome and association haplotype analyses. Five loci generated a high logarithm of odds (HLOD) score >2, suggestive of linkage, in chromosome bands 1q31-32, 1q24-25, 6q25-26, 18p11-q11, and Xp11. Exome analysis detected no potential pathogenic sequence variants. The haplotype association study showed that one of the top five haplotypes with the lowest P value in the chromosome band 6q25 interestingly was found in the family which contributed the most to the increased HLOD at that locus. This study supports a suggested hereditary cancer syndrome involving CRC and PrC and indicates a location at 6q25. The impact of this locus needs to be confirmed in additional studies.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1286-1295, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952955

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major cancer types in the western world including Sweden. However, known genetic risk factors could only explain a limited part of heritability of the disease. Moreover, colon and rectal cancers are habitually discussed as one entity, colorectal cancer, although different carcinogenesis has been recognized. A genome-wide linkage scan in 32 colon- and 56 rectal cancer families from Sweden was performed based on 475 non-FAP/HNPCC patients genotyped using SNP arrays. A maximum HLOD of 2.50 at locus 6p21.1-p12.1 and a HLOD of 2.56 at 18p11.2 was obtained for colon and rectal cancer families, respectively. Exome sequencing over the regions of interest in 12 patients from six families identified 22 and 25 candidate risk variants for colon and rectal cancer, respectively. Haplotype association analysis in the two regions was carried out between additional 477 familial CRC cases and 4780 controls and suggested candidate haplotypes possibly associated with CRC risk. This study suggested two new linkage regions for colon cancer and rectal cancer with candidate predisposing variants. Further studies are required to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of these regions and to pinpoint the causative genes.

5.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(5): e605, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cases with an age of onset <40 years suggests a germline genetic cause. In total, 51 simplex cases were included to test the hypothesis of CRC as a mendelian trait caused by either heterozygous autosomal dominant or bi-allelic autosomal recessive pathogenic variants. METHODS: The cohort was whole exome sequenced (WES) at 100× coverage. Both a dominant- and recessive model were used for searching predisposing genetic factors. In addition, we assayed recessive variants of potential moderate risk that were enriched in our young-onset CRC cohort. Variants were filtered using a candidate cancer gene list or by selecting variants more likely to be pathogenic based on variant type (e.g., loss-of-function) or allele frequency. RESULTS: We identified one pathogenic variant in PTEN in a patient subsequently confirmed to have a hereditary hamartoma tumor syndrome (Cowden syndrome) and one patient with a pathogenic heterozygous variant in PMS2 that was originally not identified by WES due to low quality reads resulting from pseudogenes. In addition, we identified three heterozygous candidate missense variants in known cancer susceptibility genes (BMPR1A, BRIP1, and SRC), three truncating variants in possibly novel cancer genes (CLSPN, SEC24B, SSH2) and four candidate missense variants in ACACA, NR2C2, INPP4A, and DIDO1. We also identify five possible autosomal recessive candidate genes: ATP10B, PKHD1, UGGT2, MYH13, TFF3. CONCLUSION: Two clear pathogenic variants were identified in patients that had not been identified clinically. Thus, the chance of detecting a hereditary cancer syndrome in patients with CRC at young age but without family history is 2/51 (4%) and therefore the clinical benefit of genetic testing in this patient group is low. Of note, using stringent filtering, we have identified a total of ten candidate heterozygous variants and five possibly biallelic autosomal recessive candidate genes that warrant further study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exoma , Mutação , Adulto , Idade de Início , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 53(12): 1535-1540, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lynch syndrome (LS) has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and is associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and other cancers. Various strategies are used to identify patients at risk and offer surveillance and preventive programs, the cost effectiveness of which is much dependent on the prevalence of LS in a population. Universal testing (UT) is proposed as an effective measure, targeting all newly diagnosed CRC patients under a certain age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LS cases were identified in a cohort of 572 consecutive CRC patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 539 cases, using antibodies against mismatch repair proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6. Microsatellite instability and gene mutation screening were performed in 57 cases. RESULTS: In total 11 pathogenic variants were detected, identifying LS in 1.9% of new CRC cases. Comparing the results with current clinical methods, 2 pathogenic variants were found with Amsterdam criteria and 9 when using either Bethesda guidelines or our institution's prior clinical criteria. Pathogenic variants in MSH6 were the most common in our series. We also found different outcomes using different age cut offs. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that UT of tumors before age on onset at 75 years would most likely be cost-efficient and essentially equivalent to applying the Bethesda guidelines or our institution's prior clinical criteria on all new CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Programas de Rastreamento , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Morbidade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386444

RESUMO

Background: Lynch Syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by pathogenic germ-line variants in one of the DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Carriers are predisposed to colorectal and endometrial cancer, but also other cancer types. The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize the tumour spectrum of the Swedish Lynch syndrome families. Methods: Data were obtained from genetically verified 235 Lynch families from five of the six health care regions in Sweden. The material was stratified for gender, primary cancer, age and mutated gene and the relative proportions of specific cancer types were compared to those in the general population. Results: A total of 1053 family members had 1493 cancer diagnoses of which 1011 were colorectal or endometrial cancer. Individuals with pathogenic variants in MLH1 and MSH2 comprised 78% of the cohort. Among the 482 non-colorectal/non-endometrial cancer diagnoses, MSH2 carriers demonstrated a significantly increased proportion of urinary tract, gastric, small bowel, ovarian and non-melanoma skin cancer compared to the normal population. MLH1 carriers had an elevated proportion of gastrointestinal cancers (gastric, small bowel, pancreas), while MSH6 carriers had more ovarian cancer than expected. Gastric cancer was predominantly noted in older generations. Conclusion: Lynch syndrome confers an increased risk for multiple cancers other than colorectal and endometrial cancer. The proportions of other cancers vary between different MMR genes, with highest frequency in MSH2-carriers. Gender and age also affect the tumour spectrum, demonstrating the importance of additional environmental and constitutional parameters in determining the predisposition for different cancer types.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476131

RESUMO

Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: Individual-level data from 30 480 CRC cases and 22 844 controls from 33 participating studies in three international consortia were used: the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT) and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). As instrumental variables, we included 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with CRP concentration. The SNP-CRC associations were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, principal components and genotyping phases. An inverse-variance weighted method was applied to estimate the causal effect of CRP on CRC risk. Results: Among the 19 CRP-associated SNPs, rs1260326 and rs6734238 were significantly associated with CRC risk (P = 7.5 × 10-4, and P = 0.003, respectively). A genetically predicted one-unit increase in the log-transformed CRP concentrations (mg/l) was not associated with increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.12; P = 0.256). No evidence of association was observed in subgroup analyses stratified by other risk factors. Conclusions: In spite of adequate statistical power to detect moderate association, we found genetically elevated CRP concentration was not associated with increased risk of CRC among individuals of European ancestry. Our findings suggested that circulating CRP is unlikely to be a causal factor in CRC development.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 119(8): 988-993, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide scan to identify non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that might influence survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: We genotyped 7679 nsSNPs in 1939 Scottish patients from the Scottish Colorectal Cancer Study recruited soon after a CRC diagnosis and prospectively followed for survival outcomes. All-cause and CRC-specific survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for stage, age and sex for all cancer cases, after cancer type stratification and assuming additive and recessive models of inheritance. For all the SNPs that had a p-value < 0.10 a meta-analysis was performed combining the results of the discovery set and a replication set of 899 Scottish CRC patients. The p-value threshold of significance was set as at p < 10-8. RESULTS: 897 and 894 nsSNPs were associated with all-cause and CRC-specific mortality, respectively, at a p-value level < 0.10 in the discovery set. Meta-analysis of the results from the discovery and replication sets was performed overall and for cancers of colon and rectum separately and none of the variants reached a p-value < 10-8. CONCLUSIONS: This large scale well-powered analysis demonstrates that common nsSNPs are not associated with CRC prognosis overall.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 118(12): 1639-1647, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports an association between use of menopausal hormone therapy and decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, indicating a role of exogenous sex hormones in CRC development. However, findings on endogenous oestrogen exposure and CRC are inconsistent. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test for a causal effect of age at menarche and age at menopause as surrogates for endogenous oestrogen exposure on CRC risk. Weighted genetic risk scores based on 358 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menarche and 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menopause were used to estimate the association with CRC risk using logistic regression in 12,944 women diagnosed with CRC and 10,741 women without CRC from three consortia. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy and possible confounding by body mass index. RESULTS: Genetic risk scores for age at menarche (odds ratio per year 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.02) and age at menopause (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.01) were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal relationship between genetic risk scores for age at menarche and age at menopause and CRC risk.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193547, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547645

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of common genetic variants associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the majority of CRC heritability remains unclear. In order to discover low-frequency, high-risk CRC susceptibility variants in Swedish population, we genotyped 1 515 CRC patients enriched for familial cases, and 12 108 controls. Case/control association analysis suggested eight novel variants associated with CRC risk (OR 2.0-17.6, p-value < 2.0E-07), comprised of seven coding variants in genes RAB11FIP5, POTEA, COL27A1, MUC5B, PSMA8, MYH7B, and PABPC1L as well as one variant downstream of NEU1 gene. We also confirmed 27 out of 30 risk variants previously reported from GWAS in CRC with a mixed European population background. This study identified rare, coding sequence variants associated with CRC risk through analysis in a relatively homogeneous population. The segregation data suggest a complex mode of inheritance in seemingly dominant pedigrees.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Variação Genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Recidiva , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
Oncotarget ; 9(13): 11170-11179, 2018 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541405

RESUMO

Highly penetrant cancer syndromes account for less than 5% of all cases with familial colorectal cancer (CRC), and other genetic contribution explains the majority of the genetic contribution to CRC. A CRC susceptibility locus on chromosome 9q has been suggested. In this study, families where risk of CRC was linked to the region, were used to search for predisposing mutations in all genes in the region. No disease-causing mutation was found. Next, haplotype association studies were performed in the region, comparing Swedish CRC cases (2664) and controls (4782). Two overlapping haplotypes were suggested. One 10-SNP haplotype was indicated in familial CRC (OR 1.4, p = 0.00005) and one 25-SNP haplotype was indicated in sporadic CRC (OR 2.2, p = 0.0000012). The allele frequencies of the 10-SNP and the 25-SNP haplotypes were 13.7% and 2.5% respectively and both included one RNA, RP11-332M4.1 and RP11-l80l4.2, in the non-overlapping regions. The sporadic 25-SNP haplotype could not be studied further, but the familial 10-SNP haplotype was analyzed in 61 additional CRC families, and 6 of them were informative for all markers and had the risk haplotype. Targeted sequencing of the 10-SNP region in the linked families identified one variant in RP11-332M4.1, suggestive to confer the increased CRC risk on this haplotype. Our results support the presence of two loci at 9q22.32, each with one RNA as the putative cause of increased CRC risk. These RNAs could exert their effect through the same, or different, genes/pathways, possibly through the regulation of neighboring genes, such as PTCH1, FANCC, DKFZP434H0512, ERCC6L2 or the processed transcript LINC00046.

16.
Gut ; 67(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences of cancers and survival in path_MMR carriers up to 75 years of age. RESULTS: 3119 patients were followed for a total of 24 475 years. Cumulative incidences at 75 years (risks) for colorectal cancer were 46%, 43% and 15% in path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 carriers; for endometrial cancer 43%, 57% and 46%; for ovarian cancer 10%, 17% and 13%; for upper gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, bile duct or pancreatic) cancers 21%, 10% and 7%; for urinary tract cancers 8%, 25% and 11%; for prostate cancer 17%, 32% and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at older ages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment should be tailored to each patient's age, gender and path_MMR variant. We have updated our open-access website www.lscarisk.org to facilitate this.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Fam Cancer ; 17(4): 531-537, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288294

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) predisposes to a spectrum of cancers and increases the lifetime risk of developing colorectal- or endometrial cancer to over 50%. Lynch syndrome is dominantly inherited and is caused by defects in DNA mismatch-repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2, with the vast majority detected in MLH1 and MSH2. Recurrent LS-associated variants observed in apparently unrelated individuals, have either arisen de novo in different families due to mutation hotspots, or are inherited from a founder (a common ancestor) that lived several generations back. There are variants that recur in some populations while also acting as founders in other ethnic groups. Testing for founder mutations can facilitate molecular diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome more efficiently and more cost effective than screening for all possible mutations. Here we report a study of the missense mutation MLH1 c.2059C > T (p.Arg687Trp), a potential founder mutation identified in eight Swedish families and one Finnish family with Swedish ancestors. Haplotype analysis confirmed that the Finnish and Swedish families shared a haplotype of between 0.9 and 2.8 Mb. While MLH1 c.2059C > T exists worldwide, the Swedish haplotype was not found among mutation carriers from Germany or France, which indicates a common founder in the Swedish population. The geographic distribution of MLH1 c.2059C > T in Sweden suggests a single, ancient mutational event in the northern part of Sweden.

18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 19(1): 119, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. METHODS: We used pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In a case-only analysis, we used logistic regression to assess associations between reproductive factors and BC subtype compared to luminal A tumors as a reference. The interaction between age and parity in BC subtype risk was also tested, across all ages and, because age was modeled non-linearly, specifically at ages 35, 55 and 75 years. RESULTS: Parous women were more likely to be diagnosed with triple negative BC (TNBC) than with luminal A BC, irrespective of age (OR for parity = 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.65, p = 0.0004; p for interaction with age = 0.076). Parous women were also more likely to be diagnosed with luminal and non-luminal HER2-like BCs and this effect was slightly more pronounced at an early age (p for interaction with age = 0.037 and 0.030, respectively). For instance, women diagnosed at age 35 were 1.48 (CI 1.01-2.16) more likely to have luminal HER2-like BC than luminal A BC, while this association was not significant at age 75 (OR = 0.72, CI 0.45-1.14). While age at menarche was not significantly associated with BC subtype, increasing age at FFTP was non-linearly associated with TNBC relative to luminal A BC. An age at FFTP of 25 versus 20 years lowered the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p < 0.0001), but this effect was not apparent at a later FFTP. CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings suggest that parity is associated with TNBC across all ages at BC diagnosis, whereas the association with luminal HER2-like BC was present only for early onset BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , História Reprodutiva , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Genet ; 13(10): e1007012, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088233

RESUMO

Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R) and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86). The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1 and MSH6 are smaller.


Assuntos
Antecipação Genética/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Suécia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. METHODS: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently (n = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence. RESULTS: Cumulative CRC incidences in carriers of path_MLH1 at 70-years of age were 41% for males and 36% for females in the Finnish series and 58% and 55% in the non-Finnish series, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean time from last colonoscopy to CRC was 32.7 months in the Finnish compared to 31.0 months in the non-Finnish (p > 0.05) and was therefore unaffected by the recommended colonoscopy interval. Differences in population incidence of CRC could not explain the lower point estimates for CRC in the Finnish series. Ten-year overall survival after CRC was similar for the Finnish and non-Finnish series (88% and 91%, respectively; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that the high incidence of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers was caused by a higher incidence in the Finnish series was not valid. We discuss whether the results were influenced by methodological shortcomings in our study or whether the assumption that a shorter interval between colonoscopies leads to a lower CRC incidence may be wrong. This second possibility is intriguing, because it suggests the dogma that CRC in path_MLH1 carriers develops from polyps that can be detected at colonoscopy and removed to prevent CRC may be erroneous. In view of the excellent 10-year overall survival in the Finnish and non-Finnish series we remain strong advocates of current surveillance practices for those with LS pending studies that will inform new recommendations on the best surveillance interval.

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