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1.
Food Chem ; 304: 125403, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479993

RESUMO

Current information on the links between the chemistry and hedonic liking of edible mushrooms is scarce. In this study, 84 consumers evaluated the appearance, odor, taste, texture and overall liking of samples of Nordic edible wild mushroom species. Subsequently, multivariate models on the effects of non-volatile compounds, odor-contributing volatile compounds, sensory attributes and hedonic likings were created. The non-volatile compounds were measured with quantitative NMR. The five studied mushroom species were different in their sugar and acid contents. Three consumer clusters were found with species*cluster interactions. Correlations with sensory attributes and chemical components were found, and the multivariate models indicated predictor attributes for each consumer cluster. The results indicate that the sensory properties could be correlated to both volatile and non-volatile compounds, there are consumer clusters with differing likings as regards mushrooms, and these clusters are heterogenic groups with no simple factors such as age explaining their liking scores.

2.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(9)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824446

RESUMO

Recent studies report the presence of fungal species in breast milk of healthy mothers, suggesting a potential role in infant mycobiome development. In the present work, we aimed to determine whether the healthy human breast milk mycobiota is influenced by geographical location and mode of delivery, as well as to investigate its interaction with bacterial profiles in the same samples. A total of 80 mature breast milk samples from 4 different countries were analyzed by Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, joining the 18S and 5.8S regions of the fungal rRNA region. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were found to be the dominant phyla, with Malassezia and Davidiella being the most prevalent genera across countries. A core formed by Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema, and Penicillium was shared in the milk samples from the different origins, although specific shifts in mycobiome composition were associated with geographic location and delivery mode. The presence of fungi in the breast milk samples was further confirmed by culture and isolate characterization, and fungal loads were estimated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the fungal ITS1 region. Cooccurrence network analysis of bacteria and fungi showed complex interactions that were influenced by geographical location, mode of delivery, maternal age, and pregestational body mass index. The presence of a breast milk mycobiome was confirmed in all samples analyzed, regardless of the geographic origin.IMPORTANCE During recent years, human breast milk has been documented as a potential source of bacteria for the newborn. Recently, we have reported the presence of fungi in breast milk from healthy mothers. It is well known that environmental and perinatal factors can affect milk bacteria; however, the impact on milk fungi is still unknown. The current report describes fungal communities (mycobiota) in breast milk samples across different geographic locations and the influence of the mode of delivery. We also provide novel insights on bacterium-fungus interactions, taking into account environmental and perinatal factors. We identified a core of four genera shared across locations, consisting of Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema, and Penicillium, which have been reported to be present in the infant gut. Our data confirm the presence of fungi in breast milk across continents and support the potential role of breast milk in the initial seeding of fungal species in the infant gut.

3.
Food Chem ; 283: 381-389, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722887

RESUMO

Lack of synthetic enantiospecific triacylglycerols (TAGs) has hindered our understanding of the impact of TAG structure on the absorption and metabolic fate of fatty acids (FAs). In a five-day feeding trial with mildly (n-3) deficient rats, the bioavailability of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3), DHA] and stearic acid (18:0) from the two different enantiomers of TAG: sn-22:6(n-3)-18:0-18:0 and sn-18:0-18:0-22:6(n-3), and their regioisomeric TAG: sn-18:0-22:6(n-3)-18:0 was compared. Less secretion of fecal DHA was detected from the sn-2 position compared with the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but no difference was found in DHA content of the fasting plasma or in the weight of the body or organs. 18:0 was lost to feces mainly as cleaved from the primary positions but also as glycerol-bound. The 5-day intervention in rats was long enough to modify the fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Fezes/química , Masculino , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estereoisomerismo , Triglicerídeos/química
4.
Food Chem ; 283: 566-578, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722913

RESUMO

Although Nordic wild edible mushrooms offer a wide range of different odors their scientific examination has been scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the aroma compounds of four Finnish wild mushroom species with trained assessors using gas chromatography-olfactometry as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Headspace volatiles were extracted from sous vide cooked mushroom samples (Boletus edulis, Lactarius camphoratus, Cantharellus cibarius and Craterellus tubaeformis) using solid-phase microextraction. Odor-contributing compounds were measured with two columns of differing polarity using the detection frequency method. Compounds were identified based on reference compounds, linear retention indices, odor descriptions, and mass spectrometry. Both the volatile compound profiles and the aromagrams were distinct with characteristic compounds for each species. The results demonstrate that especially saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and ketones contribute to the odor of the studied wild mushrooms. This thorough comparison also indicates compounds linked to the sensory properties of mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Agaricales/metabolismo , Olfatometria , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
5.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248972

RESUMO

The composition of human breast milk is highly variable, and it can be influenced by genetics, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the impact of geographical location and mode of delivery on the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) metabolic profile of breast milk and its relationship with the milk microbiome. Human milk metabolic and microbiota profiles were determined using NMR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively, in 79 healthy women from Finland, Spain, South Africa, and China. Up to 68 metabolites, including amino acids, oligosaccharides, and fatty acid-associated metabolites, were identified in the milk NMR spectra. The metabolite profiles showed significant differences between geographical locations, with significant differences (p < 0.05) in the levels of galactose, lacto-N-fucopentaose III, lacto-N-fucopentaose I and 2-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-difucohexaose II, lacto-N-fucopentaose III, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, proline, N-acetyl lysine, methyl-histidine, dimethylamine, kynurenine, urea, creatine and creatine phosphate, formate, lactate, acetate, phosphocholine, acetylcholine, LDL, VLDL, ethanolamine, riboflavin, hippurate, spermidine, spermine and uridine. Additionally, the effect of caesarean section on milk metabolome was dependent on the geographical region. Specific interrelations between human milk metabolites and microbiota were also identified. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli were most significantly associated with the milk metabolites, being either positively or negatively correlated depending on the metabolite. Our results reveal specific milk metabolomic profiles across geographical locations and also highlight the potential interactions between human milk's metabolites and microbes.

6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(11): 1259-1268, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568206

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the effects of regular vs low-FODMAP rye bread on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and to study gastrointestinal conditions with SmartPill®. METHODS: Our aim was to evaluate if rye bread low in FODMAPs would cause reduced hydrogen excretion, lower intraluminal pressure, higher colonic pH, different transit times, and fewer IBS symptoms than regular rye bread. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled cross-over meal study. Female IBS patients (n = 7) ate study breads at three consecutive meals during one day. The diet was similar for both study periods except for the FODMAP content of the bread consumed during the study day. Intraluminal pH, transit time, and pressure were measured by SmartPill, an indigestible motility capsule. RESULTS: Hydrogen excretion (a marker of colonic fermentation) expressed as area under the curve (AUC)(0-630 min) was [median (range)] 6300 (1785-10800) ppm∙min for low-FODMAP rye bread and 10 635 (4215-13080) ppm∙min for regular bread (P = 0.028). Mean scores of gastrointestinal symptoms showed no statistically significant differences but suggested less flatulence after low-FODMAP bread consumption (P = 0.063). Intraluminal pressure correlated significantly with total symptom score after regular rye bread (ρ = 0.786, P = 0.036) and nearly significantly after low-FODMAP bread consumption (ρ = 0.75, P = 0.052). We found no differences in pH, pressure, or transit times between the breads. Gastric residence of SmartPill was slower than expected. SmartPill left the stomach in less than 5 h only during one measurement (out of 14 measurements in total) and therefore did not follow on par with the rye bread bolus. CONCLUSION: Low-FODMAP rye bread reduced colonic fermentation vs regular rye bread. No difference was found in median values of intraluminal conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Pão , Endoscopia por Cápsula/instrumentação , Colo/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Secale , Adulto , Endoscopia por Cápsula/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Flatulência/dietoterapia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Chem Ecol ; 43(4): 422-432, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28374224

RESUMO

The evolutionary purpose of a fleshy fruit is to attract seed dispersers and get the seeds dispersed by frugivorous animals. For this reason, fruits should be highly rewarding to these mutualists. However, insect herbivory can alter plant reproductive success e.g. by decreasing fruit yield or affecting the attractiveness of the fruits to mutualistic seed dispersers. Under natural conditions, we tested the effects of experimental larval-defoliation on berry ripening and consumption of a non-cultivated dwarf shrub, the bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which produces animal-dispersed berries with high sugar and anthocyanin concentration. Bilberry ramets with high fruit yield were most likely to have their berries foraged, indicating that frugivores made foraging choices based on the abundance of berries. Moreover, the probability for berries being foraged was the lowest for non-defoliated ramets that grew adjacent to larval-defoliated ramets, even though larval-defoliation did not affect the biochemical composition (total concentrations of anthocyanins, sugars and organic acids) or the probability of ripening of berries. We hypothesise that the lower probability for berries being foraged in these ramets may be a consequence of rhizome- or volatile-mediated communication between ramets, resulting in a priming effect of the herbivore defence and lower attractiveness of the non-defoliated ramets.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Mariposas/fisiologia , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/fisiologia , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Larva/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes , Sementes/fisiologia , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo
8.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 70(3): 184-190, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the polyamine levels in human milk obtained from different countries and through different modes of delivery, and to investigate their association with breast milk microbes. METHODS: Mature breast milk samples were obtained from 78 healthy mothers after 1 month of lactation from 4 different geographical locations: Finland, Spain (Europe); South Africa (Africa); and China (Asia). Polyamines were determined using HPLC after dansyl derivatization and milk microbiota was obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: The mean values of polyamines in breast milk were 70.0, 424.2, and 610.0 nmol/dL for putrescine, spermidine and spermine, respectively, and 1,170.9 nmol/dL of total polyamines. The levels of putrescine were significantly higher in Spain (p < 0.05) and spermidine levels were significantly higher in Finland (p < 0.05) compared with other countries. Cesarean delivery had an impact on polyamine levels and it was related to an increase in the putrescine concentration being significant in Spanish samples (p < 0.01). Furthermore, putrescine levels were correlated positively with Gammaproteobacteria (r = 0.46, p < 0.001), especially with Pseudomonas fragi (r = 0.40, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate significant effect of geographical variations in human milk polyamine concentrations, being correlated with human milk microbiota composition. These differences may have an impact on infant development during lactation.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Poliaminas/análise , Adulto , China , Feminino , Finlândia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , África do Sul , Espanha
9.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 1619, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790209

RESUMO

Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland), Africa (South Africa), and Asia (China), on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the 1 month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country) participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or cesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6%) observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries (p = 0.002). Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes (mean relative abundance of 3.75) whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 5.7). Women who had had a cesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism (p < 0.05). Association of the lipid profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were negatively associated with Proteobacteria (r = -0.43, p < 0.05), while Lactobacillus genus was associated with MUFA (r = -0.23, p = 0.04). These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery.

10.
Br J Nutr ; 115(5): 791-9, 2016 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26767323

RESUMO

Ageing is associated with a prolonged and exaggerated postprandial lipaemia. This study aimed to examine the contribution of alterations in chylomicron synthesis, size and lipid composition to increased lipaemia. Healthy older (60-75 years; n 15) and younger (20-25 years; n 15) subjects consumed a high-fat breakfast. Chylomicron dynamics and fatty acid composition were analysed for 5 h in the postprandial state. Plasma TAG levels were elevated following the meal in the older subjects, relative to younger subjects (P<0·01). For older subjects compared with younger subjects, circulating chylomicron particle size was smaller (P<0·05), with greater apoB content (P<0·05) at all postprandial time points. However, total chylomicron TAG concentration between the groups was unaltered post-meal. Compared with younger subjects, the older subjects exhibited a greater proportion of oleic acid in the TAG and phospholipid (PL) fraction (P<0·05), plus lower proportions of linoleic acid in the TAG fraction of the chylomicrons (P<0·01). Thus, following the ingestion of a high-fat meal, older individuals demonstrate both smaller, more numerous chylomicrons, with a greater total MUFA and lower PUFA contents. These data suggest that the increased postprandial lipaemia of ageing cannot be attributed to increased chylomicron TAG. Rather, ageing is associated with changes in chylomicron particle size, apoB content and fatty acid composition of the chylomicron TAG and PL fractions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Quilomícrons/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Oleico/sangue , Tamanho da Partícula , Período Pós-Prandial , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
11.
Food Chem ; 196: 976-87, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26593580

RESUMO

Oils with sufficient contents of fatty acids, which can be metabolized into precursors of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, have potential health effects. Ribes sp. seed oil is rich in α-linolenic, γ-linolenic and stearidonic acids belonging to this fatty acid group. Only a few previous studies exist on Ribes sp. gene expression. We followed the seed oil biosynthesis of four Ribes nigrum and two Ribes rubrum cultivars at different developmental stages over 2 years in Southern and Northern Finland with a 686 km latitudinal difference. The species and the developmental stage were the most important factors causing differences in gene expression levels and oil composition. Differences between cultivars were detected in some cases, but year and location had only small effects. However, expression of the gene encoding Δ(9)-desaturase in R. nigrum was affected by location. Triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Ribes sp. was distinctly buffered and typically followed a certain path, regardless of growth environment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Expressão Gênica/genética , Ribes/genética , Sementes/genética , Triglicerídeos/química , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Finlândia , Triglicerídeos/análise
12.
Food Chem ; 184: 57-64, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25872426

RESUMO

Oxidised lipid species, their bioavailability and impact on inflammatory responses from cooked beef steak are poorly characterised. Oxidised lipid species from pan-fried (PF) and sous-vide (SV) thermally processed beef were determined with UHPLC-ESI/MS. Twenty-three lipid oxidation products increased with thermal processing and differences between the PF and SV steaks were measured. Fifteen oxidised lipids were measured in post-meal plasma after a cross-over randomised clinical study. Postprandial plasma inflammatory markers tended to remain lower following the SV meal than the PF meal. High levels of conjugated dienes were measured in the HDL fraction, suggesting that the protective effect of HDL may extend to the reverse-transport of oxidised lipid species. Oxidised lipids in a single meal may influence postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation. Further studies are required to examine the lipid oxidative responses to increased dietary oxidative lipid load, including the reverse transport activity of HDL.


Assuntos
Inflamação/etiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glutationa/sangue , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
13.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 67(5): 581-91, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27163964

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to characterize the anthocyanin content and composition of a purple potato landrace cultivar (Solanum tuberosum 'Synkeä Sakari') and to compare the postprandial effects of purple-fleshed potatoes, yellow-fleshed potatoes and bilberries in potato starch on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy males. The purple potato meal caused smaller insulinemia than the yellow potato meal (iAUC 120 min 1347 and 2226, respectively, p = 0.012 and iAUC 240 min 1448 and 2403, p = 0.007) or the bilberry meal (iAUC 120 min 1920, p = 0.027). The purple potato meal caused a smaller plasma glucose at 40 min postprandially compared with the yellow potato meal (p = 0.044). The results of this study suggest that anthocyanin-containing purple-fleshed potatoes influence the postprandial insulinemia positively. Since potatoes are the world's largest non-grain commodity, replacing yellow-fleshed potatoes with purple-fleshed potatoes as staple food could have large potential in maintaining public health.


Assuntos
Período Pós-Prandial , Solanum tuberosum/química , Adulto , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Antocianinas/sangue , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cor , Estudos Cross-Over , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/dietoterapia , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/sangue , Método Simples-Cego , Solanum tuberosum/classificação , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Adulto Jovem
14.
Food Chem ; 172: 718-24, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25442613

RESUMO

Enantiomers of racemic triacylglycerol (TAG) mixtures were separated using two chiral HPLC columns with a sample recycling system and a UV detector. A closed system without sample derivatisation enabled separation and identification by using enantiopure reference compounds of eleven racemic TAGs with C12-C22 fatty acids with 0-2 double bonds. The prolonged separation time was compensated for by fewer pretreatment steps. Presence of one saturated and one unsaturated fatty acid in the asymmetric TAG favoured the separation. Enantiomeric resolution, at the same time with stronger retention of TAGs, increased with increasing fatty acid chain length in the sn-1(3) position. Triunsaturated TAGs containing oleic, linoleic or palmitoleic acids did not separate. The elution order of enantiomers was determined by chemoenzymatically synthesised enantiopure TAGs with a co-injection method. The method is applicable to many natural fats and oils of low unsaturation level assisting advanced investigation of lipid synthesis and metabolism.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Estereoisomerismo
15.
Food Chem ; 145: 664-73, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24128529

RESUMO

Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Triglicerídeos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Linolênicos/análise , Fotoperíodo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese
16.
Food Chem ; 146: 583-90, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24176384

RESUMO

The composition and structures of TAGs in the human milk from mothers with different food choices and prepregnancy body mass index were determined with two tandem mass spectrometric methods (negative APCI-MS/MS and positive UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS) at the infant's age of three months. The normal weight mothers with recommended food choices had more 18:3n-3 and less 18:0 in their milk than normal weight mothers with non-recommended food choices. A significant difference between the normal weight mothers on the non-recommended food choices and the other groups was seen in acyl carbon number: number of double bond (ACN:DB)-groups 54:6, 54:5, 54:3 and 54:2. In ACN:DB 52:7 and 52:6 the two recommended food choices-groups differed significantly from the two non-recommended food choices-groups. The regioisomerism of TAGs varied little despite differences in mother's weight and diet with sn-18:1-16:0-18:1 as the most prevalent regioisomer in the milk (13.8±2.7%). The results of this study highlight the importance of structure specific human milk substitutes and the careful selection of the MS/MS methods for analysis of mixtures of several isobaric TAGs.


Assuntos
Leite Humano/química , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/química , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mães , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24238887

RESUMO

Based on the results from a human study which showed significantly reduced incorporation of DPA compared with EPA into chylomicrons, this study was designed to test if dietary DPA was significantly less absorbed than EPA. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups of six, and were fed a semi-synthetic high fat diet (23.5% fat) for 9 days. The test omega 3 fatty acids (EPA and DPA, 250mg/animal/day, free fatty acid form) or olive oil (250mg/animal/day) were added to the high fat diet on days 5, 6 and 7. Dietary EPA and DPA appeared in the faeces on days 6, 7 and 8, with the total amount of DPA excreted being 4.6-fold greater than that of EPA. The total amount of faecal fat did not differ significantly between the groups. At the conclusion of the study (day 9), it was found that liver DPA, EPA and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels were significantly increased by both DPA and EPA feeding compared with the olive oil fed control group. In the heart, DPA feeding increased the DPA content and both DPA and EPA feeding increased the total n-3 LC-PUFA levels. This study showed that DPA and EPA, both provided in free form, are metabolised differently, despite being chemically similar.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacocinética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacocinética , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23433939

RESUMO

The study of the metabolism of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) in humans has been limited by the unavailability of pure DPA and the fact that DPA is found in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in natural products. In this double blind cross over study, pure DPA and EPA were incorporated in meals served to healthy female volunteers. Mass spectrometric methods were used to study the chylomicron lipidomics. Plasma chylomicronemia was significantly reduced after the meal containing DPA compared with the meal containing EPA or olive oil only. Both EPA and DPA were incorporated into chylomicron TAGs, while there was less incorporation into chylomicron phospholipids. Lipidomic analysis of the chylomicron TAGs revealed the dynamic nature of chylomicron TAGs. The main TAG species that EPA and DPA were incorporated into were EPA/18:1/18:1, DPA/18:1/16:0 and DPA/18:1/18:1. There was very limited conversion of DPA and EPA to DHA and there were no increases in EPA levels during the 5h postprandial period after the DPA meal. In conclusion, EPA and DPA showed different metabolic fates, and DPA hindered the digestion, ingestion or incorporation into chylomicrons of the olive oil present in the meal.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Adulto , Quilomícrons/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lipids ; 48(1): 39-50, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23124915

RESUMO

Using lipidomic methodologies the impact that meal lipid composition and metabolic syndrome (MetS) exerts on the postprandial chylomicron triacylglycerol (TAG) response was examined. Males (9 control; 11 MetS) participated in a randomised crossover trial ingesting two high fat breakfast meals composed of either dairy-based foods or vegetable oil-based foods. The postprandial lipidomic molecular composition of the TAG in the chylomicron-rich (CM) fraction was analysed with tandem mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography to profile CM TAG species and targeted TAG regioisomers. Postprandial CM TAG concentrations were significantly lower after the dairy-based foods compared with the vegetable oil-based foods for both control and MetS subjects. The CM TAG response to the ingested meals involved both significant and differential depletion of TAG species containing shorter- and medium-chain fatty acids (FA) and enrichment of TAG molecular species containing C16 and C18 saturated, monounsaturated and diunsaturated FA. Furthermore, there were significant changes in the TAG species between the food TAG and CM TAG and between the 3- and 5-h postprandial samples for the CM TAG regioisomers. Unexpectedly, the postprandial CM TAG concentration and CM TAG lipidomic responses did not differ between the control and MetS subjects. Lipidomic analysing of CM TAG molecular species revealed dynamic changes in the molecular species of CM TAG during the postprandial phase suggesting either preferential CM TAG species formation and/or clearance.


Assuntos
Quilomícrons/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Quilomícrons/sangue , Quilomícrons/química , Laticínios , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Nutr Res ; 32(7): 471-8, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22901554

RESUMO

This study was undertaken on the broad hypothesis that lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) has potential to reduce postprandial glycemic and lipemic response. More specifically, 2 postprandial crossover studies with healthy normal-weight male subjects were conducted to study the influence of commercial lingonberry powder on postprandial glycemia and lipemia. The test meals contained fat-free yoghurt with either glucose (50 g) or triacylglycerols (35 g) with or without (control) the lingonberry powder. The lingonberry powder provided the meals with a known amount of fiber and a known amount and composition of sugars, and it was a rich source of polyphenols. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol responses were analyzed. There were no significant differences in the postprandial glucose concentration between the meals in the glycemia trial despite the fact that the lingonberry meal contained more glucose and fructose. When the meal did not contain added sugar but, instead, added triacylglycerol, no glycemia or lipemia-lowering effect was detected. On the contrary, there were indications of higher glycemic and insulinemic effect after the lingonberry meal. The results of this study indicate that the fibers and/or polyphenols present in lingonberries null the glycemic effect of the sugars present in the berries when consumed together with added glucose. By contrast, the lingonberry powder did not affect the postprandial lipemic response.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice Glicêmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Triglicerídeos/análise , Iogurte , Adulto Jovem
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