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2.
J Card Surg ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971277

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of adult congenital heart disease patients who require advanced therapies remains challenging due to high perioperative and wait-list mortality and limited donors. Patients palliated with Fontan are at the highest risk of early mortality due to multiorgan involvement and few centers able to safely transplant them. We sought to evaluate the early outcomes of heart transplants in these adult Fontan patients. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we identified all adults aged at least 18 years old who underwent heart transplantation across U.S. hospitals from 2004 to 2014. We then identified those with specific ICD-9 codes to include tricuspid atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome and common ventricle. Multivariate regression models were created to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 93 Fontan patients underwent heart transplant during the study time (0.5% of all heart transplants). Compared to non-Fontan heart transplantations, Fontan patients were younger, with a higher incidence of liver disease and coagulopathy. Fontan patients receiving heart transplant had higher mortality during transplant hospitalization compared to non-Fontan patients (26.3% vs 5.3% OR, 18.10, CI, 5.06-65.0 P < .001). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) usage and bleeding were also higher in the Fontan cohort with an OR of 5.30 (P = .016) and 5.32 (P = .015) for ECMO and bleeding, respectively. The remaining outcomes were similar for both cohorts. CONCLUSION: Adults with Fontan palliation undergoing heart transplantation have exceptionally high inpatient mortality, which is nearly five times that of non-Fontan heart transplant recipients, perhaps related to a delayed referral, surgical complexity, and coexistent, underrecognized liver failure.

3.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 87-99, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838031

RESUMO

As a result of improvements in care for patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), >90% of children born with CHD are expected to survive to adulthood. For those adults, heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of death. Advances in recognition of, and treatments for, these patients continue to improve. Specifically, adults with CHD are candidates for both heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support. However, challenges remain that require investigation to improve outcomes.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 299: 180-185, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Admission blood glucose (BG) has demonstrated contradictory association with 30-day mortality in acute heart failure (AHF) hospitalization. To explore these contradictory findings, we aimed to determine if admission BG reflects an acute change from chronic glucose control and investigate the association between the admission and chronic BG change (ΔBG) with 30-day mortality in AHF. METHODS: We analyzed patients (n = 1045) age ≥ 65 with Centers of Medicare Services benefits and known 30-day all-cause mortality hospitalized with AHF at an academic medical center from 2009 to 2016. We included diabetic (n = 736) and non-diabetic (n = 309) patients with recent Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We defined ΔBG as the difference in the admission and chronic BG, calculated from HbA1c. RESULTS: Admission BG was 126 (101, 167) mg/dl and was moderately elevated (≥170 mg/dl) in 25% of admissions. The median (IQR) ΔBG was -7 (-29, 26) mg/dl, with 74% of all admissions (66% diabetic, 92% non-diabetic) presenting within ±50 mg/dl of the chronic BG. Admission BG was not associated with mortality. ΔBG > +100 mg/dl displayed increased 30-day mortality (18.6% vs 6.9%, p < 0.001) compared to -26 to +25 mg/dl. When admission BG was >200 mg/dl (n = 166), a ΔBG > +100 mg/dl was present in 77% of those deceased vs 31% of those alive at 30 days (p = 0.003; positive likelihood ratio = 5.7). ΔBG > +100 mg/dl was strongly associated with 30-day mortality risk (OR 6.4, 95% CI 2.3-18.9; p = 0.0005) after multivariate adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Admission BG predominantly reflects chronic glycemic status. Increased change in admission from chronic BG was associated with increased 30-day mortality.

5.
Am J Ther ; 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although angiotensin-converting enzyme II inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) improve chronic heart failure (HF) outcomes, their potential harms and benefits in acute HF (AHF) is less clear. STUDY QUESTION: We explored the relationship between ACEI or ARB plasma concentrations among patients with AHF with in-hospital change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). DATA SOURCES AND STUDY DESIGN: From August 2016-June 2017, patients with AHF prescribed an outpatient ACEI or ARB were enrolled before AHF treatment. All patients were given twice their home dose of diuretic intravenously and received clinical care at the discretion of the medical team. Of 61 patients in the parent study, saved plasma from 34 who were prescribed an outpatient ACEI or ARB was included in this substudy. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to assess ACEI or ARB plasma concentrations before AHF treatment. Change in eGFR was computed using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, which adjusts for age, sex, and race; diuretic dose and enrollment eGFR were used to adjust for HF severity. Multiple linear regression adjusting for enrollment eGFR and diuretic dose was performed to examine the relationship between drug concentration (undetectable/low vs. in/above-range) and in-hospital change in eGFR. RESULTS: Of 34 patients with AHF, median age was 63 years (interquartile range, 58-78 years), 19 (55.9%) were women, median eGFR at enrollment was 55.6 mL/min (interquartile range, 35.2-75.3 mL/min), and for 11 (32.4%), no ACEI or ARB was detectable in plasma. Medication concentrations in- or above-reference range were associated with in-hospital decrease in eGFR of 8.3 mL/min (95% confidence interval, 15.3-1.3 mL/min decrease), after adjusting for enrollment eGFR and diuretic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bioanalytical assessment of medication levels may be useful to guide in-hospital ACEI and ARB therapy for patients with AHF.

6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851352

RESUMO

Importance: For patients awaiting heart transplant, hepatitis C-positive donors offer an opportunity to expand the donor pool, shorten wait times, and decrease wait-list mortality. While early reported outcomes among few heart transplant recipients have been promising, knowledge of 1-year outcomes in larger cohorts of patients is critical to shared decision-making with patients about this option. Objective: To better define the association of hepatitis C-positive donors with heart transplant volumes, wait-list duration, the transmission and cure of donor-derived hepatitis C, and morbidity and mortality at 1 year. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective, single-center observational study of 80 adult (age 18 years or older) patients who underwent heart transplant using hearts from hepatitis C-positive donors between September 2016 and April 2019 at a large academic medical center. Among donors, who were considered hepatitis C-positive if results from hepatitis C antibody and/or nucleic acid testing were positive, 70 had viremia and 10 were seropositive but did not have viremia. Follow-up was available through May 15, 2019. Comparisons were drawn with patients who underwent transplant with hearts from hepatitis C-negative donors during the same period. Exposures: In addition to standard posttransplant management, transplant recipients who developed donor-derived hepatitis C infection were treated with direct-acting antivirals. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes included wait-list duration and 1-year survival in all patients, and for those who developed donor-derived hepatitis C, the response to direct-acting antiviral treatment. Results: Of 80 patients, 57 (71.3%) were men, 55 (68.7%) were white, and 17 (26.3%) were black; the median age at transplant was 54.5 years (interquartile range, 46-62 years). Following consent to accept hearts from hepatitis C-exposed donors, the median days to heart transplant was 4 (interquartile range, 1-18). No recipients of donors with negative nucleic acid testing results (10 [12.5%]) developed donor-derived hepatitis C. Of 70 patients who were recipients of donors with positive nucleic acid testing results, 67 (95.7%) developed donor-derived hepatitis C over a median follow-up of 301 days (interquartile range, 142-617). Treatment with direct-acting antivirals was well tolerated and yielded sustained virologic responses in all treated patients. Within the cohort with infection, 1-year patient survival was 90.4%, which was not significantly different compared with the cohort without infection or with patients who received transplants from hepatitis C-negative donors during the same period. Conclusions and Relevance: In the era of direct-acting antivirals, hepatitis C-positive donors are a viable option to expand the donor pool, potentially reducing wait-list duration and mortality. In heart transplant recipients with donor-derived hepatitis C, infection is well-tolerated and curable, and 1-year survival is equivalent to that in recipients of hepatitis C-negative donors.

10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with a lower mortality risk among patients with heart failure (HF). Whether this obesity paradox applies to all-cause hospitalizations is unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and 30-day all-cause readmissions following HF hospitalization. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 2252 HF hospital admissions of Centers of Medicare Services beneficiaries from an academic medical center. We classified obesity using established BMI categories. All 30-day postdischarge readmission to all hospitals and mortality events were documented. We evaluated 30-day postdischarge unplanned, all-cause readmission and death in the total cohort, propensity-matched cohort, and by ejection fraction (EF). RESULTS: An Overweight-Obese BMI (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) was paradoxically associated with a lower mortality rate than a Normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) (5.0% vs 8.5%, p = 0.0018). In contrast, an Overweight-Obese BMI was associated with a 29% (95% CI: 1.03-1.63) increased relative risk of all-cause readmission compared with a Normal BMI (23.2% vs 18.9%, p = 0.0288), which was consistent across obesity severity subgroups. Among 966 matched admissions, an Overweight-Obese BMI retained higher readmission risk compared with a Normal BMI (25.1% vs 17.2%, p = 0.003). After matching, readmissions remained higher for Overweight-Obese vs Normal BMI in admissions with reduced EF (25.7% vs 17.8%, p = 0.032) and preserved EF (23.0% vs 15.0%, p = 0.048). No difference in the percentage of readmissions for HF (40%) or noncardiovascular causes (45%) existed between Overweight-Obese and Normal BMI groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a lower mortality risk, increased BMI is associated with increased all-cause hospital readmission rates in an elderly HF population which persists after propensity matching.

11.
Circulation ; 140(25): 2108-2118, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841369

RESUMO

Following regulatory guidance set forth in 2008 by the US Food and Drug Administration for new drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus, many large randomized, controlled trials have been conducted with the primary goal of assessing the safety of antihyperglycemic medications on the primary end point of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Heart failure (HF) was not specifically mentioned in the US Food and Drug Administration guidance and therefore it was not a focus of these studies when planned. Several trials subsequently showed the impact of antihyperglycemic drugs on HF outcomes, which were not originally specified as the primary end point of the trials. The most impressive finding has been the substantial and consistent risk reduction in HF hospitalization seen across 4 trials of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. However, to date, these results have not led to regulatory approval of any of these drugs for a HF indication or a recommendation for use by US HF guidelines. It is therefore important to explore to what extent persuasive treatment effects on nonprimary end points can be used to support regulatory claims and guideline recommendations. This topic was discussed by researchers, clinicians, industry sponsors, regulators, and representatives from professional societies, who convened on the US Food and Drug Administration campus on March 6, 2019. This report summarizes these discussions and the key takeaway messages from this meeting.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(24): 2969-2979, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation) trial among patients with heart failure (HF) and moderate-to-severe (3+) or severe (4+) secondary mitral regurgitation, patients treated with transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) through leaflet approximation had reduced rates of HF hospitalization and mortality compared with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) alone. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the echocardiographic patient qualification process for the COAPT trial, baseline echocardiographic characteristics, changes over time, and the interaction between treatment group and echocardiographic parameters on clinical outcomes. METHODS: A novel echocardiographic algorithm was implemented for grading mitral regurgitation severity during the screening process. Standardized echocardiograms were obtained at baseline and during regular follow-up intervals through 2 years, and were analyzed by a core laboratory. RESULTS: A total of 614 patients were randomized to TMVr plus maximally tolerated GDMT or GDMT alone. Mean baseline left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was 31.3 ± 9.3%, LV end-diastolic volume was 192.7 ± 71 ml, and effective regurgitant orifice area was 0.41 ± 0.15 cm2. The beneficial effect of TMVr compared with GDMT alone was consistent in all echocardiographic subgroups, independent of the severity of LV dysfunction, LV dilatation, pulmonary hypertension, severity of tricuspid regurgitation, or individual mitral regurgitation characteristics. The LV ejection fraction decreased and the LV volumes progressively increased in both groups during follow-up, although less after TMVr (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HF patients in the COAPT trial with 3+ or 4+ secondary mitral regurgitation, selected using strict echocardiographic criteria, benefitted from TMVr with reduced 2-year rates of death and HF hospitalization. Strict application of these echocardiographic criteria should enable the COAPT results to be translated to clinical practice. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation [The COAPT Trial] [COAPT]; NCT01626079).

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(11): 956-957, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521678
14.
Circulation ; 140(18): 1463-1476, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated reduced hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. However, few of these patients had HF, and those that did were not well-characterized. Thus, the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in patients with established HF with reduced ejection fraction, including those with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus, remain unknown. METHODS: DEFINE-HF (Dapagliflozin Effects on Biomarkers, Symptoms and Functional Status in Patients with HF with Reduced Ejection Fraction) was an investigator-initiated, multi-center, randomized controlled trial of HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73m2, and elevated natriuretic peptides. In total, 263 patients were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. Dual primary outcomes were (1) mean NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide) and (2) proportion of patients with ≥5-point increase in HF disease-specific health status on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score, or a ≥20% decrease in NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Patient characteristics reflected stable, chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction with high use of optimal medical therapy. There was no significant difference in average 6- and 12-week adjusted NT-proBNP with dapagliflozin versus placebo (1133 pg/dL (95% CI 1036-1238) vs 1191 pg/dL (95% CI 1089-1304), P=0.43). For the second dual-primary outcome of a meaningful improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score or NT-proBNP, 61.5% of dapagliflozin-treated patients met this end point versus 50.4% with placebo (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.03-3.06, nominal P=0.039). This was attributable to both higher proportions of patients with ≥5-point improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score (42.9 vs 32.5%, adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.98-3.05), and ≥20% reduction in NT-proBNP (44.0 vs 29.4%, adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3) by 12 weeks. Results were consistent among patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other prespecified subgroups (all P values for interaction=NS). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, use of dapagliflozin over 12 weeks did not affect mean NT-proBNP but increased the proportion of patients experiencing clinically meaningful improvements in HF-related health status or natriuretic peptides. Benefits of dapagliflozin on clinically meaningful HF measures appear to extend to patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02653482.

15.
Am Heart J ; 217: 13-22, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves outcomes, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Despite two decades of experience with CRT, the rate of non-response remains approximately 30%. CRT efficacy is impacted by pacing location, which is anatomically limited in conventional systems. A new wireless endocardial left ventricular (LV) pacing system allows CRT without such limitations and has shown promise in open-label studies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate its use in a patient population with poor therapeutic alternatives. METHODS: The SOLVE CRT study is an international, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial of patients with Class I and IIa indications for CRT who have either failed to respond to or have been unable to receive conventional CRT. Enrollment will comprise 350 patients implanted with the wireless CRT system randomized 1:1 to therapy on (Treatment) or therapy off (Control) for the six-month period over which trial primary endpoints will be evaluated. The primary safety endpoint will measure the proportion of patients free from system- and procedure-related complications. Primary efficacy endpoints will assess absolute change in LV end-systolic volume LVESV, proportion of patients reducing LVESV by ≥15% and clinical composite score for Treatment versus Control patients. Primary endpoints will be evaluated on an intention-to-treat basis, though per-protocol and as-treated analysis will also be performed. CONCLUSION: SOLVE-CRT will quantify the safety and effectiveness of wireless CRT in non-responders to conventional CRT and indicated patients who have been unable to receive CRT via the usual transvenous approach.

16.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(11): 913-921, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401097

RESUMO

The development of treatments for heart failure (HF) is challenged by burdensome clinical trials. Reducing the need for extensive data collection and increasing opportunities for data compatibility between trials may improve efficiency and reduce resource burden. The Heart Failure Collaboratory (HFC) multi-stakeholder consortium sought to create a lean case report form (CRF) for use in HF clinical trials evaluating cardiac devices. The HFC convened patients, clinicians, clinical researchers, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), payers, industry partners, and statisticians to create a consensus core CRF. Eight recent clinical trial CRFs for the treatment of HF from 6 industry partners were analyzed. All CRF elements were systematically reviewed. Those elements deemed critical for data collection in HF clinical trials were used to construct the final, harmonized CRF. The original CRFs included 176 distinct data items covering demographics, vital signs, physical examination, medical history, laboratory and imaging testing, device therapy, medications, functional and quality of life assessment, and outcome events. The resulting, minimally inclusive CRF device contains 75 baseline data items and 6 events, with separate modular additions that can be used depending on the additional detail required for a particular intervention. The consensus electronic form is now freely available for use in clinical trials. Creation of a core CRF is important to improve clinical trial efficiency in HF device development in the United States. This living document intends to reduce clinical trial administrative burden, increase evidence integrity, and improve comparability of clinical data between trials.

17.
ASAIO J ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425256

RESUMO

Donor-derived hepatitis C (dd-HCV) infection may increase the risk of renal impairment (RI) among heart transplantation (HT) recipients. Sofosbuvir, an integral component of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has also been linked to RI. To date, no study has examined the trends in renal function for HT recipients of dd-HCV infection and assessed safety and efficacy of Sofosbuvir-based DAAs. Between September 2016 and June 2018, 46 HCV-naive patients and one patient with a history of HCV treated pretransplant, underwent HT from HCV-positive donors (follow-up available through October 10, 2018). Patients were treated with Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir (genotype 1) or Sofosbuvir-Velpatasvir (genotype 3) for 12 or 24 weeks; no dose adjustments were made for renal function. Data on renal function were available for 23 patients who achieved a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the treatment (SVR12; cohort A) and 18 patients who completed 1 year of follow-up (cohort B). Treatment of dd-HCV infection was initiated at a median of 6 weeks post-HT. In both cohorts, a nonsignificant reduction in median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; ml/min/1.73 m) was noted (cohort A: pretransplant eGFR: 62 [interquartile range {IQR}: 1-84] to SVR12 eGFR: 49 [IQR: 37-82]; p = 0.43; cohort B: pretransplant eGFR: 65 [IQR: 54-84] to 1 year post-HT eGFR: 56 [IQR: 39-75]; p = 0.29). Pretreatment renal function had no significant impact on changes in renal function during treatment. All patients tolerated DAAs well with 100% completion rate to the assigned therapy and duration and 100% success at achieving SVR12. In this first and largest reported case series to date of HT recipients with dd-HCV infection, we observed that neither the dd-HCV infection nor its treatment with Sofosbuvir-based DAAs increased the risk of RI. Sofosbuvir-based DAAs appear safe, tolerable, and effective for HCV treatment even in presence of severe RI.

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